297 Works

Adaptation and competition in deteriorating environments

Romana Limberger & Gregor Fussmann
Evolution might rescue populations from extinction in changing environments. Using experimental evolution with microalgae, we investigated if competition influences adaptation to an abiotic stressor, and vice versa, if adaptation to abiotic change influences competition. In a first set of experiments, we propagated monocultures of five species with and without increasing salt stress for ~180 generations. When assayed in monoculture, two of the five species showed signatures of adaptation, that is, lines with a history of...

Data from: \"Identification of SNP markers for the endangered Ugandan red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) using RAD sequencing\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 December 2014 to 31 January 2015

Maria Jose Ruiz Lopez, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman, Patrick A. Omeja, James H. Jones, William M. Switzer, Paul D. Etter, Eric A. Johnson & Nelson Ting
Despite dramatic growth in the field of primate genomics over the past decade, studies of primate population and conservation genomics in the wild have been hampered due to the difficulties inherent in studying non-model organisms and endangered species, such as lack of a reference genome and current challenges in de novo primate genome assembly. Here, we used Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to develop a population-based SNP panel for the Ugandan red colobus (P. rufomitratus...

Data from: Thixotropy and rheopexy of muscle fibers probed using sinusoidal oscillations

David Altman, Fabio C. Minozzo & Dilson E. Rassier
Length changes of muscle fibers have previously been shown to result in a temporary reduction in fiber stiffness that is referred to as thixotropy. Understanding the mechanism of this thixotropy is important to our understanding of muscle function since there are many instances in which muscle is subjected to repeated patterns of lengthening and shortening. By applying sinusoidal length changes to one end of single permeabilized muscle fibers and measuring the force response at the...

Data from: A tale of two morphs: modeling pollen transfer, magic traits, and reproductive isolation in parapatry

Benjamin C. Haller, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Barbara Keller, Andrew P. Hendry & Elena Conti
The evolution of the flower is commonly thought to have spurred angiosperm diversification. Similarly, particular floral traits might have promoted diversification within specific angiosperm clades. We hypothesize that traits promoting the precise positional transfer of pollen between flowers might promote diversification. In particular, precise pollen transfer might produce partial reproductive isolation that facilitates adaptive divergence between parapatric populations differing in their reproductive-organ positions. We investigate this hypothesis with an individual-based model of pollen transfer dynamics...

Data from: Darwin’s finches and their diet niches: the sympatric coexistence of imperfect generalists

Luis F. De León, Jeffrey Podos, Tariq Gardezi, Anthony Herrel & Andrew P. Hendry
Adaptive radiation can be strongly influenced by interspecific competition for resources, which can lead to diverse outcomes ranging from competitive exclusion to character displacement. In each case, sympatric species are expected to evolve into distinct ecological niches, such as different food types, yet this expectation is not always met when such species are examined in nature. The most common hypotheses to account for the coexistence of species with substantial diet overlap rest on temporal variation...

Data from: Revisiting Darwin’s naturalization conundrum: explaining invasion success of non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa

Simeon Bezeng Bezeng, Jonathan T. Davies, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Olivier Maurin & Michelle Van Der Bank
1. Invasive species are detrimental ecologically and economically. Their negative impacts in Africa are extensive and call for a renewed commitment to better understand the correlates of invasion success. 2. Here, we explored several putative drivers of species invasion among woody non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa, a region of high floristic diversity. We tested for differences in functional traits between plant categories using a combination of phylogenetic independent contrasts and a simulation-based phylogenetic...

Data from: Habitat filtering not dispersal limitation shapes oceanic island floras: species assembly of the Galápagos archipelago

Sofía Carvajal-Endara, Andrew P. Hendry, Nancy C. Emery & T. Jonathan Davies
Remote locations, such as oceanic islands, typically harbour relatively few species, some of which go on to generate endemic radiations. Species colonising these locations tend to be a non-random subset from source communities, which is thought to reflect dispersal limitation. However, non-random colonisation could also result from habitat filtering, whereby only a few continental species can become established. We evaluate the imprints of these processes on the Galápagos flora by analysing a comprehensive regional phylogeny...

Data from: Upon accounting for the impact of isoenzyme loss, gene deletion costs anticorrelate with their evolutionary rates

Christopher Jacobs, Luke Lambourne, Yu Xia & Daniel Segre
System-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism’s genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been...

