291 Works

Data from: The founding of Mauritian endemic coffee trees by a synchronous long-distance dispersal event

Michael D. Nowak, Benjamin C. Haller & Anne D. Yoder
The stochastic process of long-distance dispersal is the exclusive means by which plants colonize oceanic islands. Baker's rule posits that self-incompatible plant lineages are unlikely to successfully colonize oceanic islands because they must achieve a coordinated long-distance dispersal of sufficiently numerous individuals to establish an outcrossing founder population. Here, we show for the first time that Mauritian Coffea species are self-incompatible and thus represent an exception to Baker's rule. The genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) is composed...

Data from: Predators, energetics and fitness drive neonatal reproductive failure in red squirrels

Emily K. Studd, Stan Boutin, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs & Murray M. Humphries
Neonatal reproductive failure should occur when energetic costs of parental investment outweigh fitness benefits. However, little is known about the drivers of neonatal reproductive failure in free ranging species experiencing continuous natural variation in predator abundance and in the energetic and fitness costs and benefits associated with parental investment. Long-term comprehensive studies are required to better understand how biotic, abiotic, and life history conditions interact to drive occurrences of reproductive failure in the wild. Using...

Data from: Phylogeography of Heliconius cydno and its closest relatives: disentangling their origin and diversification

Carlos F. Arias, Camilo Salazar, Claudia Rosales, Marcus R. Kronforst, Mauricio Linares, Eldredge Bermingham & W. Owen McMillan
The origins of phenotypic variation within mimetic Heliconius butterflies have long fascinated biologists and naturalists. However, the evolutionary processes that have generated this extraordinary diversity remain puzzling. Here we examine intraspecific variation across Heliconius cydno diversification and compare this variation to that within the closely related H. melpomene and H. timareta radiations. Our data, which consist of both mtDNA and genome scan from nearly 2250 AFLP loci, reveal a complex history of differentiation and admixture...

Data from: Monoallelic chromatin conformation flanking long-range silenced domains in cancer-derived and normal cells

Domenic Di Paola, John Raelson, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Mark Basik, Maria Zannis-Hadjopoulos & W. Edward C. Bradley
Epigenetic inactivation of chromatin plays an important role in determining cell phenotype in both normal and cancer cells, but our knowledge is still incomplete with respect to any potential monoallelic nature of the phenomenon. We have genotyped DNA isolated from chromatin of two colorectal cancer-derived lines and a culture of normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC), which was immunoprecipitated with antibodies to acetylated vs. methylated histone H3K9, and presented the data as B allele frequency...

Data from: Secondary evolution of a self-incompatibility locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia

Sier-Ching Chantha, Adam C. Herman, Adrian E. Platts, Xavier Vekemans & Daniel J. Schoen
Self-incompatibility (SI) is the flowering plant reproductive system in which self pollen tube growth is inhibited, thereby preventing self-fertilization. SI has evolved independently in several different flowering plant lineages. In all Brassicaceae species in which the molecular basis of SI has been investigated in detail, the product of the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) gene functions as receptor in the initial step of the self pollen-rejection pathway, while that of the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR) gene functions...

Factors influencing fall departure phenology in migratory birds that bred in northeastern North America

Pascal Côté, Émile Brisson-Curadeau & Kyle Elliott
The phenology of migrating birds is shifting with climate change. For instance, short-distance migrants wintering in temperate regions tend to delay their migration in fall during spells of warmer temperature. However, some species do not show strong shifts, and the factors determining which species will react to temperature changes by delaying their migration are poorly known. In addition, it is not known whether a slower migration or a postponed departure creates the observed delays in...

Data from: Differential impact of severe drought on infant mortality in two sympatric neotropical primates

Fernando Campos, Urs Kalbitzer, Amanda Melin, Jeremy Hogan, Saul Cheves, Evin Murillo-Chacon, Adrián Guadamuz, Monica Myers, Colleen Schaffner, Katharine Jack, Filippo Aureli & Linda Fedigan
Extreme climate events can have important consequences for the dynamics of natural populations, and severe droughts are predicted to become more common and intense due to climate change. We analysed infant mortality in relation to drought in two primate species (white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus imitator, and Geoffroy's spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi) in a tropical dry forest in north-western Costa Rica. Our survival analyses combine several rare and valuable long-term data sets, including long-term primate life-history,...

