142 Works

Unusual Case of Pump Thrombosis in LVAD Patient with COVID-19 — Diagnostic Challenges

William H. Frick, Ryan D. Mallory, Maya Guglin, Eve Anderson, Erin N. Lushin, Rey P. Vivo, Kashif Saleem & Roopa A. Rao
We present the first reported case of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pump thrombosis in the setting of the coronavirus pandemic. We describe the clinical features of the case which helped to differentiate coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) from LVAD pump thrombosis. The patient is 56-year-old female supported by destination LVAD therapy. She was originally implanted with a HeartMate II device in 2015 and underwent two pump exchanges in 2017 and 2019 for pump thrombosis, despite...

Data from: Surprising complexity of the ancestral apoptosis network

Christian M. Zmasek, Qing Zhang, Yuzhen Ye & Adam Godzik
Apoptosis, one of the main types of programmed cell death, is regulated and performed by a complex protein network. Studies in model organisms, mostly in the nematode C. elegans, identified a relatively simple apoptotic network consisting of only a few proteins. However, analysis of several recently sequenced invertebrate genomes, ranging from the cnidarian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, representing one of the morphologically simplest metazoans, to the deuterostomes sea urchin and amphioxus, contradicts the current paradigm...

Data from: Conspecific sperm precedence is reinforced, but postcopulatory sexual selection weakened, in sympatric populations of Drosophila

Dean M. Castillo & Leonie C. Moyle
Sexual selection can accelerate speciation by driving the evolution of reproductive isolation, but forces driving speciation could also reciprocally feedback on sexual selection. This might be particularly important in the context of ‘reinforcement’, where selection acts directly to increase prezygotic barriers to reduce the cost of heterospecific matings. Using assays of sperm competition within and between two sister species, we show a signature of reinforcement where these species interact: populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that co-occur...

Data from: Differential changes in bone strength of two inbred mouse strains following administration of a sclerostin-neutralizing antibody during growth

Noah J. Mathis, Emily N. Adaniya, Lauren M. Smith, Alexander G. Robling, Karl J. Jepsen & Stephen H. Schlecht
Administration of sclerostin-neutralizing antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment has been shown to elicit an anabolic bone response in growing and adult mice. Prior work characterized the response of individual mouse strains but did not establish whether the impact of Scl-Ab on whole bone strength would vary across different inbred mouse strains. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that two inbred mouse strains (A/J and C57BL/6J (B6)) will show different whole bone strength outcomes following sclerostin-neutralizing antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment...

Data from: Longitudinal cognitive and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease

Eric McDade, Guoqiao Wang, Brian Andrew Gordon, Jason Hassenstab, Tammie L.S. Benzinger, Virginia Buckles, Anne M. Fagan, David M. Holtzman, Nigel J. Cairns, Alison M. Goate, Daniel S. Marcus, John C. Morris, Katrina Paumier, Chengjie Xiong, Ricardo Allegri, Sarah B. Berman, William Klunk, James Nobel, John Ringman, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin Farlow, Reisa Anne Sperling, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Stephen Salloway, Neil R. Graff-Radford … & Randall J. Bateman
Objective: To assess the onset, sequence and rate of progression of comprehensive biomarker and clinical measures across the spectrum of Alzheimer disease using the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study and compare these to cross-sectional estimates. Methods: We conducted longitudinal clinical, cognitive, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging assessments (mean of 2.7 (+/- 1.1) visits) in 217 DIAN participants. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess changes in each measure relative to individuals’ estimated years...

Recombination data for Wolbachia and Spiroplasma infected flies

Irene Newton & Kaeli Bryant
Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular alphaproteobacterium that infects 40-60% of insect species and is well known for host reproductive manipulations. Although Wolbachia are primarily maternally transmitted, evidence of horizontal transmission can be found in incongruent host-symbiont phylogenies and recent acquisitions of the same Wolbachia strain by distantly related species. Parasitoids and predator-prey interactions may indeed facilitate the transfer of Wolbachia between insect lineages but it is likely that Wolbachia are acquired via introgression in many...

Heating Arrays Aboveground Biomass Data

Louis Jochems, Jennifer Lau, Lars Brudvig & Emily Grman
Restoration in this era of climate change comes with a new challenge: anticipating how best to restore populations to persist under future climate conditions. Specifically, it remains unknown whether locally-adapted or warm-adapted seeds best promote native plant community restoration in the warmer conditions predicted in the future and whether local or warm-adapted soil microbial communities could mitigate plant responses to warming. This may be especially relevant for biomes spanning large climatic gradients, such as the...

