98 Works

Supplemental material for: NINDS consensus diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome

Douglas Katz, Charles Bernick, David Dodick, Jesse Mez, Megan Mariani, Charles Adler, Michael Alosco, Laura Balcer, Sarah Banks, William Barr, David Brody, Robert Cantu, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Yonas Geda, Barry Jordan, Thomas McAllister, Elaine Peskind, Ronald Petersen, Jennifer Wether, Ross Zafonte, Eimear Foley, Debra Babcock, Walter Koroshetz, Ann McKee, Martha Shenton … & Robert Stern
Objective: To develop evidence-informed, expert consensus research diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome (TES), the clinical disorder associated with neuropathologically diagnosed Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). Methods: A panel of 20 expert clinician-scientists in neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, from 11 academic institutions, participated in a modified Delphi procedure to achieve consensus, initiated at the First NINDS Consensus Workshop to Define the Diagnostic Criteria for TES, April, 2019. Prior to consensus, panelists...

Unusual Case of Pump Thrombosis in LVAD Patient with COVID-19 — Diagnostic Challenges

William H. Frick, Ryan D. Mallory, Maya Guglin, Eve Anderson, Erin N. Lushin, Rey P. Vivo, Kashif Saleem & Roopa A. Rao
We present the first reported case of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pump thrombosis in the setting of the coronavirus pandemic. We describe the clinical features of the case which helped to differentiate coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) from LVAD pump thrombosis. The patient is 56-year-old female supported by destination LVAD therapy. She was originally implanted with a HeartMate II device in 2015 and underwent two pump exchanges in 2017 and 2019 for pump thrombosis, despite...

Data from: The relationship between native species richness and exotic species richness or occurrence will always be negative when the total number of species is accounted for in statistical models: A response to Beaury et al.

Ranjan Muthukrishnan
Beaury et al. (2020) attempt to address the scale dependence of evidence for biotic resistance by including environmental covariates that can account for total species richness. However, this approach will incorrectly estimate relationships, driven by the accuracy of the covariates rather than the true relationship between native and non-native species.

Supplementary data for: Primate phylogenomics uncovers multiple rapid radiations and ancient interspecific introgression

Dan Vanderpool, Bin Quang Minh, Robert Lanfear, Daniel Hughes, Shwetha Murali, R. Alan Harris, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Donna M. Muzny, Richard A. Gibbs, Kim C. Worley, Jeffrey Rogers, Matthew W. Hahn, Mark S. Hibbins & Robert J. Williamson
Our understanding of the evolutionary history of primates is undergoing continual revision due to ongoing genome sequencing efforts. Bolstered by growing fossil evidence, these data have led to increased acceptance of once controversial hypotheses regarding phylogenetic relationships, hybridization and introgression, and the biogeographical history of primate groups. Among these findings is a pattern of recent introgression between species within all major primate groups examined to date, though little is known about introgression deeper in time....

The evolutionary genetics of paternal care: how good genes and extra-pair copulation affect the trade-off between paternal care and mating success

Courtney Fitzpatrick, Colette Ciresi & Michael Wade
We investigate the evolution of a gene for paternal care, with pleiotropic effects on male mating fitness and offspring viability, with and without extra pair copulations (EPCs). We develop a population genetic model to examine how pleiotropic effects of a male mating advantage and paternal care are affected by ‘good genes’ and EPCs. Using this approach, we show that the relative effects of each on fitness do not always predict the evolutionary change. We then...

Longitudinal white-matter abnormalities in sports-related concussion: a diffusion MRI study of the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium

Yu-Chien Wu, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Nahla Elsaid, Zikai Lin, Qiuting Wen, Sourajit Mustafi, Larry Riggen, Kevin Koch, Andrew Nencka, Timothy Meier, Andrew Mayer, Yang Wang, Christopher Giza, John DiFiori, Kevin Guskiewicz, Jason Mihalik, Stephen LaConte, Stefan Duma, Steven Broglio, Andrew Saykin, Michael McCrea & Thomas McAllister
Objective To study longitudinal recovery trajectories of white-matter after sports-related concussion (SRC), we performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on collegiate athletes who sustained SRC. Methods Collegiate athletes (n=219, 82 concussed athletes, 68 contact-sport controls, and 69 non-contact-sport controls) were included from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. The participants completed clinical assessments and DTI at four time points: 24-48-hours post-injury, asymptomatic state, seven days following return-to-play, and six-months post-injury. Tract-based spatial statistics were...

