297 Works

Data from: Impacts of deforestation-induced warming on the metabolism, growth, and trophic interactions of an afrotropical stream fish

Vincent Fugère, Thomas Mehner & Lauren J. Chapman
1. In ectotherms, anthropogenic warming often increases energy requirements for metabolism, which can either impair growth (when resources are limiting) or lead to higher predator feeding rates and possibly stronger top-down trophic interactions. However, the relative importance of these effects in nature remains unclear because: 1) thermal adaptation or acclimation could lower metabolic costs; 2) greater prey production at warmer temperatures could compensate for higher predator feeding rates; and/or 3) temperature effects on trophic interactions...

Data from: Adaptation in temporally variable environments: stickleback armor in periodically breaching bar-built estuaries

Antoine Paccard, Ben A. Wasserman, Dieta Hanson, Louis Astorg, Dan Durston, Sara Kurland, Travis M. Apgar, Rana W. El-Sabaawi, Eric P. Palkovacs, Andrew P. Hendry, Rowan D.H. Barrett & Rowan D. H. Barrett
The evolutionary consequences of temporal variation in selection remain hotly debated. We explored these consequences by studying threespine stickleback in a set of bar-built estuaries along the central California coast. In most years, heavy rains induce water flow strong enough to break through isolating sand bars, connecting streams to the ocean. New sand bars typically re-form within a few weeks or months, thereby re-isolating populations within the estuaries. These breaching events cause severe and often...

Data from: Ability to modulate birdsong across social contexts develops without imitative social learning

Logan S. James, Jennifer B. Dai & Jon T. Sakata
Many important behaviours are socially learned. For example, the acoustic structure of courtship songs in songbirds is learned by listening to and interacting with conspecifics during a sensitive period in development. Signalers modify the spectral and temporal structures of their vocalizations depending on the social context, but the degree to which this modulation requires imitative social learning remains unknown. We found that zebra finches that were not exposed to context-dependent song modulations throughout development significantly...

Data from: The unrealized potential of herbaria in global change biology

Emily K. Meineke, Charles C. Davis & T. Jonathan Davies
Plant and fungal specimens in herbaria are becoming primary resources for investigating how plant phenology and geographic distributions shift with climate change, greatly expanding inferences across spatial, temporal, and phylogenetic dimensions. However, these specimens contain a wealth of additional data—including nutrients, defensive compounds, herbivore damage, disease lesions, and signatures of physiological processes—that capture ecological and evolutionary responses to the Anthropocene but which are less frequently utilized. Here, we outline the diversity of herbarium data, global...

Data from: Flexible decision-making in grooming partner choice in sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees

Alexander Mielke, Anna Preis, Liran Samuni, Jan F. Gogarten, Roman M. Wittig & Catherine Crockford
Living in permanent social groups forces animals to make decisions about when, how and with whom to interact, requiring decisions to be made that integrate multiple sources of information. Changing social environments can influence this decision-making process by constraining choice or altering the likelihood of a positive outcome. Here, we conceptualised grooming as a choice situation where an individual chooses one of a number of potential partners. Studying two wild populations of sympatric primate species,...

Data from: Possible ballast water transfer of lionfish to the eastern Pacific Ocean

Hugh J. MacIsaac, Emma M. De Roy, Brian Leung, Alice Grgicak-Mannion & Gregory M. Ruiz
The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from...

Data from: Bystanders intervene to impede grooming in Western chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys

Alexander Mielke, Liran Samuni, Anna Preis, Jan F. Gogarten, Catherine Crockford & Roman M. Wittig
Grooming interactions benefit groomers, but may have negative consequences for bystanders. Grooming limits bystanders’ grooming access and ensuing alliances could threaten the bystander’s hierarchy rank or their previous investment in the groomers. To gain a competitive advantage, bystanders could intervene into a grooming bout to increase their own grooming access or to prevent the negative impact of others’ grooming. We test the impact of dominance rank and social relationships on grooming intervention likelihood and outcome...

Data from: Facultative pupal mating in Heliconius erato: implications for mate choice, female preference, and speciation

Timothy J. Thurman, Emily Brodie, Elizabeth Evans & William Owen McMillan
Mating systems have broad impacts on how sexual selection and mate choice operate within a species, but studies of mating behavior in the laboratory may not reflect how these processes occur in the wild. Here, we examined the mating behavior of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato in the field by releasing larvae and virgin females and observing how they mated. H. erato is considered a pupal-mating species (i.e., males mate with females as they emerge...

