47 Works

Data from: Small- to large-scale patterns of ground-dwelling spider (Araneae) diversity across northern Canada

Sarah Loboda & Christopher M. Buddle
We examined how Arctic spider (Araneae) biodiversity is distributed at multiple spatial scales in Northern Canada using a standardized hierarchical sampling design. We investigated which drivers, environmental or spatial, influence the patterns observed. Spatial patterns of species richness and composition of Arctic spiders were assessed in 12 sites located in Arctic, Subarctic, and North-Boreal regions, across 30 degrees of latitude and 80 degrees of longitude. Variation of diversity was partitioned in relation to multiple environmental...

Data from: Revisiting protein aggregation as pathogenic in sporadic Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

Alberto J. Espay, Joaquin A. Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E. Lang, David K. Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A. Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J. Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H. Fernandez, David G. Standaert, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Michael A. Schwarzschild, S. Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer … & James B. Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated alpha-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinico-pathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathological protein aggregation at autopsy reflect pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated alpha-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication...

Data from: Quantifying ecological and social drivers of ecological surprise

Karen Filbee-Dexter, Celia C. Symons, Kristal Jones, Heather Haig, Jeremy Pittman, Steven M. Alexander, Matthew J. Burke & Heather A. Haig
1. A key challenge facing ecologists and ecosystem managers is understanding what drives unexpected shifts in ecosystems and limits the effectiveness of human interventions during these events. Research that integrates and analyzes data from natural and social systems can provide important insight for unraveling the complexity of these dynamics, and is a critical step towards development of evidence-based, whole systems management approaches. 2. To examine our ability to influence ecosystems that are behaving in unexpected...

Data from: Land use intensity indirectly affects ecosystem services mainly through plant functional identity in a temperate forest

Verónica Chillo, Diego P. Vázquez, Mariano M. Amoroso & Elena M. Bennett
1.Land-use change is known to affect biodiversity, and there is increasing concern regarding how these changes may impact the provision of ecosystem services. Although functional composition (diversity and identity) could influence ecosystem properties and services at the community level, there is little quantitative understanding of these relationships in the field. Here, we evaluate the direct and indirect effects (through ecosystem properties) of biodiversity on the provision of multiple ecosystem services in native mixed forest in...

Data from: Complementary crops and landscape features sustain wild bee communities

Kyle T. Martins, Cecile H. Albert, Martin J. Lechowicz & Andrew Gonzalez
Wild bees, which are important for commercial pollination, depend on floral and nesting resources both at farms and in the surrounding landscape. Mass-flowering crops are only in bloom for a few weeks and unable to support bee populations that persist throughout the year. Farm fields and orchards that flower in succession potentially can extend the availability of floral resources for pollinators. However, it is unclear whether the same bee species or genera will forage from...

Data from: Forebrain activation during social exposure in wild-type guppies

María J. Cabrera-Álvarez, William T. Swaney & Simon M. Reader
The neural mechanisms regulating social behaviour have received extensive attention in recent years, with much focus on 'complex' forms of sociality. Comparatively little research has addressed fundamental social behaviour, such as grouping, which impacts multiple determinants of fitness, such as foraging and avoiding predation. We are interested in the degree to which brain areas that regulate other forms of sociality are also involved in grouping behaviour, and so we investigated shoal-elicited activation of the brain...

Data from: Risk factors for respiratory illness in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin P. Machanda, Erik J. Scully, Drew K. Enigk, Emily Otali, Martin N. Muller, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman & Richard W. Wrangham
Respiratory disease has caused significant mortality in African great ape populations. While much effort has been given to identifying the responsible pathogens, little is known about the factors that influence disease transmission or individual susceptibility. In the Kanyawara community of wild chimpanzees, respiratory illness has been the leading cause of mortality over 30 years, contributing to 27% of deaths. Deaths were common in all age groups except juveniles. Over 22 years of health observations, respiratory...

