289 Works

Data from: Demographic and spatiotemporal patterns of avian influenza infection at the continental scale, and in relation to annual life cycle of a migratory host

Rodolfo Nallar, Zsuzsanna Papp, Tasha Epp, Frederick A. Leighton, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Robert J. Dusek, Hon S. Ip, Jeffrey Hall, Johannes Berhane, Samantha E. J. Gibbs, Catherine Soos & Yohannes Berhane
Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE)...

Data from: The relationship between variable host grouping and functional responses among parasitoids of Antispila nysaefoliella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae)

Candace Low, Sonja J. Scheffer, Matthew L. Lewis & Michael W. Gates
Our study investigated the importance of variability in the parasitoid community as a source of selection on host group size using a field population of the tupelo leafminer, Antispila nysaefoliella Clemens, which specializes on tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Larvae were collected from leaves with variable numbers of larvae and screened for parasitism using polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I using markers designed specifically for amplifying parasitoid DNA while excluding host DNA. This method...

Data from: Climate drives adaptive genetic responses associated with survival in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

Lindsay Chaney, Bryce A. Richardson & Matthew J. Germino
A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common garden experiments were established at three sites with seedlings from 55 source-populations. Populations included each of the three predominant subspecies, and cytotype...

Data from: Genetic evidence for high propagule pressure and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) invasive populations

Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Jessica Eberhard, Timothy Wright, Michael Avery & Michael Russello
The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a successful invasive species that does not exhibit life history traits typically associated with colonizing species (e.g., high reproductive rate or long-distance dispersal capacity). To investigate this apparent paradox, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at one native and two invasive sites. More specifically, we aimed to evaluate the role of propagule pressure, sexual monogamy, and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet invasion success. Our results...

Data from: Genetic variation and differentiation of extant bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

Matthew A. Cronin, Michael D. MacNeil, Ninh Vu, Vicki Leesburg, Harvey D. Blackburn & James N. Derr
The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (B. b. athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from nine herds (N=136), wood bison from three herds (N=65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from fourteen breeds (N=244), and indicine cattle (B. t. indicus) from two breeds (N=53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate three groups, two of which...

Data from: Limited genetic evidence for host plant-related differentiation in the Western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Gilbert Saint Jean, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Hannes Schuler, Meredith M. Doellman, Mary M. Glover, James J. Smith, Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Howard M.A. Thistlewood, Sheri A. Maxwell, Nusha Keyghobadi, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
The shift of the fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in the mid-1800s from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis (Torrey & Asa Gray) Scheele, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), in the eastern USA is a model for ecological divergence with gene flow. A similar system may exist in the northwestern USA and British Columbia, Canada, where Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacks the native bitter cherry Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae). Populations of...

Collective Effect of Landfills and Landscape Composition on Bird-Aircraft Collisions

Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell & Travis L. DeVault
Ninety-three percent of all reported bird strikes occur below 1,067 m, which based on the typical approach and departure angles of aircraft is within 8–13 km of an airport. Concomitantly, the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization recommend that any feature that would attract hazardous wildlife to the approach and departure airspace be restricted. Thus, preventing the establishment of wildlife attractants, such as municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) within 8 km or...

Livestock Preference for Endophyte-Infected or Endophyte-Free Oxytropis sericea, Ipomoea carnea, and Ipomoea asarifolia

James Pfister, Daniel Cook, Stephen T. Lee, Dale R. Gardner & Franklin Riet-Correa
Fungal endophyte-infected forages have been shown to alter herbivore feeding preferences. The objective of this experiment was to compare the preference of cattle, sheep, and goats for plants containing (E+) and not containing (E-) fungal endophytes using freshly harvested Oxytropis sericea, Ipomoea carnea, and Ipomoea asarifolia. Goats and sheep rejected all forage choices regardless of endophyte status except for grass and alfalfa hay. Endophyte status had no influence on cattle forage preferences. Cattle rejected all...

Herbicide Control of Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae)

Clinton A. Stonecipher, Corey Ransom, Eric Thacker & Kevin D. Welch
Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae [Pursh] Britton & Rusby) is a native invasive species that is widely distributed across western North America. It is very competitive with other vegetation and can reduce or displace desirable grasses and forbs. Removal of snakeweed from rangelands can result in increased forage production of desirable plant species. The evaluation of new herbicides to determine their efficacy in controlling broom snakeweed assists in providing land managers with alternatives to control broom...

Data from: Effects of grasshoppers on prairies: herbivore composition matters more than richness in three grassland ecosystems

Angela N. Laws, Chelse M. Prather, David H. Branson & Steven C. Pennings
1. Understanding how biodiversity affects ecosystem processes is a key question in ecology. Previous research has found that increasing plant diversity often enhances many ecosystem processes, but less is known about the role of consumer diversity to ecosystem processes, especially in terrestrial ecosystems. Furthermore, we do not know how general biodiversity responses are among ecosystem types. 2. We examined the role of insect herbivore (Orthoptera) diversity on plant production using parallel field experiments in three...