Light availability and rhizobium variation interactively mediate the outcomes of legume-rhizobium symbiosis

Katy Heath, Justin Podowski, Stephanie Heniff, Christie Klinger, Jennifer Lau, Wendy Yang, Dylan Weese & Patricia Burke
Premise of the study: Nutrients, light, water, and temperature are key factors limiting the growth of individual plants in nature. Mutualistic interactions between plants and microbes often mediate resource limitation for both partners. In the mutualism between legumes and rhizobia, plants provide rhizobia with carbon in exchange for fixed nitrogen. Because partner quality in mutualisms is genotype-dependent, within-species genetic variation is expected to alter the responses of mutualists to changes in the resource environment. Here...

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: Isotopic evidence for oligotrophication of terrestrial ecosystems

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Julieta Aranibar, Marijn Bauters, Pascal Boeckx, Brooke E. Crowley, Melissa A. Dawes, Sylvain Delzon, Alex Fajardo, Yunting Fang, Lei Fujiyoshi, Alan Gray, Rossella Guerrieri, Michael J. Gundale, David J. Hawke, Peter Hietz, Mathieu Jonard, Elizabeth Kearsley, Tanaka Kenzo, Mikhail Makarov, Sara Marañón-Jiménez, Terrence P. McGlynn, Brenden E. McNeil, Stella G. Mosher … & Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek
Human societies depend on an Earth System that operates within a constrained range of nutrient availability, yet the recent trajectory of terrestrial nitrogen (N) availability is uncertain. Examining patterns of foliar N concentrations ([N]) and isotope ratios (15N) from more than 42,000 samples acquired over 37 years, here we show that foliar [N] declined by 8% and foliar 15N declined by 0.8 – 1.9 ‰. Examining patterns across different climate spaces, foliar 15N declined across...

Data from: Diplogastrellus nematodes are sexually transmitted mutualists that alter the bacterial and fungal communities of their beetle host

Cristina C. Ledón-Rettig, Armin P. Moczek & Erik J. Ragsdale
A recent accumulation of studies has demonstrated that nongenetic, maternally transmitted factors are often critical to the health and development of offspring and can therefore play a role in ecological and evolutionary processes. In particular, microorganisms such as bacteria have been championed as heritable, symbiotic partners capable of conferring fitness benefits to their hosts. At the same time, parents may also pass various nonmicrobial organisms to their offspring, yet the roles of such organisms in...

Data from: The origins of novelty from within the confines of homology: the developmental evolution of the digging tibia of dung beetles

David Linz, Hu Yonggang & Armin Moczek
Understanding the origin of novel complex traits is among the most fundamental goals in evolutionary biology. The most widely used definition of novelty in evolution assumes the absence of homology, yet where homology ends and novelty begins is increasingly difficult to parse as evo devo continuously revises our understanding of what constitutes homology. Here, we executed a case study to explore the earliest stages of innovation by examining the tibial teeth of tunneling dung beetles....

Data from: Morphological integration in the hominin dentition: evolutionary, developmental, and functional factors.

Aida Gómez-Robles & P. David Polly
As the most common and best preserved remains in the fossil record, teeth are central to our understanding of evolution. However, many evolutionary analyses based on dental traits overlook the constraints that limit dental evolution. These constraints are diverse, ranging from developmental interactions between the individual elements of a homologous series (the whole dentition) to functional constraints related to occlusion. This study evaluates morphological integration in the hominin dentition and its effect on dental evolution...

Data from: Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex

Levi T. Morran, Olivia G. Schmidt, Ian A. Gelarden, & Curtis M. Lively
Most organisms reproduce through outcrossing, even though it comes with significant costs. The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that selection from coevolving pathogens facilitates the persistence of outcrossing in spite of these costs. We utilized experimental coevolution to test the Red Queen hypothesis, and found that coevolution with a bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) resulted in significantly more outcrossing in mixed mating experimental populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, we found that coevolution with the pathogen...

Data from: Directional cultural change by modification and replacement of memes

Gonçalo C Cardoso & Jonathan W Atwell
Evolutionary approaches to culture remain contentious. A source of contention is that cultural mutation may be substantial and, if it drives cultural change, then current evolutionary models are not adequate. But we lack studies quantifying the contribution of mutations to directional cultural change. We estimated the contribution of one type of cultural mutations – modification of memes - to directional cultural change using an amenable study system: learned birdsongs in a species that recently entered...

