113 Works

Data from: Alternative paths to success in a parasite community: within-host competition can favor higher virulence or direct interference

Farrah Bashey-Visser, Hadas Hawlena & Curtis M. Lively
Selection imposed by coinfection may vary with the mechanism of within-host competition between parasites. Exploitative competition is predicted to favor more virulent parasites, while interference competition may result in lower virulence. Here, we examine whether exploitative or interference competition determines the outcome of competition between two nematode species (Steinernema spp.), which in combination with their bacterial symbionts (Xenorhabdus spp.), infect and kill insect hosts. Multiple isolates of each nematode species, carrying their naturally associated bacteria,...

A putative telomerase activator has tissue-specific effects on telomere length in a developing songbird

Sarah Wolf, Keegan Stansberry, Kristen Content & Kimberly Rosvall
There is good evidence that telomeres predict variation in health and longevity, yet it is unclear whether these patterns are causally derived from telomeres per se, in part because relatively little research directly manipulates telomere length during early life, when telomere shortening is most dynamic. Here, we test how the telomerase activator TA-65 (i.e., cycloastrogenol) affects telomere length in five tissues during the peak of growth in the wild tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). Following 8...

Data from: Trait plasticity alters the range of possible coexistence conditions in a competition-colonization trade-off

Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Lauren L. Sullivan, Allison Shaw & James Forester
Most of the classical theory on species coexistence has been based on species-level competitive trade-offs. However, it is becoming apparent that plant species display high levels of trait plasticity. The implications of this plasticity are almost completely unknown for most coexistence theory. Here, we model a competition-colonization trade-off and incorporate trait plasticity to evaluate its effects on coexistence. Our simulations show that the classic competition-colonization trade-off is highly sensitive to environmental circumstances and coexistence only...

Ionic amplifying circuits inspired by electronics and biology

Zuzanna Siwy, Rachel Lucas, Lane Baker & Chih-Yuan Lin
Integrated circuits are present in all electronic devices, and enable signal amplification, modulation, and relay. Nature uses another type of circuits composed of channels in a cell membrane, which regulate and amplify transport of ions, not electrons and holes as is done in electronic systems. Here we show an abiotic ionic circuit that is inspired by concepts from electronics and biology. The circuit amplifies small ionic signals into ionic outputs, and its operation mimics the...

A shift to shorter cuticular hydrocarbons accompanies sexual isolation among Drosophila americana group populations

Jeremy S Davis, Matthew Pearcy, Joanne Yew & Leonie Moyle
Because sensory signals often evolve rapidly, they could be instrumental in the emergence of reproductive isolation between species. However, pinpointing their specific contribution to isolating barriers, and the mechanisms underlying their divergence, remains challenging. Here we demonstrate sexual isolation due to divergence in chemical signals between two populations of Drosophila americana (SC and NE) and one population of D. novamexicana, and dissect its underlying phenotypic and genetic mechanisms. Mating trials revealed strong sexual isolation between...

Seasonal patterns of melatonin alter aggressive phenotypes of female Siberian hamsters

Nikki Rendon, Christopher Petersen, Kathleen Munley, Andrea Amez, Daniel Boyes, Marcy Kingsbury & Gregory Demas
Many animal species exhibit year-round aggression, a behaviour that allows individuals to compete for limited resources in their environment (e.g., food and mates). Interestingly, this high degree of territoriality persists during the non-breeding season, despite low levels of circulating gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone [T] and oestradiol [E2]). Our previous work suggests that the pineal hormone melatonin mediates a ‘seasonal switch’ from gonadal to adrenal regulation of aggression in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus); solitary, seasonally breeding...

Data from: Volatile fatty acid and aldehyde abundances evolve with behavior and habitat temperature in Sceloporus lizards

Stephanie Campos, Jake Pruett, Helena Soini, J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Jay Goldberg, Cuauhcihuatl Vital-García, Milos Novotny, Diana Hews & Emília Martins
Animal signals evolve by striking a balance between the need to convey information through particular habitats and the limitations of what types of signals can most easily be produced and perceived. Here, we present new results from field measures of undisturbed behavior and biochemical analyses of scent marks from 12 species of Sceloporus lizards to explore whether evolutionary changes in chemical composition are better predicted by measures of species behavior , particularly those associated with...

