297 Works

Food availability and long-term predation risk interactively affect antipredator response

Shotaro Shiratsuru, Yasmine Majchrzak, Michael Peers, Emily Studd, Allyson Menzies, Rachael Derbyshire, Murray Humphries, Charles Krebs, Dennis Murray & Stan Boutin
Food availability and temporal variation in predation risk are both important determinants of the magnitude of antipredator responses, but their effects have rarely been examined simultaneously, particularly in wild prey. Here, we determine how food availability and long-term predation risk affect antipredator responses to acute predation risk by monitoring the foraging response of free-ranging snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to an encounter with a Canada lynx Lynx canadensis) in Yukon, Canada, over 4 winters (from 2015-2016...

Data from: Shale-hosted biota from the Dismal Lakes Group in Arctic Canada supports an early Mesoproterozoic diversification of eukaryotes

Corentin C. Loron, Galen P. Halverson, Robert H. Rainbird, Tom Skulski, Elizabeth C. Turner & Emmanuelle J. Javaux
The Mesoproterozoic is an important era for the development of eukaryotic organisms in oceans. The earliest unambiguous eukaryotic microfossils are reported in late Paleoproterozoic shales from China and Australia. During the Mesoproterozoic, eukaryotes diversified in taxonomy, metabolism and ecology, with the advent of eukaryotic photosynthesis, osmotrophy, multicellularity, and predation. Despite these biological innovations, their fossil record is scarce before the late Mesoproterozoic. Here, we document an assemblage of organic-walled microfossils from the 1590-1270 Ma Dismal...

Data from: Climate change increases predation risk for a keystone species of the boreal forest

Michael Peers, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Rudy Boonstra, Murray Humphries, Thomas Jung, Alice Kenney, Charles Krebs, Dennis Murray & Stan Boutin
Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) form a keystone predator-prey cycle that has large impacts on the North-American boreal forest vertebrate community. Snowshoe hares and lynx are both well-suited for snowy winters, but climate change associated shifts in snow conditions could lower hare survival and alter cyclic dynamics. Using detailed monitoring of snowshoe hare cause-specific mortality, behaviour, and prevailing weather, we demonstrate that hare mortality risk is strongly influenced by variation in...

Heliconiini butterflies can learn time-dependent reward associations

Wyatt Toure, Fletcher Young, W. McMillan & Stephen Montgomery
For many pollinators, flowers provide predictable temporal schedules of resource availability, meaning an ability to learn time-dependent information could be widely beneficial. However, this ability has only been demonstrated in a handful of species. Observational studies of Heliconius butterflies suggest that they may have an ability to form time-dependent foraging preferences. Heliconius are unique among butterflies in actively collecting pollen, a dietary behaviour linked to spatiotemporally faithful ‘trap-line’ foraging. Time-dependency of foraging preferences is hypothesised...

Data from: Asymmetries affecting aggressive contests between solitary parasitoids: the effect of host species

Eric Guerra-Grenier, Paul K. Abram & Jacques Brodeur
Conflicts in animals are usually resolved based on asymmetries, where contest winners are often those that value a resource the most and/or those who have the greatest potential to retain it. In parasitoid wasps, contests between females determine which individual exploits hosts for offspring production. Previous studies on solitary parasitoids rarely considered the role of biotic factors generating phenotypic variation that could influence the strength of asymmetries. Some parasitoid species parasitize host species of various...

Identifying diagnostic genetic markers for a cryptic invasive agricultural pest: a test case using the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Meredith M. Doellman, Glen R. Hood, Jacob Gersfeld, Amanda Driscoe, Charles C.Y. Xu, Ryan N. Sheehy, Noah Holmes, Wee L. Yee & Jeffrey L. Feder
Insect pests destroy ~15% of all USA crops, resulting in losses of $15 billion annually. Thus, developing cheap, quick and reliable methods for detecting harmful species is critical to curtail insect damage and lessen economic impact. The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major invasive pest threatening the multibillion-dollar apple industry in the Pacific Northwest USA. The fly is also sympatric with a benign but morphologically similar and genetically closely related species,...

Global meta-analysis of how marine upwelling affects herbivory

Andrew Sellers, Brian Leung & Mark Torchin
Aim: Nutrient subsidies support high primary productivity, increasing herbivore abundance and influencing their top-down control of producers. Wind-driven upwelling events deliver cold nutrient-rich water to coastlines, supporting highly productive marine environments. Results from studies comparing ecological processes across upwelling regimes are mixed: some reveal weaker herbivory in upwelling regions, while others report a positive relationship between upwelling and herbivory. In this synthesis we examine the influence of upwelling on top-down control of producers across the...

Temporally varying disruptive selection in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis).

