49 Works

Collective Effect of Landfills and Landscape Composition on Bird-Aircraft Collisions

Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell & Travis L. DeVault
Ninety-three percent of all reported bird strikes occur below 1,067 m, which based on the typical approach and departure angles of aircraft is within 8–13 km of an airport. Concomitantly, the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization recommend that any feature that would attract hazardous wildlife to the approach and departure airspace be restricted. Thus, preventing the establishment of wildlife attractants, such as municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) within 8 km or...

Livestock Preference for Endophyte-Infected or Endophyte-Free Oxytropis sericea, Ipomoea carnea, and Ipomoea asarifolia

James Pfister, Daniel Cook, Stephen T. Lee, Dale R. Gardner & Franklin Riet-Correa
Fungal endophyte-infected forages have been shown to alter herbivore feeding preferences. The objective of this experiment was to compare the preference of cattle, sheep, and goats for plants containing (E+) and not containing (E-) fungal endophytes using freshly harvested Oxytropis sericea, Ipomoea carnea, and Ipomoea asarifolia. Goats and sheep rejected all forage choices regardless of endophyte status except for grass and alfalfa hay. Endophyte status had no influence on cattle forage preferences. Cattle rejected all...

Herbicide Control of Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae)

Clinton A. Stonecipher, Corey Ransom, Eric Thacker & Kevin D. Welch
Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae [Pursh] Britton & Rusby) is a native invasive species that is widely distributed across western North America. It is very competitive with other vegetation and can reduce or displace desirable grasses and forbs. Removal of snakeweed from rangelands can result in increased forage production of desirable plant species. The evaluation of new herbicides to determine their efficacy in controlling broom snakeweed assists in providing land managers with alternatives to control broom...

QTL mapping and marker development for tolerance to sulfur phytotoxicity in melon (Cucumis Melo)

Sandra Branham, James Daley, Amnon Levi, Richard Hassell & Patrick Wechter
Elemental sulfur is an effective, inexpensive fungicide for many foliar pathogens, but severe phytotoxicity prohibits its use on many melon varieties. Sulfur phytotoxicity causes chlorosis and necrosis of leaf tissue, leading to plant death in the most sensitive lines, while other varieties have little to no damage. A high-density, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)-based genetic map of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population segregating for sulfur tolerance was used for a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study of...

Data from: Mean annual temperature influences local fine root proliferation in tropical montane wet forest

Suzanne Pierre, Timothy J. Fahey, Creighton Litton, Christian Giardina & Jed Sparks
Mean annual temperature (MAT) is an influential climate factor affecting the bioavailability of growth-limiting nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In tropical montane wet forests, warmer MAT drives higher N bioavailability, while patterns of P availability are inconsistent across MAT. Two important nutrient acquisition strategies, fine root proliferation into bulk soil and root association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are dependent on C availability to the plant via primary production. The case study presented here tests...

Sequenced-based paternity analysis to improve breeding and identify self-incompatibility loci in intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)

Jared Crain, Steve Larson, Kevin Dorn, Traci Hagedorn, Lee DeHaan & Jesse Poland
In outcrossing species such as intermediate wheatgrass (IWG, Thinopyrum intermedium), polycrossing is often used to generate novel recombinants through each cycle of selection, but it cannot track pollen-parent pedigrees and it is unknown how self-incompatibility (SI) genes may limit the number of unique crosses obtained. This study investigated the potential of using next-generation sequencing to assign paternity and identify putative SI loci in IWG. Using a reference population of 380 individuals made from controlled crosses...

Individual and population fitness consequences associated with large carnivore use of residential development

Heather Johnson, David L. Lewis, Stewart Breck, Heather E. Johnson & Stewart W. Breck
Large carnivores are negotiating increasingly developed landscapes, but little is known about how such behavioral plasticity influences their demographic rates and population trends. Some investigators have suggested that the ability of carnivores to behaviorally adapt to human development will enable their persistence, and yet, others have suggested that such landscapes are likely to serve as population sinks or ecological traps. To understand how plasticity in black bear (Ursus americanus) use of residential development influences their...