Data from: Climate change, wildfire, and vegetation shifts in a high-inertia forest landscape: Western Washington, U.S.A.

Joshua S. Halofsky, David R. Conklin, Daniel C. Donato, Jessica E. Halofsky & John B. Kim
Future vegetation shifts under changing climate are uncertain for forests with infrequent stand-replacing disturbance regimes. These high-inertia forests may have long persistence even with climate change because disturbance-free periods can span centuries, broad-scale regeneration opportunities are fewer relative to frequent-fire systems, and mature tree species are long-lived with relatively high tolerance for sub-optimal growing conditions. Here, we used a combination of empirical and process-based modeling approaches to examine vegetation projections across high-inertia forests of Washington...

Data from: Accuracy of a prey-specific DNA assay and a generic prey-immunomarking assay for detecting predation

James R. Hagler, Felisa Blackmer & Dale W. Spurgeon
Predator gut examinations are useful for detecting arthropod predation events. The accuracy and reproducibility of two different gut assays are tested on various predator species that consumed Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), that was externally labelled with rabbit immunoglobulin (IgG). Each predator homogenate was examined in triplicate for prey remains by both a conventional PCR assay to detect for C. carnea DNA and a generic ELISA to detect for rabbit IgG marked prey. The ability of each...

Data from: A cross-continental comparison of plant and beetle responses to retention of forest patches during timber harvest

Susan C. Baker, Charles B. Halpern, Timothy J. Wardlaw, Christel Kern, Graham J. Edgar, Russell J. Thomson, Richard E. Bigley, Jerry F. Franklin, Kamal J.K. Gandhi, Lena Gustafsson, Samuel Johnson, Brian J. Palik, Thomas A. Spies, E. Ashley Steel, Jan Weslien, Joachim Strengbom & Kamal J. K. Gandhi
Timber harvest can adversely affect forest biota. Recent research and application suggest that retention of mature forest elements (‘retention forestry’), including unharvested patches (or ‘aggregates’) within larger harvested units, can benefit biodiversity compared to clearcutting. However, it is unclear whether these benefits can be generalized among the diverse taxa and biomes in which retention forestry is practiced. Lack of comparability in methods for sampling and analysing responses to timber harvest and edge creation presents a...

Data from: The tomato pan-genome uncovers new genes and a rare allele regulating fruit flavor

Lei Gao, Itay Gonda, Honghe Sun, Qiyue Ma, Kan Bao, Denise M. Tieman, Elizabeth A. Burzynski-Chang, Tara L. Fish, Kaitlin A. Stromberg, Gavin L. Sacks, Theodore W. Thannhauser, Majid R. Foolad, Maria Jose Diez, Joaquin Canizares, Yimin Xu, Esther Van Der Knaap, Sanwen Huang, Harry J. Klee, James J. Giovannoni & Zhangjun Fei
Modern tomatoes have narrow genetic diversity limiting their improvement potential. We present a tomato pan-genome constructed using genome sequences of 725 phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions, revealing 4,873 genes absent from the reference genome. Presence/absence variation analyses reveal substantial gene loss and intense negative selection of genes and promoters during tomato domestication and improvement. Lost or negatively selected genes are enriched for important traits, especially disease resistance. We identify a rare allele in TomLoxC promoter...

Data from: Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length

Walter D. Koenig & Andrew M. Liebhold
The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are an evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of above-ground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization, have been hypothesized to shape the evolution of this system, no empirical support for these mechanisms has previously been reported beyond the observation that bird predation can extirpate small, experimentally mistimed...

Data from: Ecosystem carbon density and allocation across a chronosequence of longleaf pine forests

Lisa J. Samuelson, Thomas A. Stokes, John R. Butnor, Kurt H. Johnsen, Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke, Timothy A. Martin, , Pete H. Anderson, Michael R. Ramirez, John C. Lewis & Wendell P. Cropper
Forests can partially offset greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to climate change mitigation, mainly through increases in live biomass. We quantified carbon (C) density in 20 managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests ranging in age from five to 118 years located across the southeastern USA and estimated above and belowground C trajectories. Ecosystem C stock (all pools including soil C) and aboveground live tree C increased nonlinearly with stand age and the modeled asymptotic...

Data from: Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

Colin K. Khoury, Harold A. Achicanoy, Anne D. Bjorkman, Carlos Navarro-Racines, Luigi Guarino, Ximena Flores-Palacios, Johannes M. M. Engels, John H. Wiersema, Hannes Dempewolf, Steven Sotelo, Julian Ramírez-Villegas, Nora P. Castañeda Álvarez, Cary Fowler, Andy Jarvis, Loren H. Rieseberg & Paul C. Struik
Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree...

