22 Works

Data from: The founding of Mauritian endemic coffee trees by a synchronous long-distance dispersal event

Michael D. Nowak, Benjamin C. Haller & Anne D. Yoder
The stochastic process of long-distance dispersal is the exclusive means by which plants colonize oceanic islands. Baker's rule posits that self-incompatible plant lineages are unlikely to successfully colonize oceanic islands because they must achieve a coordinated long-distance dispersal of sufficiently numerous individuals to establish an outcrossing founder population. Here, we show for the first time that Mauritian Coffea species are self-incompatible and thus represent an exception to Baker's rule. The genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) is composed...

Data from: Predators, energetics and fitness drive neonatal reproductive failure in red squirrels

Emily K. Studd, Stan Boutin, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs & Murray M. Humphries
Neonatal reproductive failure should occur when energetic costs of parental investment outweigh fitness benefits. However, little is known about the drivers of neonatal reproductive failure in free ranging species experiencing continuous natural variation in predator abundance and in the energetic and fitness costs and benefits associated with parental investment. Long-term comprehensive studies are required to better understand how biotic, abiotic, and life history conditions interact to drive occurrences of reproductive failure in the wild. Using...

Data from: Phylogeography of Heliconius cydno and its closest relatives: disentangling their origin and diversification

Carlos F. Arias, Camilo Salazar, Claudia Rosales, Marcus R. Kronforst, Mauricio Linares, Eldredge Bermingham & W. Owen McMillan
The origins of phenotypic variation within mimetic Heliconius butterflies have long fascinated biologists and naturalists. However, the evolutionary processes that have generated this extraordinary diversity remain puzzling. Here we examine intraspecific variation across Heliconius cydno diversification and compare this variation to that within the closely related H. melpomene and H. timareta radiations. Our data, which consist of both mtDNA and genome scan from nearly 2250 AFLP loci, reveal a complex history of differentiation and admixture...

Data from: A tale of two morphs: modeling pollen transfer, magic traits, and reproductive isolation in parapatry

Benjamin C. Haller, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Barbara Keller, Andrew P. Hendry & Elena Conti
The evolution of the flower is commonly thought to have spurred angiosperm diversification. Similarly, particular floral traits might have promoted diversification within specific angiosperm clades. We hypothesize that traits promoting the precise positional transfer of pollen between flowers might promote diversification. In particular, precise pollen transfer might produce partial reproductive isolation that facilitates adaptive divergence between parapatric populations differing in their reproductive-organ positions. We investigate this hypothesis with an individual-based model of pollen transfer dynamics...

Data from: Darwin’s finches and their diet niches: the sympatric coexistence of imperfect generalists

Luis F. De León, Jeffrey Podos, Tariq Gardezi, Anthony Herrel & Andrew P. Hendry
Adaptive radiation can be strongly influenced by interspecific competition for resources, which can lead to diverse outcomes ranging from competitive exclusion to character displacement. In each case, sympatric species are expected to evolve into distinct ecological niches, such as different food types, yet this expectation is not always met when such species are examined in nature. The most common hypotheses to account for the coexistence of species with substantial diet overlap rest on temporal variation...

Data from: Using adaptive traits to consider potential consequences of temporal variation in selection: male guppy colour through time and space

Kiyoko M. Gotanda & Andrew P. Hendry
Temporal variation in selection is typically evaluated by estimating and comparing selection coefficients in natural populations. Meta-analyses of these coefficients have yielded important insights, but selection coefficients are limited in several respects, including low statistical power, imperfect fitness surrogates, and uncertainty regarding consequences for trait change. A complementary approach without these limitations is to examine temporal variation in adaptive traits themselves, which is mechanistically easier and more directly relevant to evolutionary consequences. We illustrate this...

Data from: Forest fragments modulate the provision of multiple ecosystem services

Matthew G. E. Mitchell, Elena M. Bennett & Andrew Gonzalez
1. Agricultural landscapes provide the essential ecosystem service of food to growing human populations; at the same time, agricultural expansion to increase crop production results in forest fragmentation, degrading many other forest-dependent ecosystem services. However, surprisingly little is known about the role that forest fragments play in the provision of ecosystem services and how fragmentation affects landscape multi-functionality at scales relevant to land management decisions. 2. We measured the provision of six ecosystem services (crop...

