37 Works

Testing hormonal responses to real and simulated social challenges in a competitive female bird

Elizabeth George, Sarah Wolf, Alexandra Bentz & Kimberly Rosvall
Competitive interactions often occur in series; therefore animals may respond to social challenges in ways that prepare them for success in future conflict. Changes in the production of the steroid hormone testosterone (T) are thought to mediate phenotypic responses to competition, but research over the past few decades has yielded mixed results, leading to several potential explanations as to why T does not always elevate following a social challenge. Here, we measured T levels in...

What Did We Learn about VADs in 2020?

Maya Guglin
This is our 7th annual literature review on mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices. Our previous reports were well received by the readers. The full text of the reviews for 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 1-6 were downloaded 807, 843, 638, 827, 841, and 199 times, respectively. In this review, we summarized the most interesting and important, from our standpoint, publications covering MCS from 2020. There may be some slight overlap with the end of...

What's in a Span? Evaluating the Creativity of a Span-Based Neural Constituency Parser

Daniel Dakota & Sandra Kübler

How Long is Forever in the Laboratory? Three Implementations of an Infinite-Horizon Monetary Economy

Janet Hua Jiang, Daniela Puzzello & Cathy Zhang
Standard monetary models adopt an infinite horizon with discounting. Testing these models in the lab requires implementing this horizon within a limited time frame. We compare three approaches to such an implementation and discuss their relative advantages.

Data from: Signatures of north-eastern expansion and multiple refugia: Genomic phylogeography of the Pine Barrens Treefrog, Hyla andersonii (Anura: Hylidae)

Alexa Warwick, Lisa Barrow, Megan Smith, D. Bruce Means, Alan Lemmon & Emily Lemmon
Range fragmentation poses challenges for species persistence over time and may be caused by both historical and contemporary processes. We combined genomic data, phylogeographic model testing, and paleoclimate niche modeling to infer the evolutionary history of the Pine Barrens Treefrog (Hyla andersonii), a seepage bog specialist, in eastern North America to better understand the historical context of its fragmented distribution. We sampled H. andersonii populations across the three disjunct regions of the species’ range: Alabama/Florida...

Compartmentalization of cerebrospinal fluid inflammation across the spectrum of HIV infection

Richard Price, Magnus Gisslen, Sheila Keating, Serena Spudich, Victor Arechiga, Sophie Stephenson, Henrik Zetterberg, Clara Di Germanio, Kaj Blennow, Lars Hagberg, Philip Norris, Julia Peterson, Barbara Shacklett & Constantin Yiannoutsos
Objective: To characterize the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in HIV-1 infection applying a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to grouped subjects representing a broad spectrum of systemic HIV-1 immune suppression, CNS injury and viral control. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of archived CSF and blood samples, assessing concentrations of 10 functionally diverse soluble inflammatory biomarkers by immunoassays in 143 HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 8 groups: untreated primary HIV-1 infection...

A shift to shorter cuticular hydrocarbons accompanies sexual isolation among Drosophila americana group populations

Jeremy S Davis, Matthew Pearcy, Joanne Yew & Leonie Moyle
Because sensory signals often evolve rapidly, they could be instrumental in the emergence of reproductive isolation between species. However, pinpointing their specific contribution to isolating barriers, and the mechanisms underlying their divergence, remains challenging. Here we demonstrate sexual isolation due to divergence in chemical signals between two populations of Drosophila americana (SC and NE) and one population of D. novamexicana, and dissect its underlying phenotypic and genetic mechanisms. Mating trials revealed strong sexual isolation between...

Mycorrhizal effects on decomposition and soil CO2 flux depend on changes in nitrogen availability during forest succession

Ruiqiang Liu, Yanghui He, Guiyao Zhou, Junjiong Shao, Lingyan Zhou, Huimin Zhou, Nan Li, Bingqian Song, Chao Liang, Enrong Yan, Xiao-Yong Chen, Xihua Wang, Minhuang Wang, Shahla Hosseini Bai, Xuhui Zhou & Richard Phillips
Mycorrhizal fungi play a central role in plant nutrition and nutrient cycling, yet our understanding on their effects on free-living microbes, soil carbon (C) decomposition and soil CO2 fluxes remains limited. Here we used trenches lined with mesh screens of varying sizes to isolate mycorrhizal hyphal effects on soil C dynamics in subtropical successional forests. We found that the presence of mycorrhizal hyphae suppressed soil CO2 fluxes by 17% in early-successional forests, but enhanced CO2...

The probability of being infected with haemosporidian parasites increases with host age

Samuel Slowinski, Aidan Geissler, Nicole Gerlach, Britt Heidinger & Ellen Ketterson
In vertebrates, disease susceptibility often varies with age. Older individuals may be more susceptible than younger individuals due to senescent declines in immune function. Alternatively, disease susceptibility may decrease with age if older individuals are more likely to have had prior exposures to parasites and acquired adaptive immune responses that allowed them to resist future infections. Disease susceptibility can also vary with reproductive state, and reproductive hormones have been shown to increase infection susceptibility. Here...

Ionic amplifying circuits inspired by electronics and biology

Zuzanna Siwy, Rachel Lucas, Lane Baker & Chih-Yuan Lin
Integrated circuits are present in all electronic devices, and enable signal amplification, modulation, and relay. Nature uses another type of circuits composed of channels in a cell membrane, which regulate and amplify transport of ions, not electrons and holes as is done in electronic systems. Here we show an abiotic ionic circuit that is inspired by concepts from electronics and biology. The circuit amplifies small ionic signals into ionic outputs, and its operation mimics the...

Data from: Causation without correlation: parasite-mediated frequency-dependent selection and infection prevalence

Curtis Lively, Frida Ben-Ami & Julie Xu
Parasite-mediated selection is thought to maintain genetic diversity for resistance in natural host populations. We might thus expect to find a strong positive correlation between host genetic diversity and infection prevalence across field populations. Here we used computer simulations to examine host-parasite coevolution in 20 simi-isolated populations, using a broad range of values for both parasite virulence and parasite fecundity. We found that the correlation between host genetic diversity and infection prevalence can be significantly...

Supporting information for: The frequency and topology of pseudoorthologs

Megan Smith & Matthew Hahn
Phylogenetics has long relied on the use of orthologs, or genes related through speciation events, to infer species relationships. However, identifying orthologs is difficult because gene duplication can obscure relationships among genes. Researchers have been particularly concerned with the insidious effects of pseudoorthologs—duplicated genes that are mistaken for orthologs because they are present in a single copy in each sampled species. Because gene tree topologies of pseudoorthologs may differ from the species tree topology, they...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    37

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    25
  • Data Paper
    7
  • Text
    4
  • Journal Article
    1

Affiliations

  • Indiana University
    37
  • University of Kentucky
    3
  • University of Florida
    2
  • Community Health Network
    2
  • Pennsylvania State University
    2
  • Bank of Canada
    2
  • North Dakota State University
    2
  • Michigan State University
    2
  • Saint Vincent Hospital
    1
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    1