Supporting information for: The frequency and topology of pseudoorthologs

Megan Smith & Matthew Hahn
Phylogenetics has long relied on the use of orthologs, or genes related through speciation events, to infer species relationships. However, identifying orthologs is difficult because gene duplication can obscure relationships among genes. Researchers have been particularly concerned with the insidious effects of pseudoorthologs—duplicated genes that are mistaken for orthologs because they are present in a single copy in each sampled species. Because gene tree topologies of pseudoorthologs may differ from the species tree topology, they...

Compartmentalization of cerebrospinal fluid inflammation across the spectrum of HIV infection

Richard Price, Magnus Gisslen, Sheila Keating, Serena Spudich, Victor Arechiga, Sophie Stephenson, Henrik Zetterberg, Clara Di Germanio, Kaj Blennow, Lars Hagberg, Philip Norris, Julia Peterson, Barbara Shacklett & Constantin Yiannoutsos
Objective: To characterize the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in HIV-1 infection applying a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to grouped subjects representing a broad spectrum of systemic HIV-1 immune suppression, CNS injury and viral control. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of archived CSF and blood samples, assessing concentrations of 10 functionally diverse soluble inflammatory biomarkers by immunoassays in 143 HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 8 groups: untreated primary HIV-1 infection...

Data from: Signatures of north-eastern expansion and multiple refugia: Genomic phylogeography of the Pine Barrens Treefrog, Hyla andersonii (Anura: Hylidae)

Alexa Warwick, Lisa Barrow, Megan Smith, D. Bruce Means, Alan Lemmon & Emily Lemmon
Range fragmentation poses challenges for species persistence over time and may be caused by both historical and contemporary processes. We combined genomic data, phylogeographic model testing, and paleoclimate niche modeling to infer the evolutionary history of the Pine Barrens Treefrog (Hyla andersonii), a seepage bog specialist, in eastern North America to better understand the historical context of its fragmented distribution. We sampled H. andersonii populations across the three disjunct regions of the species’ range: Alabama/Florida...

The plot thickens: Haploid and triploid-like thalli, hybridization, and biased mating type ratios in Letharia

Sandra Lorena Ament-Velásquez, Veera Tuovinen, Linnea Bergström, Toby Spribille, Dan Vanderpool, Juri Nascimbene, Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Göran Thor & Hanna Johannesson
The study of the reproductive biology of lichen fungal symbionts has been traditionally challenging due to their complex and symbiotic lifestyles. Against the common belief of haploidy, a recent genomic study found a triploid-like signal in Letharia. Here, we used genomic data from a pure culture and from thalli, together with a PCR survey of the MAT locus, to infer the genome organization and reproduction in Letharia. We found that the read count variation in...

Mycorrhizal effects on decomposition and soil CO2 flux depend on changes in nitrogen availability during forest succession

Ruiqiang Liu, Yanghui He, Guiyao Zhou, Junjiong Shao, Lingyan Zhou, Huimin Zhou, Nan Li, Bingqian Song, Chao Liang, Enrong Yan, Xiao-Yong Chen, Xihua Wang, Minhuang Wang, Shahla Hosseini Bai, Xuhui Zhou & Richard Phillips
Mycorrhizal fungi play a central role in plant nutrition and nutrient cycling, yet our understanding on their effects on free-living microbes, soil carbon (C) decomposition and soil CO2 fluxes remains limited. Here we used trenches lined with mesh screens of varying sizes to isolate mycorrhizal hyphal effects on soil C dynamics in subtropical successional forests. We found that the presence of mycorrhizal hyphae suppressed soil CO2 fluxes by 17% in early-successional forests, but enhanced CO2...

The probability of being infected with haemosporidian parasites increases with host age

Samuel Slowinski, Aidan Geissler, Nicole Gerlach, Britt Heidinger & Ellen Ketterson
In vertebrates, disease susceptibility often varies with age. Older individuals may be more susceptible than younger individuals due to senescent declines in immune function. Alternatively, disease susceptibility may decrease with age if older individuals are more likely to have had prior exposures to parasites and acquired adaptive immune responses that allowed them to resist future infections. Disease susceptibility can also vary with reproductive state, and reproductive hormones have been shown to increase infection susceptibility. Here...

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