Data from: Threshold dynamics in plant succession after tree planting in agricultural riparian zones

Bérenger Bourgeois, Anne Vanasse, Eduardo González, Roxane Andersen & Monique Poulin
Trajectories of plant communities can be described by different models of plant succession. While a Clementsian (gradual continuum model) or Gleasonian approach (relay floristics model) has traditionally been used to inform restoration outcomes, alternative succession models developed recently may better represent restoration trajectories. The threshold dynamics succession model, which predicts an abrupt species turnover after an environmental threshold is crossed, has never been used in a restoration context. This model might, however, better describe shifts...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding reveals changes in the contents of carnivorous plants along an elevation gradient

Joanne E. Littlefair, Axel Zander, Clara De Sena Costa & Elizabeth L. Clare
Resource variation along abiotic gradients influences subsequent trophic interactions and these effects can be transmitted through entire food webs. Interactions along abiotic gradients can provide clues as to how organisms will face changing environmental conditions, such as future range shifts. However, it is challenging to find replicated systems to study these effects. Phytotelmata, such as those found in carnivorous plants, are isolated aquatic communities and thus form a good model for the study of replicated...

Data from: Metabarcoding using multiplexed markers increases species detection in complex zooplankton communities

Guang K. Zhang, Frédéric J.J. Chain, Cathryn L. Abbott & Melania E. Cristescu
Metabarcoding combines DNA barcoding with high-throughput sequencing, often using one genetic marker to understand complex and taxonomically diverse samples. However, species-level identification depends heavily on the choice of marker and the selected primer pair, often with a trade-off between successful species amplification and taxonomic resolution. We present a versatile metabarcoding protocol for biomonitoring that involves the use of two barcode markers (COI and 18S) and four primer pairs in a single high-throughput sequencing run, via...

Data from: Under the influence: sublethal exposure to an insecticide affects personality expression in a jumping spider

Raphaël Royauté, Christopher M. Buddle & Charles Vincent
1. Consistent behavioural differences between individuals have far-reaching implications for ecology and evolution, including how populations cope with increasing anthropogenic changes, notably pesticides. Although sublethal doses of insecticides are known to alter behaviour, current studies on the relationship between toxicants and behaviour tend to ignore effects on individual variation. 2. Our objective was to determine whether sublethal exposure to an organophosphate insecticide could affect the consistency of individual behaviour and disrupt behavioural correlations, in a...

Data from: Daily energy expenditure during lactation is strongly selected in a free-living mammal

Quinn E. Fletcher, John R. Speakman, Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman & Murray M. Humphries
1. Energy expenditure is a trait of central importance in ecological and evolutionary theory. We examined the correlates of, the strength of selection on, and the heritability of, daily energy expenditure (DEE; kJ/day) during lactation in free-ranging North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). 2. Over seven years, lactating squirrels with greater DEE had higher annual reproductive success (ARS; standardized selection gradient: β’ = 0.47; top 12% of published estimates). Surprisingly, positive fecundity selection on lactation...

Data from: Social behaviours and networks of vervet monkeys are influenced by gastrointestinal parasites

Colin A. Chapman, Sagan Friant, Kathleen Godfrey, Cynthia Liu, Dipto Sarkar, Valérie A. M. Schoof, Raja Sengupta, Dennis Twinomugisha, Kim Valenta, Tony L. Goldberg & Dipto Sakar
Substantial research has shown that while some parasite infections can be fatal to hosts, most infections are sub-clinical and non-lethal. Such sub-clinical infections can nonetheless have negative consequences for the long-term fitness of the host such as reducing juvenile growth and the host’s ability to compete for food and mates. With such effects, infected individuals are expected to exhibit behavioural changes. Here we use a parasite removal experiment to quantify how gastrointestinal parasite infections affect...

Data from: Modelling habitat distributions for multiple species using phylogenetics

Guillaume Guénard, Gabriel Lanthier, Simonne Harvey-Lavoie, Camille Macnaughton, Caroline Senay, Michel Lapointe, Pierre Legendre & Daniel Boisclair
In this paper, we describe an empirical approach to model community structure using phylogenetic signals. That approach combines information about the species (i.e. traits and phylogeny) with information about the habitat (i.e. environmental conditions and spatial distribution of sampling sites) and their interactions to predict the species responses (e.g. the local densities). As an application, we use the approach to model fish densities in rivers. In the model, the different species and size classes were...

Data from: No consistent effects of humans on animal genetic diversity worldwide

Katie Millette, Vincent Fugère, Chloé Debyser, Ariel Greiner, Frédéric Chain & Andrew Gonzalez
Human impacts on genetic diversity are poorly understood yet critical to biodiversity conservation. We used 175,247 COI sequences collected between 1980 and 2016 to assess the global effects of land use and human density on the intraspecific genetic diversity of 17,082 species of birds, fishes, insects, and mammals. Human impacts on mtDNA diversity were taxon and scale-dependent, and were generally weak or non-significant. Spatial analyses identified weak latitudinal diversity gradients as well as negative effects...

Data from: Habitat loss in the restricted range of the endemic Ghanaian cichlid Limbochromis robertsi

Margaret Kalacska, Anton Lamboj, Oliver Lucanus, Patrick Osei Darko & J. Pablo Arroyo‐Mora
Remote sensing has become an integral and invaluable tool to inform biodiversity conservation and monitoring of habitat degradation and restoration over time. Despite the disproportionately high levels of biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, ichthyofauna are commonly overlooked in favor of other keystone species. Freshwater fish, as indicators of overall aquatic ecosystem health can also be indicators of larger scale problems within an ecosystem. As a case study with multi-temporal, multi-resolution satellite imagery, we examined...

