23 Works

Increasing abundance of an invasive C4 grass is associated with larger community changes away than at home

Alida Anna Hábenczyus, Csaba Tölgyesi, Róbert Pál, András Kelemen, Eszter Aradi, Zoltán Bátori, Judit Sonkoly, Edina Tóth, Nóra Balogh & Péter Török
Aim: We evaluated the stands of the invasive grass, Sporobolus cryptandrus in its native North American and non-native European range, where it is a recent invader. Our aim was to reveal how the species’ increasing abundance affects functional diversity and ecosystem service provisioning capacities of plant communities in both ranges. Location: Sand grasslands in the Kiskunság, Hungary, and in Montana, USA. Methods: All vascular plant species and their relative abundances were recorded in a stratified...

Post-restoration grassland management overrides the effects of restoration methods in propagule-rich landscapes

Csaba Tölgyesi, Csaba Vadász, Róbert Kun, András Csathó, Zoltán Bátori, Alida Hábenczyus, László Erdős & Péter Török
Grassland restoration is gaining momentum worldwide to tackle the loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Restoration methods and their effects on ecological community reassembly have been extensively studied across various grassland types, while the importance of post-restoration management has so far received less attention. Grassland management is an important surrogate for natural disturbances, which most ancient grasslands have co-evolved with. Thus, without the reintroduction of management-related disturbance, restoration targets are unlikely to be achieved...

Impact of shrub cover and wild ungulate browsing on the vegetation of restored mountain hay meadows

Gergely Pápay, Orsolya Kiss, Ádám Fehér, Gábor Szabó, Zita Zimmermann, Levente Hufnagel, Eszter S. Falusi, Ildikó Járdi, Dénes Saláta, László Szemethy, Károly Penksza & Krisztián Katona
Grasslands of middle mountain regions are among the most diverse habitats of the Carpathian Basin, but they are threatened by spontaneous succession leading to woody encroachment. It is a high priority of nature conservation to preserve these diverse habitats by suppressing the woody encroachment and to create new open habitat patches by scrub removal. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of shrub cover on plant species composition and vegetation in...

Medical students' quarter-life crisis

Csaba Hamvai, Dániel Baricz, Dávid Pócs & Oguz Kelemen
Objectives: This was the first study that explored factors associated with medical students’ quarter-life crisis, the anxiety young might experience at the end of their studies and in the beginning of their career. Methods: 351 medical students (74.6% female, M: 23.79 years, SD: 1.53 years) filled the online questionnaire, that contained Quarter-life Crisis Questionnaire, International Personality Item Pool version of Big Five markers, and questions about different aspects of medical school. Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U...

Protective behaviour or ‘true’ tool use? Scrutinizing the tool use behaviour of ants

Gábor Módra
In the genus Aphaenogaster, workers use tools to transport liquid food to the colony. During this behaviour, ants place or drop various kinds of debris into liquid or soft food and then they carry the food-soaked tools back to the nest. According to some authors, this behaviour is not ‘true’ tool use because it represents two separate processes: a defence response to cover the dangerous liquid and the transport of food. Here, we investigated the...

Data from: Utilizing descriptive statements from the Biodiversity Heritage Library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology

Katja C. Seltmann, Zsolt Pénzes, Matthew J. Yoder, Matthew A. Bertone & Andrew R. Deans
Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed...

Comparison of foraging tool use in two species of myrmicine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Gábor Lőrinczi, Gábor Módra, István Maák & Ádám Lőrincz
The tool-using behavior of Aphaenogaster species has been well studied in the past few years, however, our knowledge of other myrmicine ants is rather limited. The aim of the present study was to compare the tool-using behavior of two closely related myrmicine ants with different feeding behaviors: Aphaenogaster subterranea, an omnivorous species, and Messor structor, a mainly granivorous species, which is also known to use tools when feeding on liquids. We tested the hypothesis that...

Data from: Random noise can help to improve synchronisation of excimer laser pulses

Robert Mingesz, Angéla Barna, Zoltan Gingl & Janos Mellar
Recently, we have reported on a compact microcontroller-based unit developed to accurately synchronize excimer laser pulses (Mingesz et al. 2012 Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240007 (doi:10.1142/S021947751240007X)). We have shown that dithering based on random jitter noise plus pseudorandom numbers can be used in the digital control system to radically reduce the long-term drift of the laser pulse from the trigger and to improve the accuracy of the synchronization. In this update paper, we present our...

