The clustering of individuals that results from limited dispersal is a double-edged sword: while it allows for local interactions to be mostly among related individuals, it also results in increased local competition. Here I show that, because they mitigate local competition, fitness costs such as reduced fecundity or reduced survival are less costly in spatially structured environments than in non spatial settings. I first present a simple demographic example to illustrate how spatial structure weakens...
Speciation is not instantaneous but takes time. The protracted birth-death diversification model incorporates this fact and predicts the often observed slowdown of lineage accumulation towards the present. The mathematical complexity of the protracted speciation model has barred estimation of its parameters until recently a method to compute the likelihood of phylogenetic branching times under this model was outlined (Lambert et al. 2014). Here we implement this method and study using simulated phylogenies of extant species...
Data from: Prognostic value of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation during neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenationMarie Philippine Clair, Jérôme Rambaud, Adrien Flahault, Romain Guedj, Julia Guilbert, Isabelle Guellec, Amélie Durandy, Maryne Demoulin, Sandrine Jean, Delphine Mitanchez, François Chalard, Chiara Sileo, Ricardo Carbajal, Sylvain Renolleau & Pierre-Louis Léger
Objectives: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is indicated in severe and refractory respiratory or circulatory failures. Neurological complications are typically represented by acute ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions, which induce higher morbidity and mortality. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StcO2) on mortality in neonates and young infants treated with ECMO. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association between StcO2 and the occurrence of cerebral...
Evolutionary events co-occurring along phylogenetic trees usually point to complex adaptive phenomena, sometimes implicating epistasis. While a number of methods have been developed to account for co-occurrence of events on the same internal or external branch of an evolutionary tree, there is a need to account for the larger diversity of possible relative positions of events in a tree. Here we propose a method to quantify to what extent two or more evolutionary events are...
Among the factors that may reduce the predictability of evolution, chaos, characterized by a strong dependence on initial conditions, has received much less attention than randomness due to genetic drift or environmental stochasticity. It was recently shown that chaos in phenotypic evolution arises commonly under frequency-dependent selection caused by competitive interactions mediated by many traits. This result has been used to argue that chaos should often make evolutionary dynamics unpredictable. However, populations also evolve largely...
Data from: On the evolutionary interplay between dispersal and local adaptation in heterogeneous environmentsAndrew M. Berdahl, Colin J. Torney, Emmanuel Schertzer, Simon A. Levin & Andrew Berdahl
Dispersal, whether in the form of a dandelion seed drifting on the breeze, or a salmon migrating upstream to breed in a non-natal stream, transports genes between locations. At these locations, local adaptation modifies the gene frequencies so their carriers are better suited to particular conditions, be those of newly disturbed soil or a quiet river pool. Both dispersal and local adaptation are major drivers of population structure; however, in general, their respective roles are...
Data from: The effects of archipelago spatial structure on island diversity and endemism: predictions from a spatially-structured neutral modelFanny Gascuel, Fabien Laroche, Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun & Ana S. L. Rodrigues
Islands are particularly suited to testing hypotheses about the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms underpinning community assembly. Yet the complex spatial arrangements of real island systems have received little attention from both empirical studies and theoretical models. Here, we investigate the extent to which the spatial structure of archipelagos affects species diversity and endemism. We start by proposing a new spatially-structured neutral model that explicitly considers archipelago structure, and then investigate its predictions under a diversity...
Although the proportion of women in science, and in evolutionary biology in particular, has substantially increased over the last century, women remain underrepresented in academia, especially at senior levels. Moreover, their scientific achievements do not always receive the same level of recognition as do men’s, which can be reflected in a lower relative representation of women among invited speakers at conferences or specialized courses. Using announcements sent to the EvolDir mailing list between April 2016...
Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology8
French National Centre for Scientific Research4
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive2
University of Exeter2
Assistance Publique -Hopitaux De Paris1
University of Groningen1
University of Cambridge1
Santa Fe Institute1