Data from: Distance-dependent pattern blending can camouflage salient aposematic signals

James B. Barnett, Innes C. Cuthill & Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel
The effect of viewing distance on the perception of visual texture is well known: spatial frequencies higher than the resolution limit of an observer's visual system will be summed and perceived as a single combined colour. In animal defensive colour patterns, distance-dependent pattern blending may allow aposematic patterns, salient at close range, to match the background to distant observers. Indeed, recent research has indicated that reducing the distance from which a salient signal can be...

Data from: Modelling the spread of innovation in wild birds

Thomas R. Shultz, Marcel Montrey & Lucy M. Aplin
We apply three plausible algorithms in agent-based computer simulations to recent experiments on social learning in wild birds. Although some of the phenomena are simulated by all three learning algorithms, several manifestations of social conformity bias are simulated by only the approximate majority (AM) algorithm, which has roots in chemistry, molecular biology and theoretical computer science. The simulations generate testable predictions and provide several explanatory insights into the diffusion of innovation through a population. The...

Data from: Sharp genetic discontinuity across a unimodal Heliconius hybrid zone

Carlos F. Arias, Claudia Rosales, Camilo Salazar, Jully Castano, Eldredge Bermingham, Mauricio Linares & W. Owen McMillan
Hybrid zones are powerful natural systems to study evolutionary processes to gain an understanding of adaptation and speciation. In the Cauca Valley (Colombia), two butterfly races, Heliconius cydno cydnides and Heliconius cydno weymeri, meet and hybridize. We characterized this hybrid zone using a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), microsatellites, and sequences for nuclear loci within and outside of the genomic regions that cause differences in wing color pattern. The...

Data from: Quantitative genetic inheritance of morphological divergence in a lake-stream stickleback ecotype pair: implications for reproductive isolation

Daniel Berner, Renaud Kaeuffer, Anne-Catherine Grandchamp, Joost A. M. Raeymaekers, Katja Räsänen & Andrew P. Hendry
Ecological selection against hybrids between populations occupying different habitats might be an important component of reproductive isolation during the initial stages of speciation. The strength and directionality of this barrier to gene flow depends on the genetic architecture underlying divergence in ecologically relevant phenotypes. We here present line cross analyses of inheritance for two key foraging-related morphological traits involved in adaptive divergence between stickleback ecotypes residing parapatrically in lake and stream habitats within the Misty...

Data from: Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea

Diana M. T. Sharpe, Silvester B. Wandera & Lauren J. Chapman
Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters, and can be important selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between...

Data from: Predicting the outcome of competition when fitness inequality is variable

Michael T. Pedruski, Gregor F. Fussmann & Andrew Gonzalez
Traditional niche theory predicts that when species compete for one limiting resource in simple ecological settings the more fit competitor should exclude the less fit competitor. Since the advent of neutral theory ecologists have increasingly become interested both in how the magnitude of fitness inequality between competitors and stochasticity may affect this prediction. We used numerical simulations to investigate the outcome of two-species resource competition along gradients of fitness inequality (inequality in R*) and initial...

Data from: Relationship between the sequencing and timing of vocal motor elements in birdsong

Andrew M. M. Matheson & Jon T. Sakata
Accurate coordination of the sequencing and timing of motor gestures is important for the performance of complex and evolutionarily relevant behaviors. However, the degree to which motor sequencing and timing are related remains largely unknown. Birdsong is a communicative behavior that consists of discrete vocal motor elements (‘syllables’) that are sequenced and timed in a precise manner. To reveal the relationship between syllable sequencing and timing, we analyzed how variation in the probability of syllable...

Data from: The wings before the bird: an evaluation of flapping-based locomotory hypotheses in bird antecedents

T. Alexander Dececchi, Hans C.E. Larsson & Michael B. Habib
Background. Powered flight is implicated as a major driver for the success of birds. Here we examine the effectiveness of three hypothesized pathways for the evolution of the flight stroke, the forelimb motion that powers aerial locomotion, in a terrestrial setting across a range of stem and basal avians: flap running, Wing Assisted Incline Running (WAIR), and wing-assisted leaping. Methods. Using biomechanical mathematical models based on known aerodynamic principals and in vivo experiments and ground...

Data from: Recent selection for self-compatibility in a population of Leavenworthia alabamica

Adam C. Herman & Daniel J. Schoen
The evolution of self-compatibility (SC) is the first step in the evolutionary transition in plants from outcrossing enforced by self-incompatibility (SI) to self-fertilization. In the Brassicaceae, SI is controlled by alleles of two tightly linked genes at the S-locus. Despite permitting inbreeding, mutations at the S-locus leading to SC may be selected if they provide reproductive assurance and/or gain a transmission advantage in a population when SC plants self- and outcross. Positive selection can leave...

