114 Works

Data from: Ecological and evolutionary significance of primates’ most consumed plant families

Jun Ying Lim, Michael D. Wasserman, Jorin Veen, Marie-Lynne Despres-Einspenner & W. Daniel Kissling
Angiosperms have been essential components of primate diet for millions of years, but the relative importance of different angiosperm families in primate diets and their influence on primate evolution and ecology remains unclear. Here, we assess the contribution and ecological and evolutionary significance of plant families to the diets of wild primates based on an unprecedented dietary dataset of over 8,000 dietary records, compiled from 140 primary sources encompassing 109 primate species. Out of the...

Data from: Nanotransfection-based vasculogenic cell reprogramming drives functional recovery in a mouse model of ischemic stroke

Luke Lemmerman, Maria Balch, Jordan Moore, Diego Alzate-Correa, Maria Rincon-Benavides, Ana Salazar-Puerta, Surya Gnyawali, Hallie Harris, William Lawrence, Lilibeth Ortega-Pineda, Lauren Wilch, Ian Risser, Aidan Maxwell, Silvia Duarte-Sanmiguel, Daniel Dodd, Gina Guio-Vega, Dana McTigue, William Arnold, Shahid Nimjee, Chandan Sen, Savita Khanna, Cameron Rink, Natalia Higuita-Castro & Daniel Gallego-Perez
Ischemic stroke causes vascular and neuronal tissue deficiencies that could lead to significant functional impairment and/or death. Although progenitor-based vasculogenic cell therapies have shown promise as a potential rescue strategy following ischemic stroke, current approaches face major hurdles. Here we used fibroblasts nanotransfected with Etv2, Foxc2, and Fli1 (EFF), to drive reprogramming-based vasculogenesis, intracranially, as a potential therapy for ischemic stroke. Perfusion analyses suggest that intracranial delivery of EFF-nanotransfected fibroblasts led to a dose-dependent increase...

Data from: Early predictors of outcomes of hospitalization for cirrhosis and assessment of the impact of race and ethnicity at safety-net hospitals

, Samuel Akinyeye, Zachary Fricker, Moinuddin Syed, Eric Orman, Lauren Nephew, Eduardo Vilar Gomez, James Slaven, Naga Chalasani, Maya Balakrishnan, Michelle Long, Bashar Attar & Marwan Ghabril
Background. Safety-net hospitals provide care for racially/ethnically diverse and disadvantaged urban populations. Their hospitalized patients with cirrhosis are relatively understudied and may be vulnerable to poor outcomes and racial/ethnic disparities. Aims. To examine the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis hospitalized at regionally diverse safety-net hospitals and the impact of race/ethnicity. Methods. A study of patients with cirrhosis hospitalized at 4 safety-net hospitals in 2012 was conducted. Demographic, clinical factors, and outcomes were compared between centers...

Data from: Patterns of reproductive isolation in Nolana (Chilean Bellflower)

Cathleen Jewell, Amy Douglas Papineau, Rosanna Freyre & Leonie Clare Moyle
We examined reproductive isolating barriers at four postmating stages among 11 species from the morphologically diverse genus Nolana (Solanaceae). At least one stage was positively correlated with both genetic and geographic distance between species. Postzygotic isolation was generally stronger and faster evolving than postmating prezygotic isolation. In addition, there was no evidence for mechanical isolation or for reproductive character displacement in floral traits that can influence pollinator isolation. In general, among the potential isolating stages...

Data from: Mate choice in the eye and ear of the beholder? Female multimodal sensory configuration influences her preferences

Kelly Ronald, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Jeffrey Lucas, Jeffrey R. Lucas & Kelly L. Ronald
A common assumption in sexual selection studies is that receivers decode signal information similarly. However, receivers may vary in how they rank signallers if signal perception varies with an individual’s sensory configuration. Furthermore, receivers may vary in their weighting of different elements of multimodal signals based on their sensory configuration. This could lead to complex levels of selection on signalling traits. We tested whether multimodal sensory configuration could affect preferences for multimodal signals. We used...

Wing and bill measurements of Tyrannus round specimens identified to subspecies

Maggie MacPherson, Alejandro Jahn & Nicholas Mason
Morphology is closely linked to locomotion and diet in animals. In animals that undertake long-distance migrations, limb-morphology is under selection to maximize mobility and minimize energy expenditure. Migratory behaviors also interact with diet, such that migratory animals tend to be dietary generalists, while sedentary taxa tend to be dietary specialists. Despite a hypothesized link between migration status and morphology, phylogenetic comparative studies have yielded conflicting findings. We tested for evolutionary associations between migratory status and...

