114 Works

Supplemental material for: NINDS consensus diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome

Douglas Katz, Charles Bernick, David Dodick, Jesse Mez, Megan Mariani, Charles Adler, Michael Alosco, Laura Balcer, Sarah Banks, William Barr, David Brody, Robert Cantu, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Yonas Geda, Barry Jordan, Thomas McAllister, Elaine Peskind, Ronald Petersen, Jennifer Wether, Ross Zafonte, Eimear Foley, Debra Babcock, Walter Koroshetz, Ann McKee, Martha Shenton … & Robert Stern
Objective: To develop evidence-informed, expert consensus research diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome (TES), the clinical disorder associated with neuropathologically diagnosed Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). Methods: A panel of 20 expert clinician-scientists in neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, from 11 academic institutions, participated in a modified Delphi procedure to achieve consensus, initiated at the First NINDS Consensus Workshop to Define the Diagnostic Criteria for TES, April, 2019. Prior to consensus, panelists...

Data from: The relationship between native species richness and exotic species richness or occurrence will always be negative when the total number of species is accounted for in statistical models: A response to Beaury et al.

Ranjan Muthukrishnan
Beaury et al. (2020) attempt to address the scale dependence of evidence for biotic resistance by including environmental covariates that can account for total species richness. However, this approach will incorrectly estimate relationships, driven by the accuracy of the covariates rather than the true relationship between native and non-native species.

Heating Arrays Aboveground Biomass Data

Louis Jochems, Jennifer Lau, Lars Brudvig & Emily Grman
Restoration in this era of climate change comes with a new challenge: anticipating how best to restore populations to persist under future climate conditions. Specifically, it remains unknown whether locally-adapted or warm-adapted seeds best promote native plant community restoration in the warmer conditions predicted in the future and whether local or warm-adapted soil microbial communities could mitigate plant responses to warming. This may be especially relevant for biomes spanning large climatic gradients, such as the...

Manduca sexta experience high parasitoid pressures in the field but minor fitness costs of consuming plant secondary compounds

Deidra Jacobsen
Plant-herbivore co-evolutionary interactions have led to a range of plant defenses that minimize insect damage and a suite of counter-adaptations that allow herbivores to feed on defended plants. Consuming plant secondary compounds results in herbivore growth and developmental costs but can have beneficial effects such as deterrence or harm of parasitoid enemies. Therefore, the role of secondary compounds on herbivore fitness must be considered in the context of the abundance and level of harm from...

Warming during maternal generations delays offspring germination in native and nonnative species

Meredith Zettlemoyer & Jennifer Lau
As environmental conditions shift due to global warming and other human-caused environmental changes, plastic responses in phenological traits like germination or flowering time may become increasingly important. While phenological plasticity is a common response to global warming, with many populations exhibiting earlier germination or flowering in warmer years, warming may also result in transgenerational plasticity, especially on early life stages. In other words, seeds produced by mothers inhabiting warmer environments may germinate faster (or slower)...

Data from: Longitudinal cognitive and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease

Eric McDade, Guoqiao Wang, Brian Andrew Gordon, Jason Hassenstab, Tammie L.S. Benzinger, Virginia Buckles, Anne M. Fagan, David M. Holtzman, Nigel J. Cairns, Alison M. Goate, Daniel S. Marcus, John C. Morris, Katrina Paumier, Chengjie Xiong, Ricardo Allegri, Sarah B. Berman, William Klunk, James Nobel, John Ringman, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin Farlow, Reisa Anne Sperling, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Stephen Salloway, Neil R. Graff-Radford … & Randall J. Bateman
Objective: To assess the onset, sequence and rate of progression of comprehensive biomarker and clinical measures across the spectrum of Alzheimer disease using the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study and compare these to cross-sectional estimates. Methods: We conducted longitudinal clinical, cognitive, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging assessments (mean of 2.7 (+/- 1.1) visits) in 217 DIAN participants. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess changes in each measure relative to individuals’ estimated years...