VCF file of multiple single-cyst-derived Ro1 and Ro2 lines of New York fields on Globodera rostochiensis genome

Xiaohong Wang, Huijun Yang, Pierre-Yves Véronneau, David Thurston & Benjamin Mimee
The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is a regulated pest posing a serious threat to potato production worldwide. Although the endemic pathotype (Ro1) of G. rostochiensis has been confined to New York State for several decades as a result of quarantine regulations and management with resistant potato cultivars, a virulent pathotype, Ro2, has emerged, for which control measures are scarce. The ability to detect Ro2 early in fields is necessary to sustain the success of...

Unraveling the complex hybrid ancestry and domestication history of cultivated strawberry

Michael Hardigan, Anne Lorant, Dominique Pincot, Mitchell Feldmann, Randi Famula, Charlotte Acharya, Seonghee Lee, Sujeet Verma, Vance Whitaker, Nahla Bassil, Jason Zurn, Glenn Cole, Kevin Bird, Patrick Edger & Steven Knapp
Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of our youngest domesticates, originating in early eighteenth-century Europe from spontaneous hybrids between wild allo-octoploid species (F. chiloensis and F. virginiana). The improvement of horticultural traits by 300 years of breeding has enabled the global expansion of strawberry production. Here, we describe the genomic history of strawberry domestication from the earliest hybrids to modern cultivars. We observed a significant increase in heterozygosity among interspecific hybrids and a decrease...

Comprehensive phylogenomic analyses re-write the evolution of parasitism within cynipoid wasps

Bonnie B Blaimer, Dietrich Gotzek, Seán G Brady & Matthew L Buffington
Background Parasitoidism, a specialized life strategy in which a parasite eventually kills its host, is frequently found within the insect order Hymenoptera (wasps, ants and bees). A parasitoid lifestyle is one of two dominant life strategies within the hymenopteran superfamily Cynipoidea, with the other being an unusual plant-feeding behavior known as galling. Less commonly cynipoid wasps exhibit inquilinism, a strategy where some species have adapted to usurp other species’ galls instead of inducing their own....

Influence of voltine ecotype and geographic distance on genetic and haplotype variation in the Asian corn borer

Brad Coates & Yangzhou Wang
Diapause is an adaptive dormancy strategy by which arthropods endure extended periods of adverse climatic conditions. Seasonal variation in larval diapause initiation and duration in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, influences adult mating generation number (voltinism) across local environmental conditions. Degree of mating period overlap between sympatric voltinism ecotypes influence hybridization level, but impact on O. furnacalis population genetic structure and evolution of divergent adaptive phenotypes remains uncertain. Genetic differentiation was estimated between voltinism...

The Changing Face of the Wildlife Profession: Tools for Creating Women Leaders

Wendy S. Anderson
Women continue to be underrepresented in the natural resource sciences arena, including the field of wildlife biology. The gender gap widens further with advancement to higher level positions. This paper explores potential reasons behind the lack of women in leadership and the array of challenges that women may face in their career paths. A variety of tools are proposed to support and encourage career advancement for women. Studies show that organizations with higher numbers of...

Talking Trash in the Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near the North Shore Marine Transfer Station

Stephan J. Beffre & Brian E. Washburn
Anthropogenic activities that concentrate wildlife near airports increases the risk of wildlife–aircraft collisions. Placing waste management facilities, natural areas, golf courses, and other landscape features near airports have the potential to attract wildlife hazardous to aviation. We conducted a 3-year study (March 2013–February 2016) to determine if the implementation of a Wildlife Hazard Mitigation Program (WHMP) would influence the bird use of a waste transfer station located near LaGuardia Airport, New York City, New York,...

