40 Works

Data from: Revisiting Darwin’s naturalization conundrum: explaining invasion success of non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa

Simeon Bezeng Bezeng, Jonathan T. Davies, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Olivier Maurin & Michelle Van Der Bank
1. Invasive species are detrimental ecologically and economically. Their negative impacts in Africa are extensive and call for a renewed commitment to better understand the correlates of invasion success. 2. Here, we explored several putative drivers of species invasion among woody non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa, a region of high floristic diversity. We tested for differences in functional traits between plant categories using a combination of phylogenetic independent contrasts and a simulation-based phylogenetic...

Data from: Multi-contrast submillimetric 3-Tesla hippocampal subfield segmentation protocol and dataset

Jessie Kulaga-Yoskovitz, Boris C. Bernhardt, Seok-Jun Hong, Tommaso Mansi, Kevin E. Liang, Andre J. W. Van Der Kouwe, Jonathan Smallwood, Andrea Bernasconi & Neda Bernasconi
The hippocampus is composed of distinct anatomical subregions that participate in multiple cognitive processes and are differentially affected in prevalent neurological and psychiatric conditions. Advances in high-field MRI allow for the non-invasive identification of hippocampal substructure. These approaches, however, demand time-consuming manual segmentation that relies heavily on anatomical expertise. Here, we share manual labels and associated high-resolution MRI data (MNI-HISUB25; submillimetric T1- and T2-weighted images, detailed sequence information, and stereotaxic probabilistic anatomical maps) based on...

Data from: Mitigation of pollen limitation in the lowbush blueberry agroecosystem: effect of augmenting natural pollinators

Melissa Fulton, Linley K. Jesson, Kyle Bobiwash & Daniel J. Schoen
Growers of small fruit crops often supplement the natural pollinator community by introducing pollinators into commercial orchards and fields, but there are relatively few studies that test the extent to which such interventions increase fruit yield. To test whether plants are limited by pollen availability, inflorescences in 78 commercial lowbush blueberry fields during three years were hand-pollinated either with supplemental outcross pollen, or marked and left as controls (open-pollination). Maximum fruit set with supplemental pollination...

Data from: Thixotropy and rheopexy of muscle fibers probed using sinusoidal oscillations

David Altman, Fabio C. Minozzo & Dilson E. Rassier
Length changes of muscle fibers have previously been shown to result in a temporary reduction in fiber stiffness that is referred to as thixotropy. Understanding the mechanism of this thixotropy is important to our understanding of muscle function since there are many instances in which muscle is subjected to repeated patterns of lengthening and shortening. By applying sinusoidal length changes to one end of single permeabilized muscle fibers and measuring the force response at the...

Data from: Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

Jennifer K. Hellmann, Isaac Y. Ligocki, Constance M. O'Connor, Adam R. Reddon, Kelly A. Garvy, Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, H. Lisle Gibbs, Sigal Balshine & Ian M. Hamilton
The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a...

Data from: Relationship between the sequencing and timing of vocal motor elements in birdsong

Andrew M. M. Matheson & Jon T. Sakata
Accurate coordination of the sequencing and timing of motor gestures is important for the performance of complex and evolutionarily relevant behaviors. However, the degree to which motor sequencing and timing are related remains largely unknown. Birdsong is a communicative behavior that consists of discrete vocal motor elements (‘syllables’) that are sequenced and timed in a precise manner. To reveal the relationship between syllable sequencing and timing, we analyzed how variation in the probability of syllable...

Data from: Experimental evidence for within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproduction

Kyle H. Elliott, Gustavo S. Betini, Ian Dworkin & D. Ryan Norris
Fear of predation can have non-lethal effects on individuals within a season but whether, and to what extent, these effects carry over into subsequent seasons is not known. Using a replicated seasonal population of the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we examined both within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproductive output. Compared to controls, flies exposed to the scent of mantid (Tenodera sinensis) predators in the non-breeding season had 64% higher mortality,...

Data from: Scoring tools for the analysis of infant respiratory inductive plethysmography signals

Carlos Alejandro Robles-Rubio, Gianluca Bertolizio, Karen A. Brown & Robert E. Kearney
Infants recovering from anesthesia are at risk of life threatening Postoperative Apnea (POA). POA events are rare, and so the study of POA requires the analysis of long cardiorespiratory records. Manual scoring is the preferred method of analysis for these data, but it is limited by low intra- and inter-scorer repeatability. Furthermore, recommended scoring rules do not provide a comprehensive description of the respiratory patterns. This work describes a set of manual scoring tools that...