Data from: Wild and laboratory exposure to cues of predation risk increases relative brain mass in male guppies

Adam R. Reddon, Laura Chouinard-Thuly, Ioannis Leris & Simon M. Reader
There is considerable diversity in brain size within and among species, and substantial dispute over the causes, consequences and importance of this variation. Comparative and developmental studies are essential in addressing this controversy. Predation pressure has been proposed as a major force shaping brain, behaviour and life history. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, shows dramatic variation in predation pressure across populations. We compared the brain mass of guppies from high and low predation populations collected...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Exploring an alternative explanation for the second phase of viral decay: infection of short-lived cells in a drug-limited compartment during HAART

Steven Sanche, Thibault Mesplède, Nancy Sheehan, Jun Li, Fahima Nekka & Nancy L. Sheehan
Most HIV-infected patients who initiate combination antiretroviral therapy experience a viral load decline in several phases. These phases are characterized by different rates of viral load decay that decrease when transitioning from one phase to the next. There is no consensus as to the origin of these phases. One hypothesis put forward is that short- and long-lived infected cells are responsible for the first and second phases of decay, respectively. However, significant differences in drug...

Data from: Spatial modeling improves understanding patterns of invasive species defoliation by a biocontrol herbivore

Annie L. Henry, Eduardo González, W. Wright Robinson, Bérenger Bourgeois & Anna A. Sher
Spatial modeling has proven to be useful in understanding the drivers of plant populations in the field of ecology, but has yet to be applied to understanding variation in biocontrol impact. In this study, we employ multi-scale analysis (Moran’s Eigenvector Maps) to better understand the variation in tree canopy exposed to defoliation by a biocontrol beetle (Diorhabda spp.). The control of the exotic tree Tamarix in riparian areas has long been a priority for land...

Data from: Intrinsically regulated learning is modulated by synaptic dopamine signaling

Pablo Ripollés, Laura Ferreri, Ernest Mas-Herrero, Helena Alicart, Alba Gómez-Andrés, Josep Marco-Pallares, Rosa Maria Antonijoan, Toemme Noesselt, Marta Valle, Jordi Riba & Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
We recently provided evidence that an intrinsic reward-related signal-triggered by successful learning in absence of any external feedback-modulated the entrance of new information into long-term memory via the activation of the dopaminergic midbrain, hippocampus, and ventral striatum (the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop; Ripollés et al., 2016). Here, we used a double-blind, within-subject randomized pharmacological intervention to test whether this learning process is indeed dopamine-dependent. A group of healthy individuals completed three behavioral sessions of a language-learning task...

Data from: Dissolved organic carbon in streams within a subarctic catchment analysed using a GIS/remote sensing approach

Pearl Mzobe, Martin Berggren, Petter Pilesjö, Erik Lundin, David Olefeldt, Nigel T. Roulet & Andreas Persson
Climate change projections show that temperature and precipitation increases can alter the exchange of greenhouse gases between the atmosphere and high latitude landscapes, including their freshwaters. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in greenhouse gas emissions, but the impact of catchment productivity on DOC release to subarctic waters remains poorly known, especially at regional scales. We test the hypothesis that increased terrestrial productivity, as indicated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), generates...

Data from: Local adaptation primes cold-edge populations for range expansion but not warming-induced range shifts

Anna L. Hargreaves, Chris G. Eckert & Christopher G. Eckert
According to theory, edge populations may be poised to expand species’ ranges if they are locally adapted to extreme conditions, or ill-suited to colonize beyond-range habitat if their offspring are genetically and competitively inferior. We tested these contrasting predictions by transplanting low, mid, and high-elevation (edge) populations of an annual plant throughout and above its elevational distribution. Seed from poor-quality edge habitat had inferior emergence, but edge seeds were also locally adapted. High-elevation plants flowered...

Data from: Integration and modularity of teleostean pectoral fin shape and its role in the diversification of acanthomorph fishes

Trina Y. Du, Sylvie C. Tissandier & Hans C. E. Larsson
Phenotypic integration and modularity describe the strength and pattern of interdependencies between traits. Integration and modularity have been proposed to influence the trajectory of evolution, either acting as constraints or facilitators. Here, we examine trends in the integration and modularity of pectoral fin morphology in teleost fishes using geometric morphometrics. We compare the fin shapes of the highly diverse radiation of acanthomorph fishes to lower teleosts. Integration and modularity are measured using two-block partial least...