Differential ESR1 promoter Methylation in the peripheral blood of healthy middle-aged and older women- findings from the women 40+ healthy aging study

Elena Gardini, Gary G. Chen, Serena Fiacco, Laura Mernone, Jasmine Willi, Gustavo Turecki & Ulrike Ehlert
Background Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) contributes to maintain biological processes preserving health during aging. DNA methylation changes of ERα gene (ESR1) were established as playing a direct role in the regulation of ERα levels. In this study, we hypothesized decreased DNA methylation of ESR1 associated with postmenopause, lower estradiol levels and increased age among healthy middle-aged and older women. Methods We assessed DNA methylation of ESR1 promoter region from dried blood spots and estradiol from...

Data from: Scoring tools for the analysis of infant respiratory inductive plethysmography signals

Carlos Alejandro Robles-Rubio, Gianluca Bertolizio, Karen A. Brown & Robert E. Kearney
Infants recovering from anesthesia are at risk of life threatening Postoperative Apnea (POA). POA events are rare, and so the study of POA requires the analysis of long cardiorespiratory records. Manual scoring is the preferred method of analysis for these data, but it is limited by low intra- and inter-scorer repeatability. Furthermore, recommended scoring rules do not provide a comprehensive description of the respiratory patterns. This work describes a set of manual scoring tools that...

Data from: Experimental evidence for within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproduction

Kyle H. Elliott, Gustavo S. Betini, Ian Dworkin & D. Ryan Norris
Fear of predation can have non-lethal effects on individuals within a season but whether, and to what extent, these effects carry over into subsequent seasons is not known. Using a replicated seasonal population of the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we examined both within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproductive output. Compared to controls, flies exposed to the scent of mantid (Tenodera sinensis) predators in the non-breeding season had 64% higher mortality,...

Data from: Mitigation of pollen limitation in the lowbush blueberry agroecosystem: effect of augmenting natural pollinators

Melissa Fulton, Linley K. Jesson, Kyle Bobiwash & Daniel J. Schoen
Growers of small fruit crops often supplement the natural pollinator community by introducing pollinators into commercial orchards and fields, but there are relatively few studies that test the extent to which such interventions increase fruit yield. To test whether plants are limited by pollen availability, inflorescences in 78 commercial lowbush blueberry fields during three years were hand-pollinated either with supplemental outcross pollen, or marked and left as controls (open-pollination). Maximum fruit set with supplemental pollination...

Data from: Multi-contrast submillimetric 3-Tesla hippocampal subfield segmentation protocol and dataset

Jessie Kulaga-Yoskovitz, Boris C. Bernhardt, Seok-Jun Hong, Tommaso Mansi, Kevin E. Liang, Andre J. W. Van Der Kouwe, Jonathan Smallwood, Andrea Bernasconi & Neda Bernasconi
The hippocampus is composed of distinct anatomical subregions that participate in multiple cognitive processes and are differentially affected in prevalent neurological and psychiatric conditions. Advances in high-field MRI allow for the non-invasive identification of hippocampal substructure. These approaches, however, demand time-consuming manual segmentation that relies heavily on anatomical expertise. Here, we share manual labels and associated high-resolution MRI data (MNI-HISUB25; submillimetric T1- and T2-weighted images, detailed sequence information, and stereotaxic probabilistic anatomical maps) based on...

Data from: Small- to large-scale patterns of ground-dwelling spider (Araneae) diversity across northern Canada

Sarah Loboda & Christopher M. Buddle
We examined how Arctic spider (Araneae) biodiversity is distributed at multiple spatial scales in Northern Canada using a standardized hierarchical sampling design. We investigated which drivers, environmental or spatial, influence the patterns observed. Spatial patterns of species richness and composition of Arctic spiders were assessed in 12 sites located in Arctic, Subarctic, and North-Boreal regions, across 30 degrees of latitude and 80 degrees of longitude. Variation of diversity was partitioned in relation to multiple environmental...