Data from: Trophic structure modulates community rescue following acidification

Graham Bell, Vincent Fugère, Rowan Barrett, Beatrix Beisner, Melania Cristescu, Gregor Fussmann, B. Jesse Shapiro & Andrew Gonzalez
Community rescue occurs when a community that experiences a lethal stress persists only through the spread of rare types, either genotypes or species, resistant to the stress. Rescue interacts with trophic structure because a physical stress experienced by a focal assemblage within the community may also be experienced by its predators and prey. In general, trophic structure will facilitate rescue only when a stress has a less severe effect on a focal assemblage than on...

Data from: Harsh environmental regimes increase the functional significance of intraspecific variation in plant communities

Kechang Niu, Shiting Zhang & Martin Lechowicz
The relative importance of intraspecific trait variation (rITV) for functional diversity (FD) in plant communities is increasingly apparent, but the influence of abiotic factors on the balance between intraspecific and interspecific effects in contrasting environments is uncertain. We predicted that rITV would increase with environmental harshness as a result of decreasing interspecific variation (Inter_FD) and concomitant increases in between-population ITV(Intra_FD). We empirically tested this prediction in a comparison of rITV for five traits (mature plant...

Behavioural plasticity is associated with reduced extinction risk in birds

Simon Ducatez, Daniel Sol, Ferran Sayol & Louis Lefebvre
Behavioural plasticity is believed to reduce species vulnerability to extinction, yet global evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. We address this gap by quantifying the extent to which birds are observed behaving in novel ways to obtain food in the wild: based on a unique dataset of >3,800 novel behaviours, we show that species with a higher propensity to innovate are at a lower risk of global extinction and are more likely to have increasing...

Data from: Prey availability and ambient temperature influence carrion persistence in the boreal forest

Michael Peers, Sean Konkolics, Clayton Lamb, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Rudy Boonstra, Alice Kenney, Charles Krebs, April Robin Martinig, Baily McCulloch, Joseph Silva, Laura Garland & Stan Boutin
1. Scavenging by vertebrates can have important impacts on food web stability and persistence, and can alter the distribution of nutrients throughout the landscape. However, scavenging communities have been understudied in most regions around the globe, and we lack understanding of the biotic drivers of vertebrate scavenging dynamics. 2. In this paper, we examined how changes in prey density and carrion biomass caused by population cycles of a primary prey species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus...

Data for: Drainage reduces the resilience of a boreal peatland

Lorna Harris, Nigel Roulet & Tim Moore
Drier conditions caused by drainage for infrastructure development, or associated with global climate warming, may test the resilience of carbon-rich northern peatlands. Feedbacks among biological and hydrological processes maintain the long-term stability of peatlands, but if hydrological thresholds are passed, these feedbacks may be weakened, causing a shift in ecosystem state and potentially large losses of carbon (C). To determine peatland response to hydrological change, we examined the structure (vegetation composition and hydrology) and biogeochemical...

Data from: The mechanics of predator-prey interactions: first principles of physics predict predator-prey size ratios

Sebastien Portalier, Gregor Fussmann, Michel Loreau & Mehdi Cherif
1. Robust predictions of predator-prey interactions are fundamental for the understanding of food webs, their structure, dynamics, resistance to species loss, response to invasions and ecosystem function. Most current food web models measure parameters at the food web level to predict patterns at the same level. Thus, they are sensitive to the quality of the data, and may be ineffective in predicting non-observed interactions and disturbed food webs. There is a need for mechanistic models...

Data from: Quantity and quality of seed dispersal by a large arboreal frugivore in small and large Atlantic forest fragments

Óscar M. Chaves, Júlio César Bicca-Marques & Colin A. Chapman
Seed dispersal is a key process driving the structure, composition, and regeneration of tropical forests. Larger frugivores play a crucial role in community structuring by dispersing large seeds not dispersed by smaller frugivores. We assessed the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) provide seed dispersal services for a wide assemblage of plant species in both small and large Atlantic forest fragments. Although fruit availability often decreases in small fragments compared with large ones,...

Data from: Evidence for contemporary and historical gene flow between guppy populations in different watersheds, with a test for associations with adaptive traits

Léa Blondel, Lyndsey Baillie, Jessica Quinton, Jahson B. Alemu, Ian Paterson, Andrew P. Hendry & Paul Bentzen
In dendritic river systems, gene flow is expected to occur primarily within watersheds. Yet, rare cross‐watershed transfers can also occur, whether mediated by (often historical) geological events or (often contemporary) human activities. We explored these events and their potential evolutionary consequences by analyzing patterns of neutral genetic variation (microsatellites) and adaptive phenotypic variation (male color) in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata) distributed across two watersheds in northern Trinidad. We found the expected signatures of within‐watershed gene...

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