Data from: \"Identification of SNP markers for the endangered Ugandan red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) using RAD sequencing\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 December 2014 to 31 January 2015

Maria Jose Ruiz Lopez, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman, Patrick A. Omeja, James H. Jones, William M. Switzer, Paul D. Etter, Eric A. Johnson & Nelson Ting
Despite dramatic growth in the field of primate genomics over the past decade, studies of primate population and conservation genomics in the wild have been hampered due to the difficulties inherent in studying non-model organisms and endangered species, such as lack of a reference genome and current challenges in de novo primate genome assembly. Here, we used Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to develop a population-based SNP panel for the Ugandan red colobus (P. rufomitratus...

Data from: Predicting the outcome of competition when fitness inequality is variable

Michael T. Pedruski, Gregor F. Fussmann & Andrew Gonzalez
Traditional niche theory predicts that when species compete for one limiting resource in simple ecological settings the more fit competitor should exclude the less fit competitor. Since the advent of neutral theory ecologists have increasingly become interested both in how the magnitude of fitness inequality between competitors and stochasticity may affect this prediction. We used numerical simulations to investigate the outcome of two-species resource competition along gradients of fitness inequality (inequality in R*) and initial...

Data from: Ground ice melt in the high Arctic leads to greater ecological heterogeneity

Michael S. Becker, T. Jonathan Davies, Wayne H Pollard & Wayne H. Pollard
1. The polar desert biome of the Canadian high Arctic Archipelago is currently experiencing some of the greatest mean annual air temperature increases on the planet, threatening the stability of ecosystems residing above temperature-sensitive permafrost. 2. Ice wedges are the most widespread form of ground ice, occurring in up to 25% of the world's terrestrial near-surface, and their melting (thermokarst) may catalyze a suite of biotic and ecological changes, facilitating major ecosystem shifts. 3. These...

Data from: Testing for parallel allochronic isolation in lake-stream stickleback

Dieta Hanson, Rowan D. H. Barrett & Andrew P. Hendry
The evolution of reproductive isolation (RI) is a critical step shaping progress toward speciation. In the context of ecological speciation, a critical question is the extent to which specific reproductive barriers important to RI evolve rapidly and predictably in response to environmental differences. Only reproductive barriers with these properties (importance, rapidity, predictability) will drive the diversification of species that are cohesively structured by environment type. One candidate barrier that might exhibit such properties is allochrony,...

Data from: Demasculinization of male guppies increases resistance to a common and harmful ectoparasite

Felipe Dargent, Adam R. Reddon, William T. Swaney, Gregor F. Fussmann, Simon M. Reader, Marilyn E. Scott & Mark R. Forbes
Parasites are detrimental to host fitness and therefore should strongly select for host defence mechanisms. Yet, hosts vary considerably in their observed parasite loads. One notable source of inter-individual variation in parasitism is host sex. Such variation could be caused by the immunomodulatory effects of gonadal steroids. Here we assess the influence of gonadal steroids on the ability of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to defend themselves against a common and deleterious parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli). Adult male...

Data from: Parting ways: Parasite release in nature leads to sex-specific evolution of defense

Felipe Dargent, Gregor Rolshausen, Andrew P. Hendry, Marilyn E. Scott & Gregor F. Fussmann
We evaluate the extent to which males and females evolve along similar or different trajectories in response to the same environmental shift. Specifically, we use replicate experimental introductions in nature to consider how release from a key parasite (Gyrodactylus) generates similar or different defense evolution in male versus female guppies (Poecilia reticulata). After 8-12 generations of evolution, guppies were collected from the ancestral (parasite still present) and derived (parasite now absent) populations and bred for...

Data from: The nature of nurture in a wild mammal’s fitness

S. Eryn McFarlane, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin & Andrew G. McAdam
Genetic variation in fitness is required for the adaptive evolution of any trait but natural selection is thought to erode genetic variance in fitness. This paradox has motivated the search for mechanisms that might maintain a population's adaptive potential. Mothers make many contributions to the attributes of their developing offspring and these maternal effects can influence responses to natural selection if maternal effects are themselves heritable. Maternal genetic effects (MGEs) on fitness might, therefore, represent...

Data from: A century of sprawl in the United States

Christopher Barrington-Leigh & Adam Millard-Ball
The urban street network is one of the most permanent features of cities. Once laid down, the pattern of streets determines urban form and the level of sprawl for decades to come. We present a high-resolution time series of urban sprawl, as measured through street network connectivity, in the United States from 1920 to 2012. Sprawl started well before private car ownership was dominant and grew steadily until the mid-1990s. Over the last two decades,...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: \"De novo assembly transcriptome for the rostrum dace (Leuciscus burdigalensis, Cyprinidae: fish) naturally infected by a copepod ectoparasite\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 December 2014 to 31 January 2015

Olivier Rey, Géraldine Loot, Olivier Bouchez, Simon Blanchet, Maria Jose Ruiz-Lopez, Nelson Ting, Paul D. Etter, Eric A. Johnson, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman, James H. Jones, Patrick A. Omeja & William M. Switzer
The emergence of pathogens represents substantial threats to public health, livestock, domesticated animals, and biodiversity. How wild populations respond to emerging pathogens has generated a lot of interest in the last two decades. With the recent advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies it is now possible to develop large transcriptomic resources for non-model organisms, hence allowing new research avenues on the immune responses of hosts from a large taxonomic spectra. We here focused on a wild...