Data from: Revisiting protein aggregation as pathogenic in sporadic Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

Alberto J. Espay, Joaquin A. Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E. Lang, David K. Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A. Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J. Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H. Fernandez, David G. Standaert, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Michael A. Schwarzschild, S. Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer … & James B. Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated alpha-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinico-pathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathological protein aggregation at autopsy reflect pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated alpha-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication...

Data from: Assessing reproductive isolation using a contact zone between parapatric lake-stream stickleback ecotypes

Dieta Hanson, Jean-Sébastien Moore, Eric B. Taylor, Rowan D.H. Barrett, Andrew P. Hendry, J.-S. Moore & R. D. H. Barrett
Ecological speciation occurs when populations evolve reproductive isolation as a result of divergent natural selection. This isolation can be influenced by many potential reproductive barriers, including selection against hybrids, selection against migrants, and assortative mating. How and when these barriers act and interact in nature is understood for relatively few empirical systems. We used a mark-recapture experiment in a contact zone between lake and stream three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus, Linnaeus) to evaluate the occurrence of...

Frontal tau pathology underlies behavioural/dysexecutive presentations of Alzheimer’s disease

Joseph Therriault, Tharick Pascoal, Melissa Savard, Andrea Benedet, Mira Chamoun, Cecile Tissot, Firoza Lussier, Min Su Kang, Emilie Thomas, Tatsuhiro Terada, Soham Rej, Gassan Massarweh, Ziad Nasreddine, Paolo Vitali, Jean-Paul Soucy, Paramita Saha-Chaudhuri, Serge Gauthier & Pedro Rosa-Neto
Objective: To determine the associations between amyloid-PET, tau-PET and atrophy with the behavioural/dysexecutive presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and how these differ from amnestic AD. Background: The behavioural/dysexecutive variant of AD is a rare clinical syndrome presenting with behavioural changes, apathy and/or executive dysfunction, similar to frontotemporal dementia. Small autopsy studies provide conflicting reports of frontal pathology and recent studies challenge the notion of frontal involvement in this condition. We tested the hypothesis that patterns...

Data from: Climate change increases predation risk for a keystone species of the boreal forest

Michael Peers, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Rudy Boonstra, Murray Humphries, Thomas Jung, Alice Kenney, Charles Krebs, Dennis Murray & Stan Boutin
Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) form a keystone predator-prey cycle that has large impacts on the North-American boreal forest vertebrate community. Snowshoe hares and lynx are both well-suited for snowy winters, but climate change associated shifts in snow conditions could lower hare survival and alter cyclic dynamics. Using detailed monitoring of snowshoe hare cause-specific mortality, behaviour, and prevailing weather, we demonstrate that hare mortality risk is strongly influenced by variation in...

Data from: The effects of food supply on reproductive hormones and timing of reproduction in an income-breeding seabird

Shannon Whelan, Scott A. Hatch, Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks, Charline Parenteau, Olivier Chastel & Kyle Elliott
Current food supply is a major driver of timing of breeding in income-breeding animals, likely because increased net energy balance directly increases reproductive hormones and advances breeding. In capital breeders, increased net energy balance increases energy reserves, which eventually leads to improved reproductive readiness and earlier breeding. To test the hypothesis that phenology of income-breeding birds is independent of energy reserves, we conducted an experiment on food-supplemented (“fed”) and control female black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)....

Data for: Parasitism risk and infection alter host dispersal

Celina Baines, Salma Diab & Shannon McCauley
Dispersal determines the spatial dynamics of host-parasite assemblages, particularly during invasions and disease epidemics. The risk of parasitism may create an incentive for dispersal, but infection is expected to reduce dispersal ability, which may alter the host’s dispersal response to biotic stressors including population density. We measured the dispersal of the semi-aquatic insect, Notonecta undulata, in aquatic mesocosms in which we manipulated the presence of ectoparasitic Hydrachnidia mites and of infected conspecifics. We found that...

