21 Works

Data from: Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change

Gene Hunt, Melanie J. Hopkins & Scott Lidgard
Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor–descendant series of populations from the fossil record. In addition to the standard three models, we assess more complex models with punctuations and shifts from one evolutionary mode to another. As in previous studies,...

Data from: Biomechanical and leaf-climate relationships: a comparison of ferns and seed plants

Daniel J. Peppe, Casee R. Lemons, Dana L. Royer, Scott L. Wing, Ian J. Wright, Christopher H. Lusk & Chazelle H. Rhoden
Premise of the study: Relationships of leaf size and shape (physiognomy) with climate have been well characterized for woody non-monocotyledonous angiosperms (dicots), allowing the development of models for estimating paleoclimate from fossil leaves. More recently, petiole width of seed plants has been shown to scale closely with leaf mass. By measuring petiole width and leaf area in fossils, leaf mass per area (MA) can be estimated and an approximate leaf life span inferred. However, little...

Data from: DNA barcoding gap: reliable species identification over morphological and geographical scales

Klemen Čandek & Matjaž Kuntner
The philosophical basis, and utility of DNA barcoding has been a subject of numerous debates. While most literature embraces it, some studies continue to question its use in dipterans, butterflies, and marine gastropods. Here, we explore the utility of DNA barcoding in identifying spider species that vary in taxonomic affiliation, morphological diagnosibility and geographic distribution. Our first test searched for a “barcoding gap” by comparing intra- and interspecific means, medians and overlap in more than...

Data from: Herbarium specimens reveal a historical shift in phylogeographic structure of common ragweed during native range disturbance

Michael D. Martin, Elizabeth A. Zimmer, Morten T. Olsen, Andrew D. Foote, M. Thomas P. Gilbert & Grace S. Brush
Invasive plants provide ample opportunity to study evolutionary shifts that occur after introduction to novel environments. However, although genetic characters pre-dating introduction can be important determinants of later success, large-scale investigations of historical genetic structure have not been feasible. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an invasive weed native to North America that is known for its allergenic pollen. Palynological records from sediment cores indicate that this species was uncommon before European colonization of North...

Data from: Maintenance of genetic diversity in an introduced island population of Guanacos after seven decades and two severe demographic bottlenecks: implications for camelid conservation

Benito A. González, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Rainer Von Borries, Warren E. Johnson, William L. Franklin & Juan C. Marín
Fifteen Guanacos were introduced to Staats Island in Falklands/Malvinas archipelago from Patagonia in the 1930s. After introduction, the Guanaco population increased to almost 400 animals that retained a footprint of the founding effect and bottleneck reflected in the genetic status of this isolated population. The goals of this study were to (i) make a genetic assessment of this island population through comparisons with mainland populations and simulation, and (ii) assess the likely source population of...

Data from: Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages

Bibek Yumnam, Yadvendradev V. Jhala, Qamar Qureshi, Jesus E. Maldonado, Rajesh Gopal, Swati Saini, Y. Srinivas & Robert C. Fleischer
Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to...

Data from: Phylogeny suggests non-directional and isometric evolution of sexual size dimorphism in argiopine spiders

Ren-Chung Cheng & Matjaž Kuntner
Sexual dimorphism describes substantial differences between male and female phenotypes. In spiders, sexual dimorphism research almost exclusively focuses on size, and recent studies have recovered steady evolutionary size increases in females, and independent evolutionary size changes in males. Their discordance is due to negative allometric size patterns caused by different selection pressures on male and female size (converse Rensch's rule). Here, we investigated macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Argiopinae, a global lineage...

Data from: Response of deep-sea biodiversity to abrupt deglacial and Holocene climate changes in the North Atlantic Ocean

Moriaki Yasuhara, Hisayo Okahashi, Thomas M. Cronin, Tine L. Rasmussen & Gene Hunt
Aim: Little is known about how marine biodiversity responds to oceanographic and climatic changes over the decadal to centennial time-scales which are most relevant for predicted climate changes due to greenhouse gas forcing. This paper aims to reveal decadal–centennial scale deep-sea biodiversity dynamics for the last 20,000 years and then explore potential environmental drivers. Location: The North Atlantic Ocean. Methods: We investigated deep-sea benthic microfossil records to reveal biodiversity dynamics and subsequently applied comprehensive ecological...