Data from: Limited biomass recovery from gold mining in Amazonian forests

Michelle Kalamandeen, Emanuel Gloor, Isaac Johnson, Shenelle Agard, Martin Katow, Ashmore Vanbrooke, David Ashley, Sarah A. Batterman, Guy Ziv, Kaslyn Collins-Holder, Oliver L. Phillips, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Ima Vieira & David Galbraith
Gold mining has rapidly increased across the Amazon Basin in recent years, especially in the Guiana shield, where it is responsible for >90% of total deforestation. However, the ability of forests to recover from gold mining activities remains largely unquantified. Forest inventory plots were installed on recently abandoned mines in two major mining regions in Guyana, and re-censused 18 months later, to provide the first ground-based quantification of gold mining impacts on Amazon forest biomass...

Anti-seizure medication use during pregnancy and risk of ASD and ADHD in children

Kelsey Wiggs, Martin Rickert, Ayesha Sujan, Patrick Quinn, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Sara Oberg & Brian D'Onofrio
Objective: To determine whether children born to women who use anti-seizure medications (ASMs) during pregnancy have higher risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) independent of confounding factors. Methods: We used Swedish-register data (n=14,614 children born 1996-2011 and followed through 2013) to examine associations in children of women with epilepsy, using the largest sample to date and adjusting for a range of measured confounders. We examined maternal-reported first-trimester use of any ASM...

Warming during maternal generations delays offspring germination in native and nonnative species

Meredith Zettlemoyer & Jennifer Lau
As environmental conditions shift due to global warming and other human-caused environmental changes, plastic responses in phenological traits like germination or flowering time may become increasingly important. While phenological plasticity is a common response to global warming, with many populations exhibiting earlier germination or flowering in warmer years, warming may also result in transgenerational plasticity, especially on early life stages. In other words, seeds produced by mothers inhabiting warmer environments may germinate faster (or slower)...

Boletin Martiano Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 2021

Jenna Grace Sciuto, Rhi Johnson, Genny Ballard & Lisa Nalbone

Comparative reconstruction of the predatory feeding structures of the polyphenic nematode Pristionchus pacificus

Clayton Harry, Sonia Messar & Erik Ragsdale
Pristionchus pacificus is a nematode model for the developmental genetics of morphological polyphenism, especially at the level of individual cells. Morphological polyphenism in this species includes an evolutionary novelty, moveable teeth, which have enabled predatory feeding in this species and others in its family (Diplogastridae). From transmission electron micrographs of serial thin sections through an adult hermaphrodite of P. pacificus, we three-dimensionally reconstructed all epithelial and myoepithelial cells and syncytia, corresponding to 74 nuclei, of...

Incucyte data for progeny virus derived from insect cells with or without methyltransferase inhibitor

Irene Newton, Tamanash Bhattacharya & Richard Hardy
Arthropod endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis is part of a global biocontrol strategy aimed at reducing the spread of mosquito-borne RNA viruses such as alphaviruses. Our prior work examining Wolbachia-mediated pathogen blocking has demonstrated (i) the importance of a host cytosine methyltransferase, DNMT2, in Drosophila, and (ii) viral RNA as a target through which pathogen-blocking is mediated. Here we report on the role of DNMT2 in Wolbachia induced virus inhibition of alphaviruses in Aedes sp.. Mosquito DNMT2...

Data from: Parasite-driven cascades or hydra effects: susceptibility and foraging depression shape parasite-host-resource interactions

Jason Walsman, Alexander Strauss & Spencer Hall
This contains data for the manuscript listed in the title.We measured the foraging rates of individual zooplankton hosts, Daphnia dentifera, on phytoplankton resources, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, in the presence of fungal parasites of zooplankton, Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Some of these data are previously published (Genotypes12_foraging.csv by Strauss, Alexander T., et al. "Genotypic variation in parasite avoidance behaviour and other mechanistic, nonlinear components of transmission." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286.1915 (2019): 20192164.) and some are published...

Rapid evolutionary divergence of a songbird population following recent colonization of an urban area

Guillermo Friis, Jonathan Atwell, Adam Fudickar, Timothy Greives, Pamela Yeh, Trevor Price, Ellen Ketterson & Borja Milá
Colonization of a novel environment by a small group of individuals can lead to rapid evolutionary change, yet evidence of the relative contributions of neutral and selective factors in promoting divergence during the early stages of colonization remain scarce. Here, we use genome-wide SNP data to test the role of neutral and selective forces in driving the divergence of a unique urban population of the Oregon junco (Junco hyemalis oreganus), which became established on the...

Data from: The relationship between native species richness and exotic species richness or occurrence will always be negative when the total number of species is accounted for in statistical models: A response to Beaury et al.