Marc-Olivier Beausoleil, Luke Frishkoff, Leithen M'Gonigle, Joost Raeymaekers, Sarah Knutie, Luis De León, Sarah Huber, Jaime Chaves, Dale Clayton, Jennifer Koop, Jeffrey Podos, Diana Sharpe, Andrew Hendry & Rowan Barrett
Disruptive natural selection within populations exploiting different resources is considered to be a major driver of adaptive radiation and the production of biodiversity. Fitness functions, which describe the relationships between trait variation and fitness, can help to illuminate how this disruptive selection leads to population differentiation. However, a single fitness function represents only a particular selection regime over a single specified time period (often a single season or a year), and therefore might not capture...

Data from: Using adaptive traits to consider potential consequences of temporal variation in selection: male guppy colour through time and space

Kiyoko M. Gotanda & Andrew P. Hendry
Temporal variation in selection is typically evaluated by estimating and comparing selection coefficients in natural populations. Meta-analyses of these coefficients have yielded important insights, but selection coefficients are limited in several respects, including low statistical power, imperfect fitness surrogates, and uncertainty regarding consequences for trait change. A complementary approach without these limitations is to examine temporal variation in adaptive traits themselves, which is mechanistically easier and more directly relevant to evolutionary consequences. We illustrate this...

Data from: Forest fragments modulate the provision of multiple ecosystem services

Matthew G. E. Mitchell, Elena M. Bennett & Andrew Gonzalez
1. Agricultural landscapes provide the essential ecosystem service of food to growing human populations; at the same time, agricultural expansion to increase crop production results in forest fragmentation, degrading many other forest-dependent ecosystem services. However, surprisingly little is known about the role that forest fragments play in the provision of ecosystem services and how fragmentation affects landscape multi-functionality at scales relevant to land management decisions. 2. We measured the provision of six ecosystem services (crop...

Data from: Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest

Sarah Jane Wilson & Jeanine M. Rhemtulla
Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean...

Data from: Experimental adaptation to marine conditions by a freshwater alga

Josianne Lachapelle, Graham Bell & Nick Colegrave
The marine-freshwater boundary has been suggested as one of the most difficult to cross for organisms. Salt is a major ecological factor and provides an unequalled range of ecological opportunity because marine habitats are much more extensive than freshwater habitats, and because salt strongly affects the structure of microbial communities. We exposed experimental populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to steadily increasing concentrations of salt. About 98% of the lines went extinct. The ones...

Data from: High-throughput screening for ligands of the HEPN domain of sacsin

Xinlu Li, Marie Ménade, Guennadi Kozlov, Zheping Hu, Zheng Dai, Peter S. McPherson, Bernard Brais & Kalle Gehring
Sacsin is a large protein implicated in the neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS), which features the loss of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum. Although the domain architecture of sacsin suggests that it is a neuronal chaperone assisting in protein quality control, the precise function of sacsin remains elusive. Using fluorescence polarization (FP) assays, we confirmed that the HEPN domain of sacsin binds to nucleotides with low micromolar affinities. FP...

Data from: Multi-purpose habitat networks for short-range and long-range connectivity: a new method combining graph and circuit connectivity

Bronwyn Rayfield, David Pelletier, Maria Dumitru, Jeffrey A. Cardille & Andrew Gonzalez
Biodiversity conservation in landscapes undergoing climate and land-use changes requires designing multipurpose habitat networks that connect the movements of organisms at multiple spatial scales. Short-range connectivity within habitat networks provides organisms access to spatially distributed resources, reduces local extinctions and increases recolonization of habitat fragments. Long-range connectivity across habitat networks facilitates annual migrations and climate-driven range shifts. We present a method for identifying a multipurpose network of forest patches that promotes both short- and long-range...

Data from: New quantitative approaches reveal the spatial preference of nuclear compartments in mammalian fibroblasts

David J. Weston, Richard A. Russell, Elizabeth Batty, Kirsten Jensen, David A. Stephens, Niall M. Adams & Paul S. Freemont
The nuclei of higher eukaryotic cells display compartmentalization and certain nuclear compartments have been shown to follow a degree of spatial organization. To date, the study of nuclear organization has often involved simple quantitative procedures that struggle with both the irregularity of the nuclear boundary and the problem of handling replicate images. Such studies typically focus on inter-object distance, rather than spatial location within the nucleus. The concern of this paper is the spatial preference...

Data from: Does plasticity enhance or dampen phenotypic parallelism? A test with three lake-stream stickleback pairs.

Krista B. Oke, Mehvish Bukhari, Renaud Kaeuffer, Gregor Rolshausen, Katja Räsänen, Daniel I. Bolnick, Catherine L. Peichel & Andrew P. Hendry
Parallel (and convergent) phenotypic variation is most often studied in the wild, where it is difficult to disentangle genetic versus environmentally-induced effects. As a result, the potential contributions of phenotypic plasticity to parallelism (and non-parallelism) are rarely evaluated in a formal sense. Phenotypic parallelism could be enhanced by plasticity that causes stronger parallelism across populations in the wild than would be expected from genetic differences alone. Phenotypic parallelism could be dampened if site-specific plasticity induced...

