296 Works

Data from: Evidence for contemporary and historical gene flow between guppy populations in different watersheds, with a test for associations with adaptive traits

Léa Blondel, Lyndsey Baillie, Jessica Quinton, Jahson B. Alemu, Ian Paterson, Andrew P. Hendry & Paul Bentzen
In dendritic river systems, gene flow is expected to occur primarily within watersheds. Yet, rare cross‐watershed transfers can also occur, whether mediated by (often historical) geological events or (often contemporary) human activities. We explored these events and their potential evolutionary consequences by analyzing patterns of neutral genetic variation (microsatellites) and adaptive phenotypic variation (male color) in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata) distributed across two watersheds in northern Trinidad. We found the expected signatures of within‐watershed gene...

Data from: A comparison of techniques for classifying behaviour from accelerometers for two species of seabird

Allison Patterson, H. G. Gilchrist, Lorraine Chivers, Scott Hatch & Kyle Elliott
The behavior of many wild animals remains a mystery, as it is difficult to quantify behaviour of species that cannot be easily followed throughout their daily or seasonal movements. Accelerometers can solve some of these mysteries, as they collect activity data at a high temporal resolution (< 1 sec), can be relatively small (< 1 g) so they minimally disrupt behavior, and are increasingly capable of recording data for long periods. Nonetheless, there is a...

Data from: Female preference for novel males constrains contemporary evolution of assortative mating in guppies

Felipe Dargent, Lisa Chen, Gregor F. Fussmann, Cameron K. Ghalambor & Andrew P. Hendry
Progress toward local adaptation is expected to be enhanced when divergent selection is multi-dimensional, because many simultaneous sources of selection can increase the total strength of selection and enhance the number of independent traits under selection. Yet, whether local adaptation ensues from multi-dimensional selection also depends on its potential to cause the build-up of reproductive barriers such as sexual signals and preference for these signals. We used replicate experimental introductions of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism modifies habitat‐associated divergence: evidence from beach and creek breeding sockeye salmon

Krista B. Oke, Elena Motivans, Thomas P. Quinn & Andrew P. Hendry
Studies of parallel or convergent evolution (the repeated, independent evolution of similar traits in similar habitats) rarely explicitly quantify the extent of parallelism (i.e., variation in the direction and/or magnitude of divergence) between the sexes; instead they often investigate both sexes together or exclude one sex. However, differences in male and female patterns of divergence could contribute to overall variation in the extent of parallelism among ecotype pairs, especially in sexually dimorphic traits. Failing to...

Model output data for \"Negative density-dependent dispersal emerges from the joint evolution of density- and body condition-dependent dispersal strategies\"

Celina Baines, Justin Travis, Shannon McCauley & Greta Bocedi
Empirical studies have documented both positive and negative density-dependent dispersal, yet most theoretical models predict positive density dependence as a mechanism to avoid competition. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of negative density-dependent dispersal, but few of these have been formally modeled. Here, we developed an individual based model of the evolution of density-dependent dispersal. This model is novel in that it considers the effects of density on dispersal directly, and indirectly...

Data from: Interactions between seed-dispersing ant species affect plant community composition in field mesocosms

Kirsten Prior, Shannon Meadley-Dunphy & Megan Frederickson
1. In generalized mutualisms, species vary in the quality of services they provide to their partners directly via traits that affect partner fitness and indirectly via traits that influence interactions with mutualist species that play similar functional roles. Myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, is a generalized mutualism with ant species varying in the quality of dispersal services they provide to their plant partners. Variation in ant species identity can directly impact seed dispersal patterns...

Data from: Functional diversity of decomposers modulates litter decomposition affected by plant invasion along a climate gradient

Junwei Luan, Shirong Liu, Siyu Li, Joann Whalen, Yi Wang, Jingxi Wang, Yanchun Liu, Wei Dong & Scott Chang
1. Litter decomposition is fundamental to carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, which could be altered by plant invasion. The impacts of plant invasion on litter decomposition are generally predicted by traits difference between leaf litters of invasive and non-invasive species. However, plant invasion not only changes litter composition, but might also increase the activity or change the functional diversity of decomposers to alter litter decomposition, which is barely studied, and the effect could...