Ranjan Muthukrishnan
Beaury et al. (2020) attempt to address the scale dependence of evidence for biotic resistance by including environmental covariates that can account for total species richness. However, this approach will incorrectly estimate relationships, driven by the accuracy of the covariates rather than the true relationship between native and non-native species.

Upland Geopolitics

Michael Dwyer
In the twenty-first century, transnational land deals in the Global South have become increasingly prevalent and controversial. Widely seen as a new global land grab, transnational access to arable land in impoverished "land-rich" countries in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia highlights the link between the shifting geopolitics of economic development and problems of food security, climate change, and regional and international trade. Drawing on ethnographic and archival research, Upland Geopolitics uses the case...

Assessment Data for \"Envisioning the Future of a Mature IR\"

Erin Jerome, Thea Atwood, Melanie Radik & Rebecca Seifried
This dataset contains two spreadsheets: 1) an in-depth functionality assessment of Digital Commons based on the University of Pennsylvania's "Platform Functionality Review" (https://penntrl.wordpress.com/2019/01/23/scrip-appendices/); 2) a running list of required functionality for an institutional repository platform. The spreadsheets accompany a forthcoming book chapter, "Envisioning the Future of a Mature IR: A Midlife Assessment of ScholarWorks@UMassAmherst".

Data from: Morphological integration in the hominin dentition: evolutionary, developmental, and functional factors.

Aida Gómez-Robles & P. David Polly
As the most common and best preserved remains in the fossil record, teeth are central to our understanding of evolution. However, many evolutionary analyses based on dental traits overlook the constraints that limit dental evolution. These constraints are diverse, ranging from developmental interactions between the individual elements of a homologous series (the whole dentition) to functional constraints related to occlusion. This study evaluates morphological integration in the hominin dentition and its effect on dental evolution...

Data from: Diplogastrellus nematodes are sexually transmitted mutualists that alter the bacterial and fungal communities of their beetle host

Cristina C. Ledón-Rettig, Armin P. Moczek & Erik J. Ragsdale
A recent accumulation of studies has demonstrated that nongenetic, maternally transmitted factors are often critical to the health and development of offspring and can therefore play a role in ecological and evolutionary processes. In particular, microorganisms such as bacteria have been championed as heritable, symbiotic partners capable of conferring fitness benefits to their hosts. At the same time, parents may also pass various nonmicrobial organisms to their offspring, yet the roles of such organisms in...

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex

Levi T. Morran, Olivia G. Schmidt, Ian A. Gelarden, & Curtis M. Lively
Most organisms reproduce through outcrossing, even though it comes with significant costs. The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that selection from coevolving pathogens facilitates the persistence of outcrossing in spite of these costs. We utilized experimental coevolution to test the Red Queen hypothesis, and found that coevolution with a bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) resulted in significantly more outcrossing in mixed mating experimental populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, we found that coevolution with the pathogen...

Data from: The origins of novelty from within the confines of homology: the developmental evolution of the digging tibia of dung beetles

David Linz, Hu Yonggang & Armin Moczek
Understanding the origin of novel complex traits is among the most fundamental goals in evolutionary biology. The most widely used definition of novelty in evolution assumes the absence of homology, yet where homology ends and novelty begins is increasingly difficult to parse as evo devo continuously revises our understanding of what constitutes homology. Here, we executed a case study to explore the earliest stages of innovation by examining the tibial teeth of tunneling dung beetles....

Data from: Directional cultural change by modification and replacement of memes

Gonçalo C Cardoso & Jonathan W Atwell
Evolutionary approaches to culture remain contentious. A source of contention is that cultural mutation may be substantial and, if it drives cultural change, then current evolutionary models are not adequate. But we lack studies quantifying the contribution of mutations to directional cultural change. We estimated the contribution of one type of cultural mutations – modification of memes - to directional cultural change using an amenable study system: learned birdsongs in a species that recently entered...

Data from: Reduced drought tolerance during domestication and the evolution of weediness results from tolerance-growth trade-offs

Elizabeth Katherine Koziol, Loren H. Rieseberg, Nolan Coburn Kane & James D. Bever
The increased reproductive potential, size, shoot allocation, and growth rate of weedy plants may result from reduced resource allocation to other aspects of plant growth and defense. To investigate whether changes in resource allocation occurred during domestication or the evolution of weediness, we compared the mycorrhizal responsiveness, growth, and drought tolerance of nine native ruderal, nine agriculturally weedy (four US weedy and five Australian weedy), and fourteen domesticated populations (eight ancient landraces and six improved...

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