Data from: Surprising complexity of the ancestral apoptosis network

Christian M. Zmasek, Qing Zhang, Yuzhen Ye & Adam Godzik
Apoptosis, one of the main types of programmed cell death, is regulated and performed by a complex protein network. Studies in model organisms, mostly in the nematode C. elegans, identified a relatively simple apoptotic network consisting of only a few proteins. However, analysis of several recently sequenced invertebrate genomes, ranging from the cnidarian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, representing one of the morphologically simplest metazoans, to the deuterostomes sea urchin and amphioxus, contradicts the current paradigm...

Student Learning in Fraternities and Sororities: Using NSSE Data to Describe Members’ Participation in Educationally Meaningful Activities in College

Dan Bureau, Helen Grace Ryan, Chad Ahren, Rick Shoup & Vasti Torres

White Matter Tractography Viewer

Population Receptive Field (PRF) Surface Viewer

The Conceptualization of Sisterhood Within the Collegiate Sorority: an Exploration

Sarah Cohen, Gentry McCreary & Joshua Shutts

Information Sharing and Bargaining in Buyer-Seller Networks

Sofia Priazhkina & Frank H. Page
This paper presents a model of strategic buyer-seller networks with information exchange between sellers. Prior to engaging in bargaining with buyers, sellers can share access to buyers for a negotiated transfer. We study how this information exchange affects overall market prices, volumes and welfare, given different initial market conditions and information sharing rules. In markets with homogeneous traders, sharing always increases total trade volume. The market reaches Walrasian trade volume when there are more buyers...

The U.S. Government Technical Report and Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion: Results of an On-Going Investigation

Thomas E. Pinelli, A.R. Khan, R.O. Barclay & J.M. Kennedy
This paper contains descriptive and analytical data concerning the U.S. government technical report. These data were collected as part of an on-going investigation directed toward understanding the transfer of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The paper summarizes current literature and research, discusses U.S. government technical report use, and presents data obtained from the Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. U.A. aerospace engineers and scientists use technical reports primarily for research and indicate that relevance,...

Is the Licensing of Grey Literature Using the Full Palette of “Contractual” Colors?: A Comparative Analysis of Grey Literature Terms of Use

Tomas Lipinski & Andrea Copeland
This paper reviews a sample of licenses or terms of use governing the use of grey collections. A license is a form of legal permission. It need not be a contract but often is. Some terms of service reviewed do not even provide permission per se but state a list or rules users should follow. From this analysis a list of best licensing practices or checklist of considerations can be offered. Regardless of the specific...

Cangrelor: Safe and Effective for Left Ventricular Assist Device Thrombosis

Roopa Rao, Eve Anderson, Mark Jones, Muhamed Safiia & Maya Guglin
Pump thrombosis is a devastating complication of left ventricular assist device implantation as it increases the risk of mortality and morbidity. Early and effective treatment is important to prevent the progression of the clot and to avoid the surgical need for pump exchange or heart transplant. The current strategies of intensifying anticoagulation therapy are not consistently effective and carry significant bleeding risks. Cangrelor is a new pharmacological agent that has been utilized as an antiplatelet...

Creating Cultural Space: African American Undergraduates’ Appreciation of Historically Black Greek-Lettered Organizations

O. Gilbert Brown, David Mariott, D.W. Mitchell, Eric D. Williams, Aimee Heeter & Ted Ingram

Fordómar í alþjóðlegu samhengi: Rannsókn á viðhorfum Íslendinga til geðrænna vandamála

Jón Gunnar Bernburg, Sigrún Ólafsdóttir, Þórólfur Þórlindsson & Bernice A. Pescosolido
Fordómar í alþjóðlegu samhengi: Rannsókn á viðhorfum Íslendinga til geðrænna vandamála, er hluti af Stigma in Global Context: Mental Health Study (SGC-MHS) sem er alþjóðlegt samstarf. Tilgangur þessara rannsókna er að varpa ljósi á skoðanir og fordóma almennings í garð fólks sem á við geðræn vandamál að stríða. Alls eru 16 lönd í samstarfinu. Þessi lönd eru einnig meðlimir í International Social Survey Program (ISSP). Könnunin er sambærileg í öllum löndunum 16, könnuð eru viðhorf...

Data from: Morphological integration in the hominin dentition: evolutionary, developmental, and functional factors.