Use of Roadside Deer Removal to Reduce Deer–Vehicle Collisions

John C. Kilgo, John I. Blake, Tracy E. Grazia, Andy Horcher, Michael Larsen, Thomas Mims & Stanley J. Zarnoch
Identification of management tools to reduce the incidence of deer–vehicle collisions (DVCs) is important to improve motorist safety. Sharpshooting to reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; deer) along roads has proven successful in urban situations but has not been evaluated in undeveloped areas. We used a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design to evaluate the use of sharpshooting to reduce DVCs along roads on the uninhabited U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, during 2011–2017. We...

Species complex diversification by host plant use in an herbivorous insect: The source of Puerto Rican cactus mealybug pest and implications for biological control

Daniel Poveda-Martínez, María Aguirre, Guillermo Logarzo, Stephen D. Hight, Serguei Triapitsyn, Hilda Diaz-Soltero, Marcelo Vitorino & Esteban Hasson
Cryptic taxa have often been observed in the form of host‐associated species that diverged as the result of adaptation to alternate host plants. Untangling cryptic diversity in species complexes that encompass invasive species is a mandatory task for pest management. Moreover, investigating the evolutionary history of a species complex may help to understand the drivers of their diversification. The mealybug Hypogeococcus pungens was believed to be a polyphagous species from South America and has been...

Data from: Species-specific variation in germination rates contributes to spatial coexistence more than adult plant water use in four closely-related annual flowering plants

Aubrie James, Timothy Burnette, Jasmine Mack, David James, Vince Eckhart & Monica Geber
1. Spatial partitioning is a classic hypothesis to explain plant species coexistence, but evidence linking local environmental variation to spatial sorting, demography, and species’ traits is sparse. If co-occurring species’ performance is optimized differently along environmental gradients because of trait variation, then spatial variation might facilitate coexistence. 2. We used a system of four naturally co-occurring species of Clarkia (Onagraceae) to ask if distribution patchiness corresponds to variation in two environmental variables that contribute to...

Genomic regions influencing aggressive behavior in honey bees are defined by colony allele frequencies

Arián Avalos, Miaoquan Fang, Hailin Pan, Aixa Ramirez Lluch, Alexander E. Lipka, Sihai Dave Zhao, Tugrul Giray, Gene E. Robinson, Guojie Zhang & Matthew E. Hudson
For social animals, the genotypes of group members affect the social environment, and thus individual behavior, often indirectly. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to determine the influence of individual vs. group genotypes on aggression in honey bees. Aggression in honey bees arises from the coordinated actions of colony members, primarily nonreproductive “soldier” bees, and thus, experiences evolutionary selection at the colony level. Here, we show that individual behavior is influenced by colony environment, which...

Relative reproductive phenology and synchrony affect neonate survival in a nonprecocial ungulate

Eric Michel, Bronson Strickland, Stephen Demarais, Jerrold Belant, Todd Kautz, Jared Duquette, Dean Beyer, Michael Chamberlain, Karl Miller, Rebecca Shuman, John Kilgo, Duane Diefenbach, Bret Wallingford, Justin Vreeland, Steve Ditchkoff, Christopher DePerno, Christopher Moorman, Michael Chitwood & Marcus Lashley
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecocial (i.e., altricial) young, especially those exposed to generalist predators, should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis). The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America...

Globally, plant-soil feedbacks are weak predictors of plant abundance

Kurt Reinhart, Jonathan Bauer, Sarah McCarthy-Neumann, Andrew MacDougall, José Hierro, Mariana Chiuffo, Scott Mangan, Johannes Heinze, Joana Bergmann, Jasmin Joshi, Richard Duncan, Jeff Diaz, Paul Kardol, Gemma Rutten, Markus Fischer, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Bezemer & John Klironomos
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here, we synthesize PSF experiments from tropical forests to semiarid grasslands, and test for a positive relationship between plant abundance in the field and PSFs...

