9 Works

Data from: Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species

John J. Wiens, Carl R. Hutter, Daniel G. Mulcahy, Brice P. Noonan, Ted M. Townsend, , Tod W. Reeder & J. W. Sites
Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial vertebrates. Recent molecular analyses have suggested a very different squamate phylogeny relative to morphological hypotheses, but many aspects remain uncertain from molecular data. Here, we analyse higher-level squamate phylogeny with a molecular dataset of unprecedented size, including 161 squamate species for up to 44 nuclear genes each (33,717 base pairs), using both concatenated and species-tree methods for the first time. Our...

Data from: Mandible allometry in extant and fossil Balaenopteridae (Cetacea: Mammalia): the largest vertebrate skeletal element and its role in rorqual lunge-feeding

Nicholas D. Pyenson, Jeremy A. Goldbogen & Robert E. Shadwick
Rorqual whales (crown Balaenopteridae) are unique among aquatic vertebrates in their ability to lunge-feed. During a single lunge, rorquals rapidly engulf a large volume of prey-laden water at high speed, which they then filter to capture suspended prey. Engulfment biomechanics are mostly governed by the coordinated opening and closing of the mandibles at large gape angles, which differentially exposes the floor of the oral cavity to oncoming flow. Mouth area in rorquals is delimited by...

Data from: Population genetic structure and its implications for adaptive variation in memory and the hippocampus on a continental scale in food-caching black-capped chickadees

Vladimir V. Pravosudov, , Matthew L. Forister, Lara D. LaDage, Theresa M. Burg, Michael J. Braun & Brian S. Davidson
Food-caching birds rely on stored food to survive the winter and spatial memory has been shown to be critical in successful cache recovery. Both spatial memory and the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial memory, exhibit significant geographic variation linked to climate-based environmental harshness and the potential reliance on food caches for survival. Such geographic variation has been suggested to have a heritable basis associated with differential selection. Here, we ask whether...

Data from: Measuring rates of phenotypic evolution and the inseparability of tempo and mode

Gene Hunt
Rates of phenotypic evolution are central to many issues in paleontology, but traditional rate metrics such as darwins or haldanes are seldom used because of their strong dependence on interval length. In this paper, I argue that rates are usefully thought of as model parameters that relate magnitudes of evolutionary divergence to elapsed time. Starting with models of directional evolution, random walks, and stasis, I derive for each a reasonable rate metric. These metrics can...

Data from: Pollinator-mediated selection in a specialized hummingbird-Heliconia system in the eastern Caribbean

Ethan J. Temeles, Yoon J. Rah, Jonathan Andicoechea, Katerina L. Byanova, Geoffrey S. J. Giller, Shaylon B. Stolk & W. J. Kress
Phenotypic matches between plants and their pollinators often are interpreted as examples of reciprocal selection and adaptation. For the two co-occurring plant species, Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea in the Eastern Caribbean, we evaluated for five populations over two years the strength and direction of natural selection on corolla length and number of bracts per inflorescence. These plant traits correspond closely to the bill lengths and body masses of their primary pollinators, female or male...

Data from: The genomic consequences of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation between species of manakins

Thomas L. Parchman, Zachariah Gompert, Michael J. Braun, Robb T. Brumfield, D. B. McDonald, J. Albert C. Uy, G. Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, B. A. Schlinger & C. A. Buerkle
The processes of adaptation and speciation are expected to shape genomic variation within and between diverging species. Here we analyze genomic heterogeneity of genetic differentiation and introgression in a hybrid zone between two bird species (Manacus candei and M. vitellinus) using 59 100 SNPs, a whole genome assembly, and Bayesian models. Measures of genetic differentiation (inline image) and introgression (genomic cline center [α] and rate [β]) were highly heterogeneous among loci. We identified thousands of...

Data from: Latitudinal species diversity gradient of marine zooplankton for the last three million years

Moriaki Yasuhara, Gene Hunt, Harry J. Dowsett, Marci M. Robinson & Danielle K. Stoll
High tropical and low polar biodiversity is one of the most fundamental patterns characterizing marine ecosystems, and the influence of temperature on such marine latitudinal diversity gradients is increasingly well documented. However, the temporal stability of quantitative relationships among diversity, latitude and temperature is largely unknown. Here we document marine zooplankton species diversity patterns at four time slices [modern, Last Glacial Maximum (18,000 years ago), last interglacial (120,000 years ago), and Pliocene (~3.3-3.0 million years...

Data from: A synopsis of the genus Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Anthiini) known to occur in the Republic of South Africa

Jonathan R. Mawdsley, Terry L. Erwin, Hendrik Sithole, Alice S. Mawdsley, Jonathan Mawdsley, Terry Erwin & Alice Mawdsley
Nearly one third of the described species of Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are known to inhabit the Republic of South Africa. A key and diagnostic notes are provided for their identification, as well as notes about way of life for some of the species based on observations in the Kruger National Park. Fifteen species and subspecies of the genus are recorded from the Republic of South Africa; adult specimens of each species and subspecies are...

Data from: Human-induced marine ecological degradation: micropaleontological perspectives

Moriaki Yasuhara, Gene Hunt, Denise Breitburg, Akira Tsujimoto & Kota Katsuki
We analyzed published downcore microfossil records from 150 studies and reinterpreted them from an ecological degradation perspective to address the following, critical but still imperfectly answered questions: (1) How is the timing of human-induced degradation of marine ecosystems different among regions? (2) What are the dominant causes of human-induced marine ecological degradation? (3) How can we better document natural variability and thereby avoid the problem of shifting baselines of comparison as degradation progresses over time?...

Registration Year

  • 2012
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • Smithsonian Institution
    9
  • Cleveland State University
    1
  • National Museum of Natural History
    1
  • Duke University
    1
  • University of Wyoming
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  • Shimane University
    1
  • University of Nevada Reno
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  • San Diego State University
    1
  • Amherst College
    1
  • University of Miami
    1