Data from: Genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Québec

Anita Rogic, Nathalie Tessier, Pierre Legendre, François-Joseph Lapointe & Virginie Millien
Microsatellite GenotypesA text file containing all the genotypes (11 loci) usedRogic et al. Microsatellite genotypes.txt

Data from: Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

Kevin A. Feldheim, Samuel H. Gruber, Joseph D. DiBattista, Elizabeth A. Babcock, Steven A. Kessel, Andrew P. Hendry, Ellen K. Pikitch, Mary V. Ashley & Demian D. Chapman
Sharks are a globally threatened group of marine fishes that often breed in their natal region of origin. There has even been speculation that female sharks return to their exact birthplace to breed (“natal philopatry”), which would have important conservation implications. Genetic profiling of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from 20 consecutive cohorts (1993-2012) at Bimini, Bahamas showed that certain females faithfully gave birth at this site for nearly two decades. At least six females born...

Data from: Among-character rate variation distributions in phylogenetic analysis of discrete morphological characters

Luke B. Harrison & Hans C. E. Larsson
Likelihood-based methods are commonplace in phylogenetic systematics. Although much effort has been directed toward likelihood-based models for molecular data, comparatively less work has addressed models for discrete morphological character data. Among-character rate variation may confound phylogenetic analysis, but there have been few analyses of the magnitude and distribution of rate heterogeneity among discrete morphological characters. Using seventy-six data sets covering a range of plants, invertebrate, and vertebrate animals, we used a modified version of MrBayes...

Data from: Conservation versus livelihoods: spatial management of non-timber forest product harvests in a two-dimensional model

Brian E. Robinson
Areas of high biodiversity often coincide with communities living in extreme poverty. As a livelihood support, these communities often harvest wild products from the environment. But harvest activities can have negative impacts on fragile and globally important ecosystems. This paper examines trade-offs in ecological protection and community welfare from the harvest of wild products. With a novel model and empirical evidence, I show that management of harvest activity does not always resolve these trade-offs. In...

Data from: Pyramids of species richness: the determinants and distribution of species diversity across trophic levels

Shaun Turney, Christoper M. Buddle & Christopher M. Buddle
How species richness is distributed across trophic levels determines several dimensions of ecosystem functioning, including herbivory, predation, and decomposition rates. We perform a meta-analysis of 72 large published food webs to investigate their trophic diversity structure and possible endogenous, exogenous, and methodological causal variables. Consistent with classic theory, we found that published food webs can generally be described as ‘pyramids of species richness’. The food webs were more predator-poor, prey-rich and hierarchical than is expected...

Data from: The coevolution of innovation and technical intelligence in primates

Ana F. Navarrete, Simon M. Reader, Sally E. Street, Andrew Whalen & Kevin N. Laland
In birds and primates, the frequency of behavioural innovation has been shown to covary with absolute and relative brain size, leading to the suggestion that large brains allow animals to innovate, and/or that selection for innovativeness, together with social learning, may have driven brain enlargement. We examined the relationship between primate brain size and both technical (i.e. tool using) and non-technical innovation, deploying a combination of phylogenetically informed regression and exploratory causal graph analyses. Regression...

Data from: Hepcidin-25 in diabetic chronic kidney disease is predictive for mortality and progression to end stage renal disease

Martin Wagner, Peter U. Heuschmann & Ahsan Alam
Background: Anemia is common and is associated with impaired clinical outcomes in diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). It may be explained by reduced erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis, but recent data suggest that EPO-resistance and diminished iron availability due to inflammation contribute significantly. In this cohort study, we evaluated the impact of hepcidin-25—the key hormone of iron-metabolism—on clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with CKD along with endogenous EPO levels. Methods: 249 diabetic patients with CKD of any...

Data from: Using simulations to evaluate Mantel-based methods for assessing landscape resistance to gene flow

Katherine A. Zeller, Tyler G. Creech, Katie L. Millette, Rachel S. Crowhurst, Robert A. Long, Helene H. Wagner, Niko Balkenhol & Erin L. Landguth
Mantel-based tests have been the primary analytical methods for understanding how landscape features influence observed spatial genetic structure. Simulation studies examining Mantel-based approaches have highlighted major challenges associated with the use of such tests and fueled debate on when the Mantel test is appropriate for landscape genetics studies. We aim to provide some clarity in this debate using spatially explicit, individual-based, genetic simulations to examine the effects of the following on the performance of Mantel-based...

Data from: Ants as ecological indicators of rainforest restoration: community convergence and the development of an Ant Forest Indicator Index in the Australian wet tropics

Michael J. Lawes, Anthony M. Moore, Alan N. Andersen, Noel D. Preece & Donald C. Franklin
Ecosystem restoration can help reverse biodiversity loss, but whether faunal communities of forests undergoing restoration converge with those of primary forest over time remains contentious. There is a need to develop faunal indicators of restoration success that more comprehensively reflect changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. Ants are an ecologically dominant faunal group and are widely advocated as ecological indicators. We examine ant species and functional group responses on a chronosequence of rainforest restoration in...

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  • McGill University
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