Data from: Complementary crops and landscape features sustain wild bee communities

Kyle T. Martins, Cecile H. Albert, Martin J. Lechowicz & Andrew Gonzalez
Wild bees, which are important for commercial pollination, depend on floral and nesting resources both at farms and in the surrounding landscape. Mass-flowering crops are only in bloom for a few weeks and unable to support bee populations that persist throughout the year. Farm fields and orchards that flower in succession potentially can extend the availability of floral resources for pollinators. However, it is unclear whether the same bee species or genera will forage from...

Data from: Forebrain activation during social exposure in wild-type guppies

María J. Cabrera-Álvarez, William T. Swaney & Simon M. Reader
The neural mechanisms regulating social behaviour have received extensive attention in recent years, with much focus on 'complex' forms of sociality. Comparatively little research has addressed fundamental social behaviour, such as grouping, which impacts multiple determinants of fitness, such as foraging and avoiding predation. We are interested in the degree to which brain areas that regulate other forms of sociality are also involved in grouping behaviour, and so we investigated shoal-elicited activation of the brain...

Data from: Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

Jennifer K. Hellmann, Isaac Y. Ligocki, Constance M. O'Connor, Adam R. Reddon, Kelly A. Garvy, Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, H. Lisle Gibbs, Sigal Balshine & Ian M. Hamilton
The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a...

Data from: Risk factors for respiratory illness in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin P. Machanda, Erik J. Scully, Drew K. Enigk, Emily Otali, Martin N. Muller, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman & Richard W. Wrangham
Respiratory disease has caused significant mortality in African great ape populations. While much effort has been given to identifying the responsible pathogens, little is known about the factors that influence disease transmission or individual susceptibility. In the Kanyawara community of wild chimpanzees, respiratory illness has been the leading cause of mortality over 30 years, contributing to 27% of deaths. Deaths were common in all age groups except juveniles. Over 22 years of health observations, respiratory...

Data from: Elevated temperature and acclimation time affect metabolic performance in the heavily exploited Nile perch of Lake Victoria

Elizabeth A. Nyboer & Lauren J. Chapman
Increasing water temperatures due to anthropogenic climate change are predicted to negatively impact the aerobic metabolic performance of aquatic ectotherms. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that thermal increases result in reductions in aerobic scope (AS), which lead to decreases in energy available for essential fitness and performance functions. Consequences of warming are anticipated to be especially severe for warm-adapted tropical species as they are thought to have narrow thermal windows and limited plasticity for coping...

Introductory gestures before songbird vocal displays are shaped by learning and biological predispositions

Raghav Rajan, Shikha Kalra, Vishruta Yawatkar, Logan James & Jon Sakata
Numerous animal displays begin with introductory gestures. For example, lizards start their head-bobbing displays with introductory push-ups and many songbirds begin their vocal displays by repeating introductory notes (INs) before producing their learned song. Among songbirds, the acoustic structure and the number of INs produced before song vary considerably between individuals in a species. While similar variation in songs between individuals is a result of learning, whether variation in INs are also due to learning...

The Paris Climate Agreement and future sea level rise from Antartica

Robert M. DeConto, David Pollard, Richard B. Alley, Isabella Velicogna, Edward Gasson, Natalya Gomez, Shaina Sadai, Alan Condron, Daniel M. Gilford, Erica L. Ashe, Robert E. Kopp, Dawei Li & Andrea Dutton

Frequency of biologically-defined AD in relation to age, sex, APOEε4 and cognitive impairment in a prospective cohort study

Joseph Therriault, Tharick Pascoal, Andrea Benedet, Jaime Fernandez-Arias, Tina Wang, Gleb Berzgin, Min Su Kang, Firoza Lussier, Mira Chamoun, Melissa Savard, Cecile Tissot, Gassan Massarweh, Jean-Paul Soucy, Paolo Vitali, Paramita Saha-Chaudhuri, Serge Gauthier & Pedro Rosa-Neto
Objective: To assess the frequency of biologically-defined Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in relation to age, sex and APOEε4, as well as rates of discordance between clinically- and biologically defined AD. Methods: We assessed cognitively unimpaired (CU) elderly (n=166), amnestic MCI (n=77) and probable AD dementia (n=62) subjects who underwent evaluation by dementia specialists and neuropsychologists in addition to amyloid-PET with [18F]AZD4694 and tau-PET with [18F]MK6240. Individuals were grouped according to their AD biomarker profile. Positive predictive...

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