Data from: Feather corticosterone reveals stress associated with dietary changes in a breeding seabird

Alexis P. Will, Yutaka Watanuki, Dale M. Kikuchi, Nobuhiko Sato, Motohiro Ito, Matt Callahan, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Scott Hatch, Kyle H. Elliott, Leslie Slater, Akinori Takahashi, Alexander S. Kitaysky, Kyle Elliott, Alexis Will & Alexander Kitaysky
Changes in climate and anthropogenic pressures might affect the composition and abundance of forage fish in the world's oceans. The junk-food hypothesis posits that dietary shifts that affect the quality (e.g., energy content) of food available to marine predators may impact their physiological state and consequently affect their fitness. Previously, we experimentally validated that deposition of the adrenocortical hormone, corticosterone, in feathers is a sensitive measure of nutritional stress in seabirds. Here, we use this...

Data from: Little evidence for morphological change in a resilient endemic species following the introduction of a novel predator

Diana M. T. Sharpe, R. Brian Langerhans, Etienne Low-Décarie & Lauren J Chapman
Human activities, such as species introductions, are dramatically and rapidly altering natural ecological processes, and often result in novel selection regimes. To date, we still have a limited understanding of the extent to which such anthropogenic selection may be driving contemporary phenotypic change in natural populations. Here we test whether the introduction of the piscivorous Nile perch, Lates niloticus, into East Africa's Lake Victoria and nearby lakes coincided with morphological change in one resilient native...

Data from: Community rescue in experimental metacommunities

Etienne Low-Décarie, Marcus Kolber, Paige Homme, Andrea Lofano, Alex J. Dumbrell, Andrew Gonzalez & Graham Bell
The conditions that allow biodiversity to recover following severe environmental degradation are poorly understood. We studied community rescue, the recovery of a viable community through the evolutionary rescue of many populations within an evolving community, in metacommunities of soil microbes adapting to a herbicide. The metacommunities occupied a landscape of crossed spatial gradients of the herbicide (Dalapon) and a resource (glucose), whereas their constituent communities were either isolated or connected by dispersal. The spread of...

Data from: Linking macro-trends and micro-rates: re-evaluating micro-evolutionary support for Cope’s rule

Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Cristián Correa, Martin M. Turcotte, Gregor Rolshausen & Andrew P. Hendry
Cope's rule, wherein a lineage increases in body size through time, was originally motivated by macro-evolutionary patterns observed in the fossil record. More recently, some authors have argued that evidence exists for generally positive selection on individual body size in contemporary populations, providing a micro-evolutionary mechanism for Cope's rule. If larger body size confers individual fitness advantages as the selection estimates suggest, thereby explaining Cope's rule, then body size should increase over micro-evolutionary time scales....

Data from: The evolution of morphological diversity in continental assemblages of Passerine birds

Knud Andreas Jønsson, Jean Philippe Lessard, Robert E. Ricklefs & Jean-Philippe Lessard
Understanding geographic variation in the species richness and lineage composition of regional biotas is a long standing goal in ecology. Why do some evolutionary lineages proliferate while others do not, and how do new colonists fit into an established fauna? Here, we analyse the morphological structure of assemblages of passerine birds in four biogeographic regions to examine the relative influence of colonization history and niche-based processes on regional communities of passerine birds. Using morphological traits...

Data from: Unified pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity enables reliable and flexible learning

Rui Ponte Costa, Robert C. Froemke, Per Jesper Sjöström & Mark C. W. Van Rossum
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace...

Data from: Do stressful conditions make adaptation difficult? Guppies in the oil-polluted environments of southern Trinidad

Gregor Rolshausen, Dawn A. T. Phillip, Denise M. Beckles, Ali Akbari, Subhasis Ghoshal, Patrick B. Hamilton, Charles R. Tyler, Alan G. Scarlett, Indar Ramnarine, Paul Bentzen & Andrew P. Hendry
The ability of populations to rapidly adapt to new environments will determine their future in an increasingly human-modified world. Although meta-analyses do frequently uncover signatures of local adaptation, they also reveal many exceptions. We suggest that particular constraints on local adaptation might arise when organisms are exposed to novel stressors, such as anthropogenic pollution. To inform this possibility, we studied the extent to which guppies (Poecilia reticulata) show local adaptation to oil pollution in southern...

Registration Year

  • 2015
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • McGill University
    40
  • Stanford University
    4
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Concordia University
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
    2
  • University of Oregon
    2
  • McMaster University
    2
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    2