Data from: Genetic structure, admixture, and invasion success in a Holarctic defoliator, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

Yunke Wu, John J. Molongoski, Deborah F. Winograd, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, Artemis S. Louyakis, David R. Lance, Victor C. Mastro & Richard G. Harrison
Characterizing the current population structure of potentially invasive species provides a critical context for identifying source populations and for understanding why invasions are successful. Non-native populations inevitably lose genetic diversity during initial colonization events, but subsequent admixture among independently introduced lineages may increase both genetic variation and adaptive potential. Here we characterize the population structure of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar Linnaeus), one of the world's most destructive forest pests. Native to Eurasia and recently...

Data from: Extreme site fidelity as an optimal strategy in an unpredictable and homogeneous environment

Brian D. Gerber, Mevin B. Hooten, Christopher P. Peck, Mindy B. Rice, James H. Gammonley, Anthony D. Apa & Amy J. Davis
1. Animal site fidelity structures space-use, population demography, and ultimately gene flow. Understanding the adaptive selection for site fidelity patterns provides a mechanistic understanding to both spatial and population processes. This can be achieved by linking space-use with environmental variability (spatial and temporal) and demographic parameters. However, rarely is the environmental context that drives the selection for site fidelity behavior fully considered. 2. We use ecological theory to understand whether the spatial and temporal variability...

Data from: Contrasting fine-root production, survival and soil CO2 efflux in pine and poplar plantations

M. D. Coleman, Richard E. Dickson & Jud G. Isebrands
Tree root activity, including fine-root production, turnover and metabolic activity are significant components of forest productivity and nutrient cycling. Differences in root activity among forest types are not well known. A 3-year study was undertaken in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and hybrid poplar (Populus tristis X P. balsamifera cv `Tristis no. 1') plantations to compare belowground root dynamics. We measured fine-root production, mortality and standing crop, as well as soil CO2 efflux. Pine fine-root...

Data from: Modeling and mapping the probability of occurrence of invasive wild pigs across the contiguous United States

Meredith L. McClure, Christopher L. Burdett, Matthew L. Farnsworth, Mark W. Lutman, David M. Theobald, Philip D. Riggs, Daniel A. Grear & Ryan S. Miller
Wild pigs (Sus scrofa), also known as wild swine, feral pigs, or feral hogs, are one of the most widespread and successful invasive species around the world. Wild pigs have been linked to extensive and costly agricultural damage and present a serious threat to plant and animal communities due to their rooting behavior and omnivorous diet. We modeled the current distribution of wild pigs in the United States to better understand the physiological and ecological...

Data from: Conservation and modification of genetic and physiological toolkits underpinning diapause in bumble bee queens

Etya Amsalem, David A. Galbraith, Jonathan Cnaani, Peter E. A. Teal & Christina M. Grozinger
Diapause is the key adaptation allowing insects to survive unfavorable conditions and inhabit an array of environments. Physiological changes during diapause are largely conserved across species, and are hypothesized to be regulated by a conserved suite of genes (a “toolkit”). Furthermore, it is hypothesized that in social insects, this toolkit was co-opted to mediate caste differentiation between long-lived, reproductive, diapause-capable queens and short-lived, sterile workers. Using Bombus terrestris queens we examined the physiological and transcriptomic...

Data from: Genetic mapping shows intraspecific variation and transgressive segregation for caterpillar-induced aphid resistance in maize

Vered Tzin, Penelope L. Lindsay, Shawn A. Christensen, Lisa N. Meihls, Levi B. Blue & Georg Jander
Plants in nature have inducible defenses that sometimes lead to targeted resistance against particular herbivores, but susceptibility to others. The metabolic diversity and genetic resources available for maize (Zea mays) make this a suitable system for a mechanistic study of within-species variation in such plant-mediated interactions between herbivores. Beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) and corn leaf aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) are two naturally occurring maize herbivores with different feeding habits. Whereas chewing herbivore-induced methylation of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside...

Data from: Genotyping-by-sequencing for Populus population genomics: an assessment of genome sampling patterns and filtering approaches

Martin P. Schilling, Paul G. Wolf, Aaron M. Duffy, Hardeep S. Rai, Carol A. Rowe, Bryce A. Richardson & Karen E. Mock
Continuing advances in nucleotide sequencing technology are inspiring a suite of genomic approaches in studies of natural populations. Researchers are faced with data management and analytical scales that are increasing by orders of magnitude. With such dramatic advances comes a need to understand biases and error rates, which can be propagated and magnified in large-scale data acquisition and processing. Here we assess genomic sampling biases and the effects of various population-level data filtering strategies in...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

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