Recent bark beetle outbreaks influence wildfire severity in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA

Rebecca Wayman & Hugh Safford
In temperate forests, elevated frequency of drought related disturbances will likely increase the incidence of interactions between disturbances such as bark beetle epidemics and wildfires. Our understanding of the influence of recent drought and insect-induced tree mortality on wildfire severity has largely lacked information from forests adapted to frequent fire. A recent unprecedented tree mortality event in California’s Sierra Nevada provides an opportunity to examine this disturbance interaction in historically frequent-fire forests. Using field data...

Molecular Differentiation of Astragalus Species and Varieties from the Western United States: The Chloroplast DNA Bridge Between Evolution and Molecular Systematics

Marwa Neyaz, Daniel Cook & Rebecca Creamer
Locoweeds are the most widespread poisonous plant problem in the world and have been reported in the Western United States since the 1800s, causing tremendous losses in livestock. Consumption of locoweeds by grazing animals stimulates the neurological disease, locoism, characterized by weight loss, ataxia, and lack of muscular coordination. The name locoweed is used for Astragalus and Oxytropis species known to contain swainsonine, the toxic principle produced by the plant endophytic fungus Undifilum. Astragalus includes...

The Comparative Cytotoxicity of Riddelliine in Primary Mouse, Rat and Chick Hepatocytes

Bryan L. Stegelmeier, William S. Resager & Steven M. Colegate
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) producing plants commonly poison livestock, wildlife and humans. Poisoning occurs when DHPAs are ingested as feed or food, or when they contaminate medicinal or herbal products. Direct toxicologic comparison of individual DHPAs is essential to estimate their actual health risks. This has been problematic due to varying models and difficulties in DHPA isolation or synthesis. In contrast, the macrocyclic DHPA riddelliine is readily isolated and it has been used as a benchmark...

Lower soil carbon stocks in exotic vs. native grasslands are driven by carbonate losses

Brian J. Wilsey, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten Hofmockel & Steven J. Hall
Global change includes invasion by exotic (non-native) plant species and altered precipitation patterns, and these factors may affect terrestrial carbon (C) storage. We measured soil C changes in experimental mixtures of all exotic or all native grassland plant species under two levels of summer drought stress (0 and +128 mm). After eight years, soils were sampled in 10 cm increments to 100 cm depth to determine if soil C differed among treatments in deeper soils....

Data from: Dominant bee species and floral abundance drive parasite temporal dynamics in plant-pollinator communities

Peter Graystock, Wee Hao Ng, Kyle Parks, Amber D. Tripodi, Paige A. Muñiz, Ashley A. Fersch, Christopher R. Myers, Quinn S. McFrederick & Scott H. McArt
Pollinator declines can leave communities less diverse and potentially at increased risk to infectious diseases. Species-rich plant and bee communities have high species turnover, making the study of disease dynamics challenging. To address how temporal dynamics shape parasite prevalence in plant and bee communities, we screened >5,000 bees and flowers through an entire growing season for five common bee microparasites (Nosema ceranae, N. bombi, Crithidia bombi, C. expoeki and neogregarines). Over 110 bee species and...

Tracking invasions of a destructive defoliator, the gypsy moth (Erebidae: Lymantria dispar): population structure, origin of intercepted specimens, and Asian introgression into North America

Yunke Wu, Steven Bogdanowicz, Jose Andres, Kendra Vieira, Baode Wang, Allard Cossé & Scott Pfister
Genetic data can help elucidate the dynamics of biological invasions, which are fueled by the constant expansion of international trade. The introduction of European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) into North America is a classic example of human-aided invasion that has caused tremendous damage to North American temperate forests. Recently, the even more destructive Asian gypsy moth (mainly L. d. asiatica and L. d. japonica) has been intercepted in North America, mostly transported by cargo...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Florida
  • Cornell University
  • University of Montana
  • University of Hawaii at Manoa
  • University of Georgia
  • Oregon State University
  • Agricultural Research Service
  • United States Geological Survey
  • University of California, Riverside