Revisiting the quantity theory of money in Euro Area: the case of Greece

Serdar Ongan, Ismet Gocer & Ayse Ongan
This study revisits the Quantity Theory of Money for Greece from the perspective of potentially nonlinear relations between the variables of the equation of exchange. Therefore, this methodological approach makes this study different from previous empirical studies, which were constructed on the assumption of linear relations in this equation. To this aim, for the first time, the nonlinear ARDL model is applied for testing the QTM for a specific country. This model decomposes the variables...

Data from: Which tools to use? choice optimization in the tool-using ant, Aphaenogaster subterranea

Gábor Lőrinczi, Gábor Módra, Orsolya Juhász & István Maák
When encountering liquid food sources, ants of the genus Aphaenogaster drop various materials as tools into the food, and then carry the food-soaked tools back to the nest. Although this is one of the most well-documented examples of tool use in insects, we know little about which factors influence their choice of tools during foraging. Here, we investigated the tool-using behavior of Aphaenogaster subterranea by examining, across a range of settings, how tool-using workers deal...

Pauses and disfluencies in speech of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Judit Bóna, Veronika Svindt & Ildikó Hoffmann

Data from: White matter alterations in Parkinson's disease with normal cognition precede grey matter atrophy

Ivan Rektor, Alena Svátková, Lubomir Vojtísek, Iva Zikmundova, Jirí Vanicek, András Király & Nikoletta Szabó
Introduction: While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment. Methods: Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC) were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language...

Data from: Correlation of neurochemical and imaging markers in migraine PACAP38 and DTI measures

Dániel Veréb, Nikoletta Szabó, Bernadett Tuka, János Tajti, András Király, Péter Faragó, Krisztián Kocsis, Eszter Tóth, Bálint Kincses, Teréz Bagoly, Zsuzsanna Helyes, László Vécsei & Zsigmond Tamás Kincses
Objective: This exploratory study examines whether interictal plasma pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 38-like immunoreactivity shows correlation with the microstructural integrity of the white matter in migraine. Methods: Interictal plasma pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 38-like immunoreactivity was measured by radioimmunoassay in 26 migraine patients (24 females) who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) afterwards using a 1.5T MR scanner. Data were analysed using Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) included in FMRIB’s Software Library (FSL). Results: Interictal plasma pituitary...

Turning old foes into new allies – harnessing drainage canals for biodiversity conservation in a desiccated European lowland region

Csaba Tölgyesi, Attila Torma, Zoltán Bátori, Jelena Seat, Milos Popovic, Róbert Gallé, Nikolett Gallé-Szpisjak, László Erdős, Tamás Vinkó, András Kelemen & Péter Török
1. Drainage canals are widespread components of agricultural landscapes. Although canals have greatly contributed to biodiversity loss by desiccating wetlands, they have recently attracted conservation attention due to their potential to function as refugia for native species in intensively managed landscapes. However, their conservation role in complex landscapes composed of agricultural fields and desiccated but otherwise untransformed, semi-natural habitats, on which canals still pose a heavy burden, is unknown. Improved understanding of drainage canals and...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: Enhanced virus filtration in hybrid membranes with MWCNT nanocomposite

Zoltan Nemeth, Gergo Peter Szekeres, Mateusz Schabikowski, Krisztina Schrantz, Jacqueline Traber, Wouter Pronk, Klara Hernadi & Thomas Graule
Membrane separation is proved to be a powerful tool for several applications such as wastewater treatment or the elimination of various microorganisms from drinking water. In this study, the efficiency of inorganic composite based multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid membranes was investigated in the removal of MS2 bacteriophages from contaminated water. With this object multi-walled carbon nanotubes were coated with copper(I) oxide, titanium(IV) oxide and iron(III) oxide nanoparticles, respectively, and their virus removal capability was tested...