Snow bunting respirometry data

Ryan O'Connor, Audrey Le Pogam, Kevin Young, Francis Robitaille, Emily Choy, Oliver Love, Kyle Elliott, Anna Hargreaves, Dominique Berteaux, Andrew Tam & François Vézina
1. Arctic animals inhabit some of the coldest environments on the planet and have evolved physiological mechanisms for minimizing heat loss under extreme cold. However, the Arctic is warming faster than the global average and how well Arctic animals tolerate even moderately high air temperatures (Ta) is unknown. 2. Using flow-through respirometry we investigated the heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis; ≈ 31g, N = 42), a cold specialist, Arctic...

Landscape cover type, not social dominance, is associated with the winter movement patterns of snowy owls in temperate areas

Rebecca McCabe
Migrating animals occur along a continuum from species that spend the nonbreeding season at a fixed location to species that are nomadic during the nonbreeding season, essentially continuously moving. Such variation is likely driven by the economics of territoriality or heterogeneity in the environment. The Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) is known for its complex seasonal movements, and thus an excellent model to test these ideas, as many individuals travel unpredictably along irregular routes during both...

Data from: Body temperature, heart rate, and activity patterns of two boreal homeotherms in winter: homeostasis, allostasis, and ecological coexistence

Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Yasmine Majchrzak, Michael Peers, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane, Andrew McAdam & Murray Humphries
Organisms survive environmental variation by combining homeostatic regulation of critical states with allostatic variation of other traits, and species differences in these responses can contribute to coexistence in temporally-variable environments. In this paper, we simultaneously record variation in three functional traits – body temperature (Tb), heart rate, and activity - in relation to three forms of environmental variation – air temperature (Ta), photoperiod, and experimentally-manipulated resource levels – in free-ranging snowshoe hares and North American...

Data from: eDNA concentration, population size structure, and mark-recapture data

Matthew Yates, Dylan Glaser, John Post, Melania Cristescu, Dylan Fraser & Alison Derry
Organism abundance is a critical parameter in ecology, but its estimation is often challenging. Approaches utilizing eDNA to indirectly estimate abundance have recently generated substantial interest. However, preliminary correlations observed between eDNA concentration and abundance in nature are typically moderate in strength with significant unexplained variation. Here we apply a novel approach to integrate allometric scaling coefficients into models of eDNA concentration and organism abundance. We hypothesize that eDNA particle production scales non-linearly with mass,...

Data from: A prospective harmonized multicentre DTI study of cerebral white matter degeneration in ALS

Sanjay Kalra, Hans-Peter Müller, Abdullah Ishaque, Lorne Zinman, Lawrence Korngut, Angela Genge, Christian Beaulieu, Richard Frayne, Simon J. Graham & Jan Kassubek
Objective: To evaluate progressive white matter (WM) degeneration in ALS. Methods: Sixty-six patients with ALS and 43 healthy controls were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, multicentre study in the Canadian ALS Neuroimaging Consortium (CALSNIC). Participants underwent a harmonized neuroimaging protocol across 4 centres including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Three visits were accompanied by clinical assessments of disability (ALSFRS-R) and upper motor neuron (UMN) function. Voxel-wise whole brain and quantitative tractwise...

Breaking ecological barriers: anthropogenic disturbance leads to habitat transitions, hybridization, and high genetic diversity

Katie L Millette, Andrew Gonzalez & Melania E Cristescu
Genetic diversity is expected to erode in disturbed habitats through strong selection, local extinctions, and recolonization associated with genetic bottlenecks and restricted gene flow. Despite this general prediction and over three decades of population genetics studies, our understanding of the long-term effect of environmental disturbance on local and regional genetic diversity remains limited. We conducted a population genetic survey of the microcrustacean Daphnia across a landscape subject to anthropogenic stressors from a century of industrial...

Sarcomere length non-uniformities dictate force production along the descending limb of the force-length relation

Ricarda Haeger
The force-length relation is one of the most defining features of the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction, and yet a topic of debate in the literature. The force-length relation predicts that the force produced by muscle fibers is directly proportional to the degree of overlap between myosin and actin filaments, but several studies have shown forces that are larger than predicted, especially at long sarcomere lengths. The reason for such discrepancies may be due...