Data from: Transcriptome profiling of immune tissues reveals habitat-specific gene expression between lake and river sticklebacks

Yun Huang, Frederic Chain, Mahesh Panchal, Christophe Eizaguirre, Martin Kalbe, Tobias Lenz, Irene Samonte, Monika Stoll, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Thorsten B. Reusch, Manfred Milinski & Philine Feulner
The observation of habitat-specific phenotypes suggests the action of natural selection. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has repeatedly colonized and adapted to diverse freshwater habitats across the northern hemisphere since the last glaciation, while giving rise to recurring phenotypes associated with specific habitats. Parapatric lake and river populations of sticklebacks harbour distinct parasite communities, a factor proposed to contribute to adaptive differentiation between these ecotypes. However, little is known about the transcriptional response to the...

Data from: Predators inhibit brain cell proliferation in natural populations of electric fish, Brachyhypopomus occidentals

Kent D. Dunlap, Alex Tran, Michael Ragazzi, Rudiger Krahe, Vielka Salazar, Michael A. Ragazzi & Vielka L. Salazar
Compared to laboratory environments, complex natural environments promote brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Predators are one important feature of many natural environments, and, in the laboratory, predatory stimuli tend to inhibit brain cell proliferation. Often, laboratory predator stimuli also elevate plasma glucocorticoids, which can then reduce brain cell proliferation. However, it is unknown how natural predators affect cell proliferation or whether glucocorticoids mediate the neurogenic response to natural predators. We examined brain cell proliferation in...

Data from: Targeted reforestation could reverse declines in connectivity for understory birds in a tropical habitat corridor

Matthew E. Fagan, Ruth S. DeFries, Steven E. Sesnie, J. Pablo Arroyo-Mora & Robin L. Chazdon
Re-establishing connectivity between protected areas isolated by habitat clearing is a key conservation goal in the humid tropics. In northeastern Costa Rica, payments for environmental services (PES) and a government ban on deforestation have subsidized forest protection and reforestation in the San Juan–La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC), resulting in a decline in mature forest loss and the expansion of tree plantations. We use field studies and graph models to assess how conservation efforts have altered...

Data from: Multiple pairwise analysis of non-homologous centromere coupling reveals preferential chromosome size-dependent interactions and a role for bouquet formation in establishing the interaction pattern

Philippe Lefrançois, Beth Rockmill, Pingxing Xie, G. Shirleen Roeder & Michael Snyder
During meiosis, chromosomes undergo a homology search in order to locate their homolog to form stable pairs and exchange genetic material. Early in prophase, chromosomes associate in mostly non-homologous pairs, tethered only at their centromeres. This phenomenon, conserved through higher eukaryotes, is termed centromere coupling in budding yeast. Both initiation of recombination and the presence of homologs are dispensable for centromere coupling (occurring in spo11 mutants and haploids induced to undergo meiosis) but the presence...

Data from: Quantifying ecological and social drivers of ecological surprise

Karen Filbee-Dexter, Celia C. Symons, Kristal Jones, Heather Haig, Jeremy Pittman, Steven M. Alexander, Matthew J. Burke & Heather A. Haig
1. A key challenge facing ecologists and ecosystem managers is understanding what drives unexpected shifts in ecosystems and limits the effectiveness of human interventions during these events. Research that integrates and analyzes data from natural and social systems can provide important insight for unraveling the complexity of these dynamics, and is a critical step towards development of evidence-based, whole systems management approaches. 2. To examine our ability to influence ecosystems that are behaving in unexpected...

Data from: Land use intensity indirectly affects ecosystem services mainly through plant functional identity in a temperate forest

Verónica Chillo, Diego P. Vázquez, Mariano M. Amoroso & Elena M. Bennett
1.Land-use change is known to affect biodiversity, and there is increasing concern regarding how these changes may impact the provision of ecosystem services. Although functional composition (diversity and identity) could influence ecosystem properties and services at the community level, there is little quantitative understanding of these relationships in the field. Here, we evaluate the direct and indirect effects (through ecosystem properties) of biodiversity on the provision of multiple ecosystem services in native mixed forest in...

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