Testing hormonal responses to real and simulated social challenges in a competitive female bird

Elizabeth George, Sarah Wolf, Alexandra Bentz & Kimberly Rosvall
Competitive interactions often occur in series; therefore animals may respond to social challenges in ways that prepare them for success in future conflict. Changes in the production of the steroid hormone testosterone (T) are thought to mediate phenotypic responses to competition, but research over the past few decades has yielded mixed results, leading to several potential explanations as to why T does not always elevate following a social challenge. Here, we measured T levels in...

What Did We Learn about VADs in 2020?

Maya Guglin
This is our 7th annual literature review on mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices. Our previous reports were well received by the readers. The full text of the reviews for 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 1-6 were downloaded 807, 843, 638, 827, 841, and 199 times, respectively. In this review, we summarized the most interesting and important, from our standpoint, publications covering MCS from 2020. There may be some slight overlap with the end of...

Network Neuroscience Visualizer

White Matter Tracts Surface Visualizer

A Values-Based Learning Model to Impact Maturational Change: The College Fraternity as Developmental Crucible

Tim Reuter, Elgan Baker, Michael V. Hernandez & Dan Bureau

Living in Your Letters: Assessing Congruence Between Espoused and Enacted Values of One Fraternity/Sorority Community

Heather Matthews, Leigh Featherstone, Lisa Blunder, Allison J. Gerling, Sarah Lodge & Rachel B. Messenger

What's in a Span? Evaluating the Creativity of a Span-Based Neural Constituency Parser

Daniel Dakota & Sandra Kübler

How Long is Forever in the Laboratory? Three Implementations of an Infinite-Horizon Monetary Economy

Janet Hua Jiang, Daniela Puzzello & Cathy Zhang
Standard monetary models adopt an infinite horizon with discounting. Testing these models in the lab requires implementing this horizon within a limited time frame. We compare three approaches to such an implementation and discuss their relative advantages.

Data from: Habitat heterogeneity, host population structure and parasite local adaptation

Curtis M. Lively
Reciprocal-transplant experiments have proven to be a powerful tool for detecting local adaptation (LA). More recently, reciprocal cross-inoculation experiments have been used to evaluate adaptation by parasites to their local host populations. These experiments are conceptually similar to reciprocal-transplant experiments, except that the "environment" (the host population) may have evolved in response to changes in the parasite population. Here, I use analytical tools and computer simulations to determine when parasites would be expected to be...

Data from: The roles of compensatory evolution and constraint in aminoacyl tRNA synthetase evolution

Jeffrey R. Adrion, P. Signe White & Kristi L. Montooth
Mitochondrial protein translation requires interactions between transfer RNAs encoded by the mitochondrial genome (mt-tRNAs) and mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetase proteins (mt-aaRS) encoded by the nuclear genome. It has been argued that animal mt-tRNAs have higher deleterious substitution rates relative to their nuclear-encoded counterparts, the cytoplasmic tRNAs (cyt-tRNAs). This dynamic predicts elevated rates of compensatory evolution of mt-aaRS that interact with mt-tRNAs, relative to aaRS that interact with cyt-tRNAs (cyt-aaRS). We find that mt-aaRS do evolve...

Data from: Joint effects of habitat, zooplankton, host stage structure and diversity on amphibian chytrid

Jessica L. Hite, Jaime Bosch, Saioa Fernández-Beaskoetxea, Daniel Medina & Spencer R. Hall
Why does the severity of parasite infection differ dramatically across habitats? This question remains challenging to answer because multiple correlated pathways drive disease. Here, we examined habitat–disease links through direct effects on parasites and indirect effects on parasite predators (zooplankton), host diversity and key life stages of hosts. We used a case study of amphibian hosts and the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in a set of permanent and ephemeral alpine ponds. A field experiment showed...

Data from: The effect of variable frequency of sexual reproduction on the genetic structure of natural populations of a cyclical parthenogen

Desiree E. Allen & Michael Lynch
Cyclical parthenogens are a valuable system in which to empirically test theoretical predictions as to the genetic consequences of sexual reproduction in natural populations, particularly if the frequency of sexual relative to asexual reproduction can be quantified. In this study we utilized a series of lake populations of the cyclical parthenogen, Daphnia pulicaria, that vary consistently in their investment in sexual reproduction, to address the questions of whether the ecological variation in investment in sex...

