40 Works

Data from: Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

Jennifer K. Hellmann, Isaac Y. Ligocki, Constance M. O'Connor, Adam R. Reddon, Kelly A. Garvy, Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, H. Lisle Gibbs, Sigal Balshine & Ian M. Hamilton
The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a...

Data from: Mitigation of pollen limitation in the lowbush blueberry agroecosystem: effect of augmenting natural pollinators

Melissa Fulton, Linley K. Jesson, Kyle Bobiwash & Daniel J. Schoen
Growers of small fruit crops often supplement the natural pollinator community by introducing pollinators into commercial orchards and fields, but there are relatively few studies that test the extent to which such interventions increase fruit yield. To test whether plants are limited by pollen availability, inflorescences in 78 commercial lowbush blueberry fields during three years were hand-pollinated either with supplemental outcross pollen, or marked and left as controls (open-pollination). Maximum fruit set with supplemental pollination...

Data from: Revisiting Darwin’s naturalization conundrum: explaining invasion success of non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa

Simeon Bezeng Bezeng, Jonathan T. Davies, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Olivier Maurin & Michelle Van Der Bank
1. Invasive species are detrimental ecologically and economically. Their negative impacts in Africa are extensive and call for a renewed commitment to better understand the correlates of invasion success. 2. Here, we explored several putative drivers of species invasion among woody non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa, a region of high floristic diversity. We tested for differences in functional traits between plant categories using a combination of phylogenetic independent contrasts and a simulation-based phylogenetic...

Data from: \"Identification of SNP markers for the endangered Ugandan red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) using RAD sequencing\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 December 2014 to 31 January 2015

Maria Jose Ruiz Lopez, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman, Patrick A. Omeja, James H. Jones, William M. Switzer, Paul D. Etter, Eric A. Johnson & Nelson Ting
Despite dramatic growth in the field of primate genomics over the past decade, studies of primate population and conservation genomics in the wild have been hampered due to the difficulties inherent in studying non-model organisms and endangered species, such as lack of a reference genome and current challenges in de novo primate genome assembly. Here, we used Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to develop a population-based SNP panel for the Ugandan red colobus (P. rufomitratus...

Data from: Multi-contrast submillimetric 3-Tesla hippocampal subfield segmentation protocol and dataset

Jessie Kulaga-Yoskovitz, Boris C. Bernhardt, Seok-Jun Hong, Tommaso Mansi, Kevin E. Liang, Andre J. W. Van Der Kouwe, Jonathan Smallwood, Andrea Bernasconi & Neda Bernasconi
The hippocampus is composed of distinct anatomical subregions that participate in multiple cognitive processes and are differentially affected in prevalent neurological and psychiatric conditions. Advances in high-field MRI allow for the non-invasive identification of hippocampal substructure. These approaches, however, demand time-consuming manual segmentation that relies heavily on anatomical expertise. Here, we share manual labels and associated high-resolution MRI data (MNI-HISUB25; submillimetric T1- and T2-weighted images, detailed sequence information, and stereotaxic probabilistic anatomical maps) based on...

Data from: Predicting the outcome of competition when fitness inequality is variable

Michael T. Pedruski, Gregor F. Fussmann & Andrew Gonzalez
Traditional niche theory predicts that when species compete for one limiting resource in simple ecological settings the more fit competitor should exclude the less fit competitor. Since the advent of neutral theory ecologists have increasingly become interested both in how the magnitude of fitness inequality between competitors and stochasticity may affect this prediction. We used numerical simulations to investigate the outcome of two-species resource competition along gradients of fitness inequality (inequality in R*) and initial...

Data from: Scoring tools for the analysis of infant respiratory inductive plethysmography signals

Carlos Alejandro Robles-Rubio, Gianluca Bertolizio, Karen A. Brown & Robert E. Kearney
Infants recovering from anesthesia are at risk of life threatening Postoperative Apnea (POA). POA events are rare, and so the study of POA requires the analysis of long cardiorespiratory records. Manual scoring is the preferred method of analysis for these data, but it is limited by low intra- and inter-scorer repeatability. Furthermore, recommended scoring rules do not provide a comprehensive description of the respiratory patterns. This work describes a set of manual scoring tools that...

Data from: Thixotropy and rheopexy of muscle fibers probed using sinusoidal oscillations

David Altman, Fabio C. Minozzo & Dilson E. Rassier
Length changes of muscle fibers have previously been shown to result in a temporary reduction in fiber stiffness that is referred to as thixotropy. Understanding the mechanism of this thixotropy is important to our understanding of muscle function since there are many instances in which muscle is subjected to repeated patterns of lengthening and shortening. By applying sinusoidal length changes to one end of single permeabilized muscle fibers and measuring the force response at the...