Local adaptation to biotic interactions: a meta-analysis across latitudes

Anna Hargreaves, Rachel Germain, Megan Bontrager, Joshua Persi & Amy Angert
Adaptation to local conditions can increase species’ geographic distributions and rates of diversification, but which components of the environment commonly drive local adaptation—particularly the importance of biotic interactions—is unclear. Biotic interactions should drive local adaptation when they impose consistent divergent selection; if this is common we expect transplant experiments to detect more frequent and stronger local adaptation when biotic interactions are left intact. We tested this hypothesis using a meta-analysis of transplant experiments from >125...

Price-Level Targeting and Inflation Expectations: Experimental Evidence

Robert Amano, Engle-Warnick Jim & Malik Shukayev
In this paper, we use an economics decision-making experiment to test a key assumption underpinning the efficacy of price-level targeting relative to inflation targeting for business cycle stabilization and mitigating the effects of the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates. In particular, we attempt to infer whether experimental participants understand the stationary nature of the price level under price-level targeting by observing their inflation forecasting behaviour in a laboratory setting. This is an important...

Synchronized file of allele frequencies for: Using seasonal genomic changes to understand historical adaptation to new environments: parallel selection on stickleback in highly-variable estuaries

Alan Garcia-Elfring, Rowan Barrett, Andrew Hendry, Timothy Thurman, Eric Palkovacs, Ben Wasserman & Antoine Paccard
Parallel evolution is considered strong evidence for natural selection. However, few studies have investigated the process of parallel selection as it plays out in real time. The common approach is to study historical signatures of selection in populations already well adapted to different environments. Here, to document selection under natural conditions, we study six populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) inhabiting bar-built estuaries that undergo seasonal cycles of environmental changes. Estuaries are periodically isolated from...

Data: the complex ecology of genitalia: gonopodium length and allometry in the Trinidadian guppy

José Jonathas P R De Lira
Male genitalia present an extraordinary pattern of rapid divergence in animals with internal fertilization, which is usually attributed to sexual selection. However, the effect of ecological factors on genitalia divergence could also be important, especially so in animals with non-retractable genitalia because of their stronger interaction with the surrounding environment in comparison to animals with retractable genitalia. Here we examine the potential of a pervasive ecological factor (predation) to influence the length and allometry of...

How Far Can Forecasting Models Forecast? Forecast Content Horizons for Some Important Macroeconomic Variables

John W. Galbraith & Greg Tkacz
For stationary transformations of variables, there exists a maximum horizon beyond which forecasts can provide no more information about the variable than is present in the unconditional mean. Meteorological forecasts, typically excepting only experimental or exploratory situations, are not reported beyond this horizon; by contrast, little generally accepted information about such maximum horizons is available for economic variables. The authors estimate such content horizons for a variety of economic variables, and compare these with the...

High tree diversity enhances light interception in tropical forests

Marina Melo Duarte, Caroline Isaac Ferreira Zuim, Taísi Bech Sorrini, Luís Eduardo Bernardini, Rafael De Andrade Moral, Joannes Guillemot, Catherine Potvin, Wagner Hugo Bonat, José Luiz Stape & Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion
We used two forest plantation experiments, the Sardinilla site in Panama (containing monocultures, 2-, 3- and 5-species mixtures in the main plantation, established in 2001, and 6-, 9- and18-species mixtures in the high-diversity plantation, established in 2003), and the Anhembi site in Brazil (established in 2006, containing 20-, 58- and 114-species mixtures), to investigate the effects of forest tree richness on the amount and distribution (horizontal, vertical and temporal) of intercepted ligh (red:far-red ratio -...

Source pool diversity and proximity shape the compositional uniqueness of insular mammal assemblages worldwide

Katherine Hébert, Virginie Millien & Jean-Philippe Lessard
Islands have been the test bed of several theories in community ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology. Progress within these disciplines has given a more comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the processes governing variation in species richness among islands. However, it remains unclear whether these same processes also explain variation in species and phylogenetic composition among islands. Integrating theory from ecology and biogeography, we infer the roles of dispersal, selection, and stochasticity on the composition of...

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