Covid-19, libertés numériques et transparence

Tayfun Tümtürk
Le virus Sars-COV-2 a contaminé plusieurs millions de personnes à travers le monde. Pour lutter contre cette pandémie, une majorité d’États a adopté des mesures extraordinaires, notamment en confinant leurs populations. Le traçage des chaînes de contamination s’est également imposé comme un outil indispensable. Dans certains pays, le traçage humain a été assisté par des applications pour téléphones portables ou par des objets connectés. Ce rapport présente une analyse réalisée dans le courant de l’été...

Data from: Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

Amanda Juan Chen, Vit Hubka, Jens C. Frisvad, Cobus M. Visagie, Jos Houbraken, Martin Meijer, Janos Varga, Rasime Demirel, Željko Jurjević, Alena Kubátová, František Sklenář, Y. G. Zhou & Robert A. Samson
Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over...

Data from: Tournament ABC analysis of the western palaearctic population history of an oak gallwasp, Synergus umbraculus

Graham N. Stone, Sarah C. White, György Csóka, George Melika, Serap Mutun, Zsolt Penzes, Ebrahim S. Sadeghi, Karsten Schonrogge, Majid Tavakoli & James A. Nicholls
Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful and widely used approach in inference of population history. However, the computational effort required to discriminate among alternative historical scenarios often limits the set that is compared to those considered more likely a priori. While often justifiable, this approach will fail to consider unexpected but well-supported population histories. We used a hierarchical tournament approach, in which subsets of scenarios are compared in a first round of ABC analyses...

Data from: Optogenetic recruitment of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons acutely decreases mechanosensory responsivity in behaving mice

Guillaume P. Dugué, Magor L. Lörincz, Eran Lottem, Enrica Audero, Sara Matias, Patricia A. Correia, Clément Léna & Zachary F. Mainen
The inhibition of sensory responsivity is considered a core serotonin function, yet this hypothesis lacks direct support due to methodological obstacles. We adapted an optogenetic approach to induce acute, robust and specific firing of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons. In vitro, the responsiveness of individual dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons to trains of light pulses varied with frequency and intensity as well as between cells, and the photostimulation protocol was therefore adjusted to maximize their overall output...

Data from: The evolution of defense mechanisms correlate with the explosive diversification of autodigesting Coprinellus mushrooms (Agaricales, Fungi)

László Nagy, Judit Házi, Balázs Szappanos, Sándor Kocsubé, Balázs Bálint, Gábor Rákhely, Csaba Vágvölgyi & Tamás Papp
Bursts of diversification are known to have contributed significantly to the extant morphological and species diversity, but evidence for many of the theoretical predictions about adaptive radiations have remained contentious. Despite their tremendous diversity, patterns of evolutionary diversification and the contribution of explosive episodes in fungi are largely unknown. Here, using the genus Coprinellus (Psathyrellaceae, Agaricales) as a model, we report the first explosive fungal radiation, and infer that the onset of the radiation follows...

Predominantly linear summation of metabotropic postsynaptic potentials follows coactivation of neurogliaform interneurons

Attila Ozsvár, Gergely Komlósi, Gáspár Oláh, Judith Baka, Gábor Molnár & Gábor Tamás
Summation of ionotropic receptor-mediated responses is critical in neuronal computation by shaping input-output characteristics of neurons. However, arithmetics of summation for metabotropic signals are not known. We characterized the combined ionotropic and metabotropic output of neocortical neurogliaform cells (NGFCs) using electrophysiological and anatomical methods. These experiments revealed that GABA receptors are activated up to 1.8 microns from release sites and confirmed coactivation of putative NGFCs in superficial cortical layers in vivo. Triple recordings from presynaptic...

Data from: The evolution of defense mechanisms correlate with the explosive diversification of autodigesting Coprinellus mushrooms (Agaricales, Fungi)

László Nagy, Judit Házi, Balázs Szappanos, Sándor Kocsubé, Balázs Bálint, Gábor Rákhely, Csaba Vágvölgyi & Tamás Papp
Bursts of diversification are known to have contributed significantly to the extant morphological and species diversity, but evidence for many of the theoretical predictions about adaptive radiations have remained contentious. Despite their tremendous diversity, patterns of evolutionary diversification and the contribution of explosive episodes in fungi are largely unknown. Here, using the genus Coprinellus (Psathyrellaceae, Agaricales) as a model, we report the first explosive fungal radiation, and infer that the onset of the radiation follows...

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