Data from: Reduced drought tolerance during domestication and the evolution of weediness results from tolerance-growth trade-offs

Elizabeth Katherine Koziol, Loren H. Rieseberg, Nolan Coburn Kane & James D. Bever
The increased reproductive potential, size, shoot allocation, and growth rate of weedy plants may result from reduced resource allocation to other aspects of plant growth and defense. To investigate whether changes in resource allocation occurred during domestication or the evolution of weediness, we compared the mycorrhizal responsiveness, growth, and drought tolerance of nine native ruderal, nine agriculturally weedy (four US weedy and five Australian weedy), and fourteen domesticated populations (eight ancient landraces and six improved...

Student Learning in Fraternities and Sororities: Using NSSE Data to Describe Members’ Participation in Educationally Meaningful Activities in College

Dan Bureau, Helen Grace Ryan, Chad Ahren, Rick Shoup & Vasti Torres

White Matter Tractography Viewer

Population Receptive Field (PRF) Surface Viewer

Data from: A phylogeny for the Drosophila montium species group: a model clade for comparative analyses

William Conner, Emily Delaney, Michael Bronski, Paul Ginsberg, Timothy Wheeler, Kelly Richardson, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Kevin Kim, Masayoshi Watada, Ary Hoffmann, Michael Eisen, Artyom Kopp, Brandon Cooper & Michael Turelli
The Drosophila montium species group is a clade of 94 named species closely related to the model D. melanogaster species group. The montium species group is distributed over a broad geographic range throughout Asia, Africa, and Australasia. Species of this group possess a wide range of morphologies, mating behaviors, and endosymbiont associations, making this clade useful for comparative analyses. We use genomic data from 42 available species to estimate the phylogeny and relative divergence times...

The Conceptualization of Sisterhood Within the Collegiate Sorority: an Exploration

Sarah Cohen, Gentry McCreary & Joshua Shutts

Cangrelor: Safe and Effective for Left Ventricular Assist Device Thrombosis

Roopa Rao, Eve Anderson, Mark Jones, Muhamed Safiia & Maya Guglin
Pump thrombosis is a devastating complication of left ventricular assist device implantation as it increases the risk of mortality and morbidity. Early and effective treatment is important to prevent the progression of the clot and to avoid the surgical need for pump exchange or heart transplant. The current strategies of intensifying anticoagulation therapy are not consistently effective and carry significant bleeding risks. Cangrelor is a new pharmacological agent that has been utilized as an antiplatelet...

Is the Licensing of Grey Literature Using the Full Palette of “Contractual” Colors?: A Comparative Analysis of Grey Literature Terms of Use

Tomas Lipinski & Andrea Copeland
This paper reviews a sample of licenses or terms of use governing the use of grey collections. A license is a form of legal permission. It need not be a contract but often is. Some terms of service reviewed do not even provide permission per se but state a list or rules users should follow. From this analysis a list of best licensing practices or checklist of considerations can be offered. Regardless of the specific...

The U.S. Government Technical Report and Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion: Results of an On-Going Investigation

Thomas E. Pinelli, A.R. Khan, R.O. Barclay & J.M. Kennedy
This paper contains descriptive and analytical data concerning the U.S. government technical report. These data were collected as part of an on-going investigation directed toward understanding the transfer of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The paper summarizes current literature and research, discusses U.S. government technical report use, and presents data obtained from the Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. U.A. aerospace engineers and scientists use technical reports primarily for research and indicate that relevance,...

Information Sharing and Bargaining in Buyer-Seller Networks

Sofia Priazhkina & Frank H. Page
This paper presents a model of strategic buyer-seller networks with information exchange between sellers. Prior to engaging in bargaining with buyers, sellers can share access to buyers for a negotiated transfer. We study how this information exchange affects overall market prices, volumes and welfare, given different initial market conditions and information sharing rules. In markets with homogeneous traders, sharing always increases total trade volume. The market reaches Walrasian trade volume when there are more buyers...

Observational evidence of herbivore-specific associational effects between neighboring conspecifics in natural, dimorphic populations of Datura wrightii

Jay Goldberg, Sonya Sternlieb, Genevieve Pintel & Lynda Delph
Associational effects – in which the vulnerability of a plant to herbivores is influenced by its neighbors – have been widely implicated in mediating plant-herbivore interactions. Studies of associational effects typically focus on interspecific interactions or pest-crop dynamics. However, associational effects may also be important for species with intraspecific variation in defensive traits. In this study, we observed hundreds of Datura wrightii – which exhibits dimorphism in its trichome phenotype – from over 30 dimorphic...

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