Data from: Experimental evidence for within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproduction

Kyle H. Elliott, Gustavo S. Betini, Ian Dworkin & D. Ryan Norris
Fear of predation can have non-lethal effects on individuals within a season but whether, and to what extent, these effects carry over into subsequent seasons is not known. Using a replicated seasonal population of the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we examined both within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproductive output. Compared to controls, flies exposed to the scent of mantid (Tenodera sinensis) predators in the non-breeding season had 64% higher mortality,...

Data from: Relationship between the sequencing and timing of vocal motor elements in birdsong

Andrew M. M. Matheson & Jon T. Sakata
Accurate coordination of the sequencing and timing of motor gestures is important for the performance of complex and evolutionarily relevant behaviors. However, the degree to which motor sequencing and timing are related remains largely unknown. Birdsong is a communicative behavior that consists of discrete vocal motor elements (‘syllables’) that are sequenced and timed in a precise manner. To reveal the relationship between syllable sequencing and timing, we analyzed how variation in the probability of syllable...

Data from: The evolution of morphological diversity in continental assemblages of Passerine birds

Knud Andreas Jønsson, Jean Philippe Lessard, Robert E. Ricklefs & Jean-Philippe Lessard
Understanding geographic variation in the species richness and lineage composition of regional biotas is a long standing goal in ecology. Why do some evolutionary lineages proliferate while others do not, and how do new colonists fit into an established fauna? Here, we analyse the morphological structure of assemblages of passerine birds in four biogeographic regions to examine the relative influence of colonization history and niche-based processes on regional communities of passerine birds. Using morphological traits...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Linking macro-trends and micro-rates: re-evaluating micro-evolutionary support for Cope’s rule

Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Cristián Correa, Martin M. Turcotte, Gregor Rolshausen & Andrew P. Hendry
Cope's rule, wherein a lineage increases in body size through time, was originally motivated by macro-evolutionary patterns observed in the fossil record. More recently, some authors have argued that evidence exists for generally positive selection on individual body size in contemporary populations, providing a micro-evolutionary mechanism for Cope's rule. If larger body size confers individual fitness advantages as the selection estimates suggest, thereby explaining Cope's rule, then body size should increase over micro-evolutionary time scales....

Data from: Do stressful conditions make adaptation difficult? Guppies in the oil-polluted environments of southern Trinidad

Gregor Rolshausen, Dawn A. T. Phillip, Denise M. Beckles, Ali Akbari, Subhasis Ghoshal, Patrick B. Hamilton, Charles R. Tyler, Alan G. Scarlett, Indar Ramnarine, Paul Bentzen & Andrew P. Hendry
The ability of populations to rapidly adapt to new environments will determine their future in an increasingly human-modified world. Although meta-analyses do frequently uncover signatures of local adaptation, they also reveal many exceptions. We suggest that particular constraints on local adaptation might arise when organisms are exposed to novel stressors, such as anthropogenic pollution. To inform this possibility, we studied the extent to which guppies (Poecilia reticulata) show local adaptation to oil pollution in southern...

Data from: Unified pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity enables reliable and flexible learning

Rui Ponte Costa, Robert C. Froemke, Per Jesper Sjöström & Mark C. W. Van Rossum
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace...

Data from: Effects of spatial scale of sampling on food web structure

Spencer A. Wood, Roly Russell, Dieta Hanson, Richard J. Williams & Jennifer A. Dunne
This study asks whether the spatial scale of sampling alters structural properties of food webs and whether any differences are attributable to changes in species richness and connectance with scale. Understanding how different aspects of sampling effort affect ecological network structure is important for both fundamental ecological knowledge and the application of network analysis in conservation and management. Using a highly resolved food web for the marine intertidal ecosystem of the Sanak Archipelago in the...

Data from: Community rescue in experimental metacommunities

Etienne Low-Décarie, Marcus Kolber, Paige Homme, Andrea Lofano, Alex J. Dumbrell, Andrew Gonzalez & Graham Bell
The conditions that allow biodiversity to recover following severe environmental degradation are poorly understood. We studied community rescue, the recovery of a viable community through the evolutionary rescue of many populations within an evolving community, in metacommunities of soil microbes adapting to a herbicide. The metacommunities occupied a landscape of crossed spatial gradients of the herbicide (Dalapon) and a resource (glucose), whereas their constituent communities were either isolated or connected by dispersal. The spread of...