Data from: New quantitative approaches reveal the spatial preference of nuclear compartments in mammalian fibroblasts

David J. Weston, Richard A. Russell, Elizabeth Batty, Kirsten Jensen, David A. Stephens, Niall M. Adams & Paul S. Freemont
The nuclei of higher eukaryotic cells display compartmentalization and certain nuclear compartments have been shown to follow a degree of spatial organization. To date, the study of nuclear organization has often involved simple quantitative procedures that struggle with both the irregularity of the nuclear boundary and the problem of handling replicate images. Such studies typically focus on inter-object distance, rather than spatial location within the nucleus. The concern of this paper is the spatial preference...

Data from: Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world

Graham Bell, Gregor F. Fussmann & Etienne Low-Décarie
Here, we provide a review of the direct effect of increasing CO2 on aquatic primary producers through its function as a source of carbon, focusing our analysis on the interpretation of this increase as an increase in the availability of a resource. This provides an interesting context to evaluate ecological and evolutionary theories relating to nutrient availability and leads us to: the assessment of theories about limitation of productivity and the integration of CO2 into...

Data from: Real-time modulation of perceptual eye dominance in humans

Jiawei Zhou, Alexandre Reynaud & Robert F. Hess
Ocular dominance (OD) has long served as the model for neural plasticity. The shift of OD has been demonstrated by monocular deprivation in animals only during early visual development. Here, for the first time, we show that perceptual eye dominance can be modulated in real time in normal human adults by varying the spatial image content of movies seen dichoptically by the two eyes over a period as short as 2.5 h. Unlike OD shifts...

Data from: Effectiveness of continence promotion for older women via community organisations: a cluster randomised trial

Cara Tannenbaum, Rona Agnew, Andrea Benedetti, Doneal Thomas & Eleanor Van Den Heuvel
Objectives: The primary objective of this cluster randomised controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of the three experimental continence promotion interventions against a control intervention on urinary symptom improvement in older women with untreated incontinence recruited from community organisations. Setting: 71 community organisations across the United Kingdom Participants: 259 women aged 60 years and older with untreated incontinence entered the trial; 88% completed the 3-month follow-up. Interventions: The three active interventions consisted of a...

Data from: Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers

George H. Perry, Matthieu Foll, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Etienne Patin, Yohann Nédélec, Alain Pacis, Maxime Barakatt, Simon Gravel, Xiang Zhou, Sam L. Nsobya, Laurent Excoffier, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Nathaniel J. Dominy & Luis B. Barreiro
The evolutionary history of the human pygmy phenotype (small body size), a characteristic of African and Southeast Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers, is largely unknown. Here we use a genome-wide admixture mapping analysis to identify 16 genomic regions that are significantly associated with the pygmy phenotype in the Batwa, a rainforest hunter-gatherer population from Uganda (east central Africa). The identified genomic regions have multiple attributes that provide supporting evidence of genuine association with the pygmy phenotype, including...

Data from: Gene expression plasticity evolves in response to colonization of freshwater lakes in threespine stickleback

Matthew R. J. Morris, Romain Richard, Erica H. Leder, Rowan D. H. Barrett, Nadia Aubin-Horth & Sean M. Rogers
Phenotypic plasticity is predicted to facilitate individual survival and/or evolve in response to novel environments. Plasticity that facilitates survival should both permit colonization and act as a buffer against further evolution, with contemporary and derived forms predicted to be similarly plastic for a suite of traits. On the other hand, given the importance of plasticity in maintaining internal homeostasis, derived populations that encounter greater environmental heterogeneity should evolve greater plasticity. We tested the evolutionary significance...

Data from: Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

Stephen G. Hamilton, Laura Castro De La Guardia, Andrew E. Derocher, Vicki Sahanatien, Bruno Tremblay & David Huard
Background: Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 – 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Principal Findings: Shifts away from multiyear ice to...