Aida Gómez-Robles & P. David Polly
As the most common and best preserved remains in the fossil record, teeth are central to our understanding of evolution. However, many evolutionary analyses based on dental traits overlook the constraints that limit dental evolution. These constraints are diverse, ranging from developmental interactions between the individual elements of a homologous series (the whole dentition) to functional constraints related to occlusion. This study evaluates morphological integration in the hominin dentition and its effect on dental evolution...

Data from: Diplogastrellus nematodes are sexually transmitted mutualists that alter the bacterial and fungal communities of their beetle host

Cristina C. Ledón-Rettig, Armin P. Moczek & Erik J. Ragsdale
A recent accumulation of studies has demonstrated that nongenetic, maternally transmitted factors are often critical to the health and development of offspring and can therefore play a role in ecological and evolutionary processes. In particular, microorganisms such as bacteria have been championed as heritable, symbiotic partners capable of conferring fitness benefits to their hosts. At the same time, parents may also pass various nonmicrobial organisms to their offspring, yet the roles of such organisms in...

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex

Levi T. Morran, Olivia G. Schmidt, Ian A. Gelarden, & Curtis M. Lively
Most organisms reproduce through outcrossing, even though it comes with significant costs. The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that selection from coevolving pathogens facilitates the persistence of outcrossing in spite of these costs. We utilized experimental coevolution to test the Red Queen hypothesis, and found that coevolution with a bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) resulted in significantly more outcrossing in mixed mating experimental populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, we found that coevolution with the pathogen...

Data from: The origins of novelty from within the confines of homology: the developmental evolution of the digging tibia of dung beetles

David Linz, Hu Yonggang & Armin Moczek
Understanding the origin of novel complex traits is among the most fundamental goals in evolutionary biology. The most widely used definition of novelty in evolution assumes the absence of homology, yet where homology ends and novelty begins is increasingly difficult to parse as evo devo continuously revises our understanding of what constitutes homology. Here, we executed a case study to explore the earliest stages of innovation by examining the tibial teeth of tunneling dung beetles....

Data from: Directional cultural change by modification and replacement of memes

Gonçalo C Cardoso & Jonathan W Atwell
Evolutionary approaches to culture remain contentious. A source of contention is that cultural mutation may be substantial and, if it drives cultural change, then current evolutionary models are not adequate. But we lack studies quantifying the contribution of mutations to directional cultural change. We estimated the contribution of one type of cultural mutations – modification of memes - to directional cultural change using an amenable study system: learned birdsongs in a species that recently entered...

Data from: Reduced drought tolerance during domestication and the evolution of weediness results from tolerance-growth trade-offs

Elizabeth Katherine Koziol, Loren H. Rieseberg, Nolan Coburn Kane & James D. Bever
The increased reproductive potential, size, shoot allocation, and growth rate of weedy plants may result from reduced resource allocation to other aspects of plant growth and defense. To investigate whether changes in resource allocation occurred during domestication or the evolution of weediness, we compared the mycorrhizal responsiveness, growth, and drought tolerance of nine native ruderal, nine agriculturally weedy (four US weedy and five Australian weedy), and fourteen domesticated populations (eight ancient landraces and six improved...

Data from: Isotopic evidence for oligotrophication of terrestrial ecosystems

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Julieta Aranibar, Marijn Bauters, Pascal Boeckx, Brooke E. Crowley, Melissa A. Dawes, Sylvain Delzon, Alex Fajardo, Yunting Fang, Lei Fujiyoshi, Alan Gray, Rossella Guerrieri, Michael J. Gundale, David J. Hawke, Peter Hietz, Mathieu Jonard, Elizabeth Kearsley, Tanaka Kenzo, Mikhail Makarov, Sara Marañón-Jiménez, Terrence P. McGlynn, Brenden E. McNeil, Stella G. Mosher … & Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek
Human societies depend on an Earth System that operates within a constrained range of nutrient availability, yet the recent trajectory of terrestrial nitrogen (N) availability is uncertain. Examining patterns of foliar N concentrations ([N]) and isotope ratios (15N) from more than 42,000 samples acquired over 37 years, here we show that foliar [N] declined by 8% and foliar 15N declined by 0.8 – 1.9 ‰. Examining patterns across different climate spaces, foliar 15N declined across...

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