Data from: Loss of migratory behavior increases infection risk for a butterfly host

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz & Sonia Altizer
Long-distance animal migrations have important consequences for infectious disease dynamics. In some cases, migration lowers pathogen transmission by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys and allowing animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats. Human activities are now causing some migratory animals to travel shorter distances or form sedentary (non-migratory) populations. We focused on North American monarch butterflies and a specialist protozoan parasite to investigate how the loss of migratory behaviours affects pathogen spread and evolution. Each...

Data from: The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores

Matthew L. Forister, Vojtech Novotny, Anna K. Panorska, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Philip T. Butterill, Lukas Cizek, Phyllis D. Coley, Francesca Dem, Ivone R. Diniz, Pavel Drozd, Mark Fox, Andrea E. Glassmire, Rebecca Hazen, Jan Hrcek, Joshua P. Jahner, Ondrej Kaman, Tomasz J. Kozubowski, Thomas Kursar, Owen T. Lewis, John Lill, Robert J. Marquis, Scott E. Miller, Helena C. Morais, Masashi Murakami … & Lee A. Dyer
Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here...

Data from: Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction

Conrad C. Labandeira & Jennifer A. Dunne
Generalities of food web structure have been identified for extant ecosystems. However, the trophic organization of ancient ecosystems is unresolved, as prior studies of fossil webs have been limited by low-resolution, high-uncertainty data. We compiled highly resolved, well-documented feeding interaction data for 700 taxa from the 48 million-year-old latest early Eocene Messel Shale, which contains a species assemblage that developed after an interval of protracted environmental and biotal change during and following the end-Cretaceous extinction....

Data from: Variable effects of temperature on insect herbivory

Nathan P. Lemoine, Deron E. Burkepile & John D. Parker
Rising temperatures can influence the top-down control of plant biomass by increasing herbivore metabolic demands. Unfortunately, we know relatively little about the effects of temperature on herbivory rates for most insect herbivores in a given community. Evolutionary history, adaptation to local environments, and dietary factors may lead to variable thermal response curves across different species. Here we characterized the effect of temperature on herbivory rates for 21 herbivore-plant pairs, encompassing 14 herbivore and 12 plant...

Data from: Iterative adaptive radiations of fossil canids show no evidence for diversity-dependent trait evolution

Graham J. Slater
A long-standing hypothesis in adaptive radiation theory is that ecological opportunity constrains rates of phenotypic evolution, generating a burst of morphological disparity early in clade history. Empirical support for the early burst model is rare in comparative data, however. One possible reason for this lack of support is that most phylogenetic tests have focused on extant clades, neglecting information from fossil taxa. Here, I test for the expected signature of adaptive radiation using the outstanding...

Data from: Global invasion history of the Tropical Fire Ant: a stowaway on the first global trade routes

Dietrich Gotzek, Heather Axen, Andrew Suarez, Sara Helms Cahan, D. DeWayne Shoemaker, Andrew V. Suarez & Heather J. Axen
Biological invasions are largely thought to be contemporary, having recently increased sharply in the wake of globalization. However, human commerce had already become global by the mid-16th century when the Spanish connected the New World with Europe and Asia via their Manila galleon and West Indies trade routes. We use genetic data to trace the global invasion of one of the world's most widespread and invasive pest ants, the Tropical Fire Ant, Solenopsis geminata. Our...

Data from: Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage

Roger B. J. Benson, Nicolás E. Campione, Matthew T. Carrano, Philip D. Mannion, Corwin Sullivan, Paul Upchurch & David C. Evans
Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation,...