Data from: CO2 alters community composition and response to nutrient enrichment of freshwater phytoplankton

Etienne Low-Décarie, Gregor F. Fussmann & Graham Bell
Nutrients can limit the productivity of ecosystems and control the composition of the communities of organisms that inhabit them. Humans are causing atmospheric CO2 concentrations to reach levels higher than those of the past millions of years while at the same time propagating eutrophication through the addition of nutrients to lakes and rivers. We studied the effect of elevated CO2 concentrations, nutrient addition and their interaction in a series of freshwater mesocosm experiments using a...

Data from: Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

S. Eryn McFarlane, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell & David W. Coltman
A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components...

Data from: Predator-free space, functional responses and biological invasions

Daniel Barrios-O'Neill, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Mark C. Emmerson, Anthony Ricciardi & Hugh J. MacIsaac
Predator-prey interactions are mediated by the structural complexity of habitats, but disentangling the many facets of structure that contribute to this mediation remains elusive. In a world replete with altered landscapes and biological invasions, determining how structure mediates the interactions between predators and novel prey will contribute to our understanding of invasions and predator-prey dynamics in general. Here, using simplified experimental arenas, we manipulate predator-free space, whilst holding surface area and volume constant, to quantify...

Data from: Landscape resistance and habitat combine to provide an optimal model of genetic structure and connectivity at the range margin of a small mammal

Robby R. Marrotte, Andrew Gonzalez & Virginie Millien
We evaluated the effect of habitat and landscape characteristics on the population genetic structure of the white-footed mouse. We develop a new approach that uses numerical optimization to define a model that combines site differences and landscape resistance to explain the genetic differentiation between mouse populations inhabiting forest patches in southern Québec. We used ecological distance computed from resistance surfaces with Circuitscape to infer the effect of the landscape matrix on gene flow. We calculated...

Data from: Final thermal conditions override the effects of temperature history and dispersal in experimental communities

Romana Limberger, Etienne Low-Décarie, Gregor F. Fussmann & E. Low-Decarie
Predicting the effect of climate change on biodiversity is a multifactorial problem that is complicated by potentially interactive effects with habitat properties and altered species interactions. In a microcosm experiment with communities of microalgae, we analysed whether the effect of rising temperature on diversity depended on the initial or the final temperature of the habitat, on the rate of change, on dispersal and on landscape heterogeneity. We also tested whether the response of species to...

Data from: Ecological impacts of invasive alien species along temperature gradients: testing the role of environmental matching

Josephine C. Iacarella, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Mhairi E. Alexander & Anthony Ricciardi
Invasive alien species (IAS) can cause substantive ecological impacts, and the role of temperature in mediating these impacts may become increasingly significant in a changing climate. Habitat conditions and physiological optima offer predictive information for IAS impacts in novel environments. Here, using meta-analysis and laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the impacts of IAS in the field are inversely correlated with the difference in their ambient and optimal temperatures. A meta-analysis of 29 studies...

Data from: The legend of the Canadian horse: genetic diversity and breed origin

Anas Khanshour, Rytis Juras, Rick Blackburn & Ernest Gus Cothran
The Canadian breed of horse invokes a fascinating chapter of North American history and as such it is now a heritage breed and the national horse of Canada. The aims of this study were to determine the level of genetic diversity in the Canadian, investigate the possible foundation breeds and the role it had in the development of the US horse breeds, such as Morgan Horse. We tested a total of 981 horses by using...

Data from: Daily energy expenditure during lactation is strongly selected in a free-living mammal

Quinn E. Fletcher, John R. Speakman, Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman & Murray M. Humphries
1. Energy expenditure is a trait of central importance in ecological and evolutionary theory. We examined the correlates of, the strength of selection on, and the heritability of, daily energy expenditure (DEE; kJ/day) during lactation in free-ranging North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). 2. Over seven years, lactating squirrels with greater DEE had higher annual reproductive success (ARS; standardized selection gradient: β’ = 0.47; top 12% of published estimates). Surprisingly, positive fecundity selection on lactation...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    22

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    22

Affiliations

  • McGill University
    22
  • University of Alberta
    4
  • University of Guelph
    3
  • Queen's University Belfast
    2
  • University of Chicago
    2
  • University of Essex
    2
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • Brunel University London
    1
  • Duke University
    1