64 Works

Review of Energy Policy 2020

Robert Gross, Keith Bell, Mike Bradshaw, Christian Brand, Jason Chilvers, Paul Dodds, Antony Froggatt, Richard Hanna, Tom Hargreaves, Phil Heptonstall, Caroline Kuzemko, Richard Lowes, Faye Wade & Jan Webb

Comments on the European Data Protection Board’s Guidelines 07/2020 on the concepts of controller and processor in the GDPR

Derek McAuley, Lilian Edwards, Lachlan Urquhart & Jiahong Chen

El oppidum de Monte Bernorio (Palencia) : resultados de las campañas arqueológicas

Jesús F Torres Martínez & Manuel Fernández-Götz
Madrider Mitteilungen, 57 (2016)

Predicting tropical tree mortality with leaf spectroscopy

Chris Doughty, Alexander Cheesman, Terhi Ruitta & Andrew Nottingham
Do tropical trees close to death have a distinct change to their leaf spectral signature? Tree mortality rates have been increasing in tropical forests globally, reducing the global carbon sink. Upcoming hyperspectral satellites could be used to predict regions close to experiencing extensive tree mortality during periods of stress, such as drought. Here we show, for a tropical rainforest in Borneo, how imminent tropical tree mortality impacts leaf physiological traits and reflectance. We measured leaf...

Phylogenomics and species delimitation for effective conservation of manta and devil rays

Emily Humble, Jane Hosegood, Rob Ogden, Mark De Bruyn, Simon Creer, Guy Stevens, Mohammed Abudaya, Kim Bassos-Hull, Ramon Bonfil, Daniel Fernando, Andrew Foote, Helen Hipperson, Rima Jabado, Jenny Kaden, Muhammad Moazzam, Lauren Peel, Stephen Pollett, Alessandro Ponzo, Marloes Poortvliet, Jehad Salah, Helen Senn, Joshua Stewart, Sabine Wintner & Gary Carvalho
Practical biodiversity conservation relies on delineation of biologically meaningful units. Manta and devil rays (Mobulidae) are threatened worldwide, yet morphological similarities and a succession of recent taxonomic changes impede the development of an effective conservation strategy. Here, we generate genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from a geographically and taxonomically representative set of manta and devil ray samples to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and evaluate species boundaries under the general lineage concept. We show that nominal...

Complex effects of helper relatedness on female extra-pair reproduction in a cooperative breeder

Gabriela Karolina Hajduk, Andrew Cockburn, Helen Osmond & Loeske Kruuk
In cooperatively-breeding species, the presence of male helpers in a group often reduces the breeding female’s fidelity to her social partner, possibly because there is more than one potential sire in the group. Using a long-term study of cooperatively-breeding superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) and records of paternity in 1936 broods, we show that the effect of helpers on rates of extra-pair paternity varied according to the helpers’ relatedness to the breeding female. The presence of...

Technology-enabled professional learning in remote rural minority language classrooms

Rachel Shanks, Christina Walker & Do Coyle

Allometric modelling of plant biomass from drone-acquired photographs: drone images, ground control marker coordinates and biomass data from 36 sites, 2016-2020

A. Cunliffe, K. Anderson, F. Boschetti, H. Graham, R. Brazier, I. Myers-Smith, T. Astor, M. Boer, L. Calvo, P. Clark, M. Cramer, M. Encinas-Lara, S. Escarzaga, J. Fernández-Guisuraga, A. Fisher, K. Gdulová, B. Gillespie, A. Griebel, N. Hanan, M. Hanggito, S. Haselberger, C. Havrilla, W. Ji, J. Karl, M. Kirchhoff … & R. Wojcikiewicz
This dataset contains RGB photographs acquired from drone surveys. There are 741 harvest plots from 38 surveys at 36 sites around the world. Each site was approximately 1 ha in area. Included with the photographic images are the coordinates of ground control markers, biomass, taxonomic and location data for harvest plots and ancillary metadata. The observations can be used to obtain allometric size-biomass models. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award...

Increased allocation to reproduction reduces future competitive ability in a burying beetle

Jon Richardson, Josh Stephens & Per Smiseth
1. The existence of a trade-off between current and future reproduction is a fundamental prediction of life-history theory. Support for this prediction comes from brood size manipulations, showing that caring for enlarged broods often reduces the parent’s future survival or fecundity. However, in many species, individuals must invest in competing for the resources required for future reproduction. Thus, a neglected aspect of this trade-off is that increased allocation to current reproduction may reduce an individual’s...