Data from: Repeated land mass reformation limits diversification in the widespread littoral zone mosquito Anopheles sundaicus sensu lato in the Indo-Oriental Region

Magdalena Zarowiecki, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Rory J. Post, Michael J. Bangs, Pe Than Htun, Thaung Hlaing, Chang Moh Seng, Visut Baimai, Trung Ho Ding, Tho Sochantha & Catherine Walton
Southeast Asia harbours abundant biodiversity, hypothesized to have been generated by Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic and environmental change. Vicariance between the island of Borneo, the remaining Indonesian archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia caused by elevated sea levels during interglacial periods has been proposed to lead to diversification in the littoral zone mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Rodenwaldt) sensu lato. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we inferred the population history and assessed gene flow of A. sundaicus...

Data from: A target enrichment method for gathering phylogenetic information from hundreds of loci: an example from the Compositae

Jennifer R. Mandel, Rebecca B. Dikow, Vicki A. Funk, Rishi R. Masalia, S. Evan Staton, Alex Kozik, Richard W. Michelmore, Loren H. Rieseberg & John M. Burke
Premise of the study: The Compositae (Asteraceae) are a large and diverse family of plants, and the most comprehensive phylogeny to date is a meta-tree based on 10 chloroplast loci that has several major unresolved nodes. We describe the development of an approach that enables the rapid sequencing of large numbers of orthologous nuclear loci to facilitate efficient phylogenomic analyses. Methods and Results: We designed a set of sequence capture probes that target conserved orthologous...

Data from: Ecological fidelity of functional traits based on species presence-absence in a modern mammalian bone assemblage (Amboseli, Kenya)

Joshua H. Miller, Anna Kay Behrensmeyer, Andrew Du, S. Kathleen Lyons, David Patterson, Anikó Tóth, Amelia Villaseñor, Erustus Kanga & Denné Reed
Comparisons between modern death assemblages and their source communities have demonstrated fidelity to species diversity across a variety of environments and taxonomic groups. However, differential species preservation and collection (including body-size bias) in both modern and fossil death assemblages may still skew the representation of other important ecological characteristics. Here, we move beyond live-dead taxonomic fidelity and focus on the recovery of functional ecology (how species interact with their ecosystem) at the community level for...

Data from: Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway

James W. Horn, Zhenxiang Xi, Ricarda Riina, Jess A. Peirson, Ya Yang, Brian L. Dorsey, Paul E. Berry, Charles C. Davis & Kenneth J. Wurdack
The mid-Cenozoic decline of atmospheric CO2 levels that promoted global climate change was critical to shaping contemporary arid ecosystems. Within angiosperms, two CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs)—CAM and C4—evolved from the C3 photosynthetic pathway, enabling more efficient whole-plant function in such environments. Many angiosperm clades with CCMs are thought to have diversified rapidly due to Miocene aridification, but links between this climate change, CCM evolution, and increased net diversification rates (r) remain to be further understood. Euphorbia...

Data from: Reading the leaves: a comparison of leaf rank and automated areole measurement for quantifying aspects of leaf venation

Walton A. Green, Stefan A. Little, Charles A. Price, Scott L. Wing, Selena Y. Smith, Benjamin Kotrc & Gabriela Doria
The reticulate venation that is characteristic of a dicot leaf has excited interest from systematists for more than a century, and from physiological and developmental botanists for decades. The tools of digital image acquisition and computer image analysis, however, are only now approaching the sophistication needed to quantify aspects of the venation network found in real leaves quickly, easily, accurately, and reliably enough to produce biologically meaningful data. In this paper, we examine 120 leaves...

Data from: Target enrichment of ultraconserved elements from arthropods provides a genomic perspective on relationships among Hymenoptera

Brant C. Faircloth, Michael G. Branstetter, Noor D. White & Séan G. Brady
Gaining a genomic perspective on phylogeny requires the collection of data from many putatively independent loci across the genome. Among insects, an increasingly common approach to collecting this class of data involves transcriptome sequencing, because few insects have high-quality genome sequences available; assembling new genomes remains a limiting factor; the transcribed portion of the genome is a reasonable, reduced subset of the genome to target; and the data collected from transcribed portions of the genome...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Institute of Biology
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Georgia
  • George Washington University
  • Hubei University
  • Harvard University
  • Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
  • University of Oxford
  • Wesleyan University