Data from: Under the influence: sublethal exposure to an insecticide affects personality expression in a jumping spider

Raphaël Royauté, Christopher M. Buddle & Charles Vincent
1. Consistent behavioural differences between individuals have far-reaching implications for ecology and evolution, including how populations cope with increasing anthropogenic changes, notably pesticides. Although sublethal doses of insecticides are known to alter behaviour, current studies on the relationship between toxicants and behaviour tend to ignore effects on individual variation. 2. Our objective was to determine whether sublethal exposure to an organophosphate insecticide could affect the consistency of individual behaviour and disrupt behavioural correlations, in a...

Data from: Historical dynamics of ecosystem services bundles

Delphine Renard, Jeanine M. Rhemtulla & Elena M. Bennett
Managing multiple ecosystem services (ES), including addressing trade-offs between services and preventing ecological surprises, is among the most pressing areas for sustainability research. These challenges require ES research to go beyond the currently common approach of snapshot studies limited to one or two services at a single point in time. We used a spatiotemporal approach to examine changes in nine ES and their relationships from 1971 to 2006 across 131 municipalities in a mixed-use landscape...

Data from: The phylogenetics of succession can guide restoration: an example from abandoned mine sites in the subarctic

Stephanie Shooner, Chelsea Chisholm & Thomas Jonathan Davies
1. Phylogenetic tools have increasingly been used in community ecology to describe evolutionary relationships among co-occurring species. In studies of succession, such tools may allow us to identify evolutionary lineages most suited for particular stages of succession and habitat rehabilitation. However, to date these two applications have been largely separate. Here, we suggest that information on phylogenetic community structure might help inform community restoration strategies following major disturbance. 2. Our study examined phylogenetic patterns of...

Data from: Sixty-year legacy of human impacts on a high Arctic ecosystem

Michael S. Becker & Wayne H. Pollard
The high Arctic is the world's fasting warming biome, allowing access to sections of previously inaccessible land for resource extraction. Starting in 2011, exploration of one of the Earth's largest undeveloped coal seams was initiated in a relatively pristine, polar desert environment in the Canadian high Arctic. Due to the relative lack of historic anthropogenic disturbance, significant gaps in knowledge exist on how the landscape will be impacted by development. At an abandoned airstrip located...

Data from: Little evidence for morphological change in a resilient endemic species following the introduction of a novel predator

Diana M. T. Sharpe, R. Brian Langerhans, Etienne Low-Décarie & Lauren J Chapman
Human activities, such as species introductions, are dramatically and rapidly altering natural ecological processes, and often result in novel selection regimes. To date, we still have a limited understanding of the extent to which such anthropogenic selection may be driving contemporary phenotypic change in natural populations. Here we test whether the introduction of the piscivorous Nile perch, Lates niloticus, into East Africa's Lake Victoria and nearby lakes coincided with morphological change in one resilient native...

Data from: Demasculinization of male guppies increases resistance to a common and harmful ectoparasite

Felipe Dargent, Adam R. Reddon, William T. Swaney, Gregor F. Fussmann, Simon M. Reader, Marilyn E. Scott & Mark R. Forbes
Parasites are detrimental to host fitness and therefore should strongly select for host defence mechanisms. Yet, hosts vary considerably in their observed parasite loads. One notable source of inter-individual variation in parasitism is host sex. Such variation could be caused by the immunomodulatory effects of gonadal steroids. Here we assess the influence of gonadal steroids on the ability of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to defend themselves against a common and deleterious parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli). Adult male...

Data from: Ground ice melt in the high Arctic leads to greater ecological heterogeneity

Michael S. Becker, T. Jonathan Davies, Wayne H Pollard & Wayne H. Pollard
1. The polar desert biome of the Canadian high Arctic Archipelago is currently experiencing some of the greatest mean annual air temperature increases on the planet, threatening the stability of ecosystems residing above temperature-sensitive permafrost. 2. Ice wedges are the most widespread form of ground ice, occurring in up to 25% of the world's terrestrial near-surface, and their melting (thermokarst) may catalyze a suite of biotic and ecological changes, facilitating major ecosystem shifts. 3. These...

Data from: Parting ways: Parasite release in nature leads to sex-specific evolution of defense

Felipe Dargent, Gregor Rolshausen, Andrew P. Hendry, Marilyn E. Scott & Gregor F. Fussmann
We evaluate the extent to which males and females evolve along similar or different trajectories in response to the same environmental shift. Specifically, we use replicate experimental introductions in nature to consider how release from a key parasite (Gyrodactylus) generates similar or different defense evolution in male versus female guppies (Poecilia reticulata). After 8-12 generations of evolution, guppies were collected from the ancestral (parasite still present) and derived (parasite now absent) populations and bred for...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    40

Affiliations

  • McGill University
    40
  • Stanford University
    4
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Concordia University
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
    2
  • University of Oregon
    2
  • McMaster University
    2
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    2