Linking community assembly and structure across scales in a wild mouse parasite community

Evelyn Rynkiewicz
Understanding what processes drive community structure is fundamental to ecology. Many wild animals are simultaneously infected by multiple parasite species, so host parasite communities can be valuable tools for investigating connections between community structures at multiple scales, as each host can be considered a replicate parasite community. Like free-living communities, within-host parasite communities are hierarchical; ecological interactions between hosts and parasites can occur at multiple scales (e.g. host community, host population, parasite community within the...

Data from: Nasopharyngeal microbiome profiles in rural Venezuelan children are associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections

Lilly M. Verhagen, Ismar A. Rivera-Olivero, Melanie Clerc, Mei Ling N. Chu, Jody Van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Maartje I. Kristensen, Guy A. M. Berbers, Peter W. M. Hermans, Marien I. De Jonge, Jacobus H. De Waard & Debby Bogaert
Background: Recent research suggests that the microbiota affects susceptibility to both respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and gastrointestinal infections (GIIs). In order to optimize global treatment options, it is important to characterize microbiota profiles across different niches and geographic/socioeconomic areas where RTI and GII prevalences are high. Methods: We performed 16S sequencing of nasopharyngeal swabs from 209 Venezuelan Amerindian children aged 6 weeks–59 months who were participating in a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) study. Using...

Data from: Presynaptic GABAB receptors functionally uncouple somatostatin interneurons from the active hippocampal network

Sam A. Booker, Harumi Harada, Claudio Elguate, Julia Bank, Bartos Marlene, Akos Kulik & Imre Vida
Information processing in cortical neuronal networks relies on properly balanced excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. A ubiquitous motif for maintaining this balance is the somatostatin interneuron (SOM-IN) feedback microcircuit. Here, we investigate the modulation of this microcircuit by presynaptic GABAB receptors (GABABRs) in the rat hippocampus. Whole-cell recordings from SOM-INs reveal that both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs are strongly inhibited by GABABRs, while optogenetic activation of the interneurons shows that their inhibitory output is also...

Data and code for: Stochastic bacterial population dynamics restrict the establishment of antibiotic resistance from single cells

Helen K. Alexander & R. Craig MacLean
This dataset contains experimental data and custom R code for likelihood-based model-fitting associated with the manuscript "Stochastic bacterial population dynamics restrict the establishment of antibiotic resistance from single cells". In particular, we estimate the per-cell establishment probability (i.e. probability that a single cell gives rise to a large population) of a resistant strain, in the presence of antibiotics at concentrations below its standard minimum inhibitory concentration. The experiments are conducted here with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while...

Resource allocation is determined by both parents and offspring in a burying beetle

Mäenpää Maarit & Per Smiseth
Parents and offspring have different optima for the level of parental resource allocation and the timing of nutritional independence. Theoretical models assume that either parents or offspring control the allocation of resources within a brood; however, control may also be mutual. Here we investigate whether the resolution of parent-offspring conflict is biased towards cues from either the parents' or the offspring's behaviour, or whether the conflict is under mutual control. Importantly, we considered potential shifts...

Reproductive character displacement and potential underlying drivers in a species-rich and florally diverse lineage of tropical angiosperms (Ruellia; Acanthaceae)

Erin Tripp, Kyle G. Dexter & Heather Stone
Reproductive character displacement is a pattern whereby sympatric lineages diverge more in reproductive character morphology than allopatric lineages. This pattern has been observed in many plant species, but comparably few have sought to disentangle underlying mechanisms. Here, in a diverse lineage of Neotropical plants (Ruellia; Acanthaceae), we present evidence of reproductive character displacement in a macroevolutionary framework (i.e., among species) and document mechanistic underpinnings. In a series of inter-specific hand pollinations in a controlled glasshouse...

Data from: The global distribution of grass functional traits within grassy biomes

Emma Jardine, Colin Osborne, Gavin Thomas, Caroline Lehmann & Elisabeth Forrestel
Aim: The sorting of functional traits along environmental gradients is an important driver of community and landscape scale patterns of functional diversity. However, the significance of environmental factors in driving functional gradients within biomes and across continents remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the relationship of soil nutrients and climate to leaf traits in grasses (Poaceae) that are hypothesised to reflect different strategies of resource-use along gradients of resource availability. Location: Global Taxon: Poaceae Methods:...