Data from: Reconciling extremely strong barriers with high levels of gene exchange in annual sunflowers

Julianno Bergoch Monteiro Sambatti, Jared L. Strasburg, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos, Eric J. Baack & Loren Henry Rieseberg
In several cases, estimates of gene flow between species appears to be higher than predicted given the strength of interspecific barriers. However, as far as we are aware, detailed measurements of reproductive isolation have not previously been compared with a coalescent-based assessment of gene flow. Here, we contrast these two measures in two species of sunflower, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris. We quantified the total reproductive barrier strength between these species by compounding the contributions...

Data from: A shift from magnitude to sign epistasis during adaptive evolution of a bacterial social trait

Peter C. Zee, Helena Mendes-Soares, Yuen-Tsu Nicco Yu, Susanne A. Kraemer, Heike Keller, Stephan Ossowski, Korbinian Schneeberger & Gregory J. Velicer
While the importance of epistasis in evolution has long been recognized, remarkably little is known about the processes by which epistatic interactions evolve in real time in specific biological systems. Here, we have characterized how the epistatic fitness relationship between a social gene and an adapting genome changes radically over a short evolutionary time frame in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. We show that a highly beneficial effect of this social gene in the ancestral...

Data from: Wide variation in ploidy level and genome size in a New Zealand freshwater snail with coexisting sexual and asexual lineages

Maurine Neiman, Dorota Paczesniak, Deanna M Soper, Austin T Baldwin & Gery Hehman
Natural animal populations are rarely screened for ploidy-level variation at a scale that allows detection of potentially important aberrations of common ploidy patterns. This type of screening can be especially important for the many mixed sexual/asexual systems where sexuals are presumed to be dioecious diploids and asexuals are assumed to be triploid and all-female. For example, elevation of ploidy level above triploidy can be a source of genetic variation and raises the possibility of gene...

Data from: Gene-tree reconciliation with MUL-trees to resolve polyploidy events

Gregg W.C. Thomas, S. Hussain Ather & Matthew W. Hahn
Polyploidy can have a huge impact on the evolution of species, and it is a common occurrence, especially in plants. The two types of polyploids - autopolyploids and allopolyploids - differ in the level of divergence between the genes that are brought together in the new polyploid lineage. Because allopolyploids are formed via hybridization, the homoeologous copies of genes within them are at least as divergent as orthologs in the parental species that came together...

Data from: Population genomics of wild and laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Andrew R Whiteley, Anuradha Bhat, Emilia P Martins, Richard L Mayden, M Arunachalam, Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, A.T.A. Ahmed, Jiwan Shrestha, Matthew Clark, Derek Stemple & Louis Bernatchez
Understanding a wider range of genotype-phenotype associations can be achieved through ecological and evolutionary studies of traditional laboratory models. Here, we conducted the first large-scale geographic analysis of genetic variation within and among wild zebrafish (Danio rerio) populations occurring in Nepal, India, and Bangladesh and we genetically compared wild populations to several commonly used lab strains. We examined genetic variation at 1,832 polymorphic EST-based SNPs and the cytb mitochondrial gene in 13 wild populations and...

Data from: Global database of matched Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence and prevalence records from 1985–2013

Katherine E. Battle, Carlos A. Guerra, Nick Golding, Kirsten A. Duda, Ewan Cameron, Rosalind E. Howes, Iqbal R. F. Elyazar, J. Kevin Baird, , Peter W. Gething, David L. Smith & Simon I. Hay
Measures of clinical incidence are necessary to help estimate the burden of a disease. Incidence is a metric not commonly measured in malariology because the longitudinal surveys required are costly and labour intensive. This database is an effort to collate published incidence records obtained using active case detection for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The literature search methods, data abstraction procedures and data processing procedures are described here. A total of 1,680 spatio-temporally unique...

Data from: Determining the null model for detecting adaptive convergence from genomic data: a case study using echolocating mammals

Gregg W. C. Thomas & Matthew W. Hahn
Convergent evolution occurs when the same trait arises independently in multiple lineages. In most cases of phenotypic convergence such transitions are adaptive, so finding the underlying molecular causes of convergence can provide insight into the process of adaptation. Convergent evolution at the genomic level also lends itself to study by comparative methods, though molecular convergence can also occur by chance, adding noise to this process. Parker et al. (2013) studied convergence across the genomes of...

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