A new two-fingered dinosaur sheds light on the radiation of Oviraptorosauria

Gregory Funston, Tsogtbaatar Chinzorig, Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Corwin Sullivan & Philip Currie
Late Cretaceous trends in Asian dinosaur diversity are poorly understood, but recent discoveries have documented a radiation of oviraptorosaur theropods in China and Mongolia. However, little work has addressed the factors that facilitated this diversification. A new oviraptorid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia sheds light on the evolution of the forelimb, which appears to have played a role in the radiation of oviraptorosaurs. Surprisingly, the reduced arm has only two functional digits, highlighting a...

Fitness costs of parasites explain multiple life history tradeoffs in a wild mammal

Gregory Albery, Alison Morris, Sean Morris, Fiona Kenyon, Daniel H Nussey & Josephine M Pemberton
Reproduction in wild animals can divert limited resources away from immune defence, resulting in increased parasite burdens. A longstanding prediction of life history theory states that these parasites can harm the individual, reducing the organism’s subsequent fitness and producing reproduction-fitness tradeoffs. Here, we examined associations among reproductive allocation, immunity, parasitism, and subsequent fitness in a wild population of individually identified red deer ( Cervus elaphus ). Using path analysis, we investigated whether costs of lactation...

The search for sexually antagonistic genes: practical insights from studies of local adaptation and statistical genomics

Filip Ruzicka, Ludovic Dutoit, Peter Czuppon, Crispin Y. Jordan, Xiang‐Yi Li, Colin Olito, Homa Papoli Yazdi, Tim Connallon, Erik Svensson & Anna Runemark
Sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation—in which alleles favored in one sex are disfavored in the other—is predicted to be common and has been documented in several animal and plant populations, yet we currently know little about its pervasiveness among species or its population genetic basis. Recent applications of genomics in studies of SA genetic variation have highlighted considerable methodological challenges to the identification and characterization of SA genes, raising questions about the feasibility of genomic...

Data from: Study of regional differences in GC content values in chromosomes of the guppy and related fish species

Deborah Charlesworth
Genetic and physical mapping of the guppy (P. reticulata) have shown that recombination patterns differ greatly between males and females. Crossover events occur evenly across the chromosomes in females, but in male meiosis they are restricted to the tip furthest from the centromere of each chromosome, creating very high recombination rates per megabase, similar to the high rates in of pseudo-autosomal regions (PARs) of mammalian sex chromosomes. We here used the intronic GC content to...

Data from: VolcanoFinder: genomic scans for adaptive introgression

Derek Setter, Sylvain Mousset, Xiaoheng Cheng, Rasmus Nielsen, Michael DeGiorgio & Joachim Hermisson
Recent research shows that introgression between closely-related species is an important source of adaptive alleles for a wide range of taxa. Typically, detection of adaptive introgression from genomic data relies on comparative analyses that require sequence data from both the recipient and the donor species. However, in many cases, the donor is unknown or the data is not currently available. Here, we introduce a genome-scan method---VolcanoFinder---to detect recent events of adaptive introgression using polymorphism data...

Data from: Low coverage genomic data resolve the population divergence and gene flow history of an Australian rain forest fig wasp

Graham Stone, Lisa Cooper, Lynsey Bunnefeld, Jack Hearn, James Cook & Konrad Lohse
Population divergence and gene flow are key processes in evolution and ecology. Model-based analysis of genome-wide datasets allows discrimination between alternative scenarios for these processes even in non-model taxa. We used two complementary approaches (one based on the blockwise site frequency spectrum (bSFS), the second on the Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent (PSMC)) to infer the divergence history of a fig wasp, Pleistodontes nigriventris. Pleistodontes nigriventris and its fig tree mutualist Ficus watkinsiana are restricted to...

Data from: The genetic architecture of maternal effects across ontogeny in the red deer

Julie Gauzere, Craig A. Walling, Josephine M. Pemberton, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Sean Morris & Alison Morris
Maternal effects, either environmental or genetic in origin, are an underappreciated source of phenotypic variance in natural populations. Maternal genetic effects have the potential to constrain or enhance the evolution of offspring traits depending on their magnitude and their genetic correlation with direct genetic effects. We estimated the maternal effect variance and its genetic component for twelve traits expressed over the life-history in a pedigreed population of wild red deer (morphology, survival/longevity, breeding success). We...

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  • 2020

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  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Leeds
  • Princeton University
  • University of Glasgow
  • Lund University
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Australian National University
  • University of Nottingham