Data from: The spatial structure of phylogenetic and functional diversity in the United States and Canada: an example using the sedge family (Cyperaceae)

Daniel Spalink, Jocelyn Pender, Marcial Escudero, Andrew L. Hipp, Eric H. Roalson, Julian R. Starr, Marcia J. Waterway, Lynn Bohs & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Systematically quantifying diversity across landscapes is necessary to understand how clade history and ecological heterogeneity contribute to the origin, distribution, and maintenance of biodiversity. Here, we chart the spatial structure of diversity among all species in the sedge family (Cyperaceae) throughout the USA and Canada. We first identify areas of remarkable species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional trait diversity, and highlight regions of conservation priority. We then test predictions about the spatial structure of this...

Data from: Linking a mutation to survival in wild mice

Rowan D. H. Barrett, Stefan Laurent, Ricardo Mallarino, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Charles C. Y. Xu, Matthieu Foll, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Jonathan S. Duke-Cohan, Jeffrey D. Jensen & Hopi E. Hoekstra
Adaptive evolution in new or changing environments can be difficult to predict because the functional connections between genotype, phenotype, and fitness are complex. Here, we make these explicit connections by combining field and laboratory experiments in wild mice. We first directly estimate natural selection on pigmentation traits and an underlying pigment locus, Agouti, by using experimental enclosures of mice on different soil colors. Next, we show how a mutation in Agouti associated with survival causes...

Data from: Is biasing offspring sex ratio adaptive? a test of Fisher’s principle across multiple generations of a wild mammal in a fluctuating environment

Andrea E. Wishart, Cory T. Williams, Andrew G. McAdam, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M. Humphries, Dave W. Coltman, Jeffrey E. Lane & David W. Coltman
Fisher’s principle explains that population sex ratio in sexually reproducing organisms is maintained at 1:1 due to negative frequency-dependent selection, such that individuals of the rare sex realize greater reproductive opportunity than individuals of the more common sex until equilibrium is reached. If biasing offspring sex ratio towards the rare sex is adaptive, individuals that do so should have a higher number of grandoffspring. In a wild population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)...

Data from: Microparasite dispersal in metapopulations: a boon or bane to the host population?

Christina P. Tadiri, Marilyn E. Scott & Gregor F. Fussmann
Although connectivity can promote host species persistence in a metapopulation, dispersal may also enable disease transmission, an effect further complicated by the impact that parasite distribution may have on host-parasite population dynamics. We investigated the effects of connectivity and initial parasite distribution (clustered or dispersed) on microparasite-host dynamics in experimental metapopulations, using guppies and Gyrodactylus turnbulli. We created metapopulations of guppies divided into four subpopulations and introduced either a low level of parasites to all...

Data from: Behavioral classification of low frequency acceleration and temperature data from a free ranging small mammal

Emily K. Studd, Manuelle Landry-Cuerrier, Allyson K. Menzies, Stan Boutin, Andrew G. McAdam, Jeffrey E. Lane & Murray M. Humphries
1. The miniaturization and affordability of new technology is driving a biologging revolution in wildlife ecology with use of animal-borne data logging devices. Among many new biologging technologies, accelerometers are emerging as key tools for continuously recording animal behavior. Yet a critical, but under-acknowledged consideration in biologging is the trade-off between sampling rate and sampling duration, created by battery- (or memory-) related sampling constraints. This is especially acute among small animals, causing most researchers to...

Data from: 100-year time-series reveal little morphological change following impoundment and predator invasion in two Neotropical characids

Ilke Geladi, Luis Fernando De León, Mark Torchin, Andrew Hendry, Rigoberto Gonzalez & Diana Sharpe
Human activities are dramatically altering ecosystems worldwide, often resulting in shifts in selection regimes. In response, natural populations sometimes undergo rapid phenotypic changes, which if adaptive, can increase their probability of persistence. However, in many instances, populations fail to undergo any phenotypic change, which might indicate a variety of possibilities, including maladaptation. In freshwater ecosystems, the impoundment of rivers and the introduction of exotic species are among the leading threats to native fishes. We examined...

Data from: Seabird species vary in behavioural response to drone census

Émile Brisson-Curadeau, David Bird, Chantelle Burke, David A. Fifield, Paul Pace, Richard B. Sherley & Kyle H. Elliott
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an opportunity to rapidly census wildlife in remote areas while removing some of the hazards. However, wildlife may respond negatively to the UAVs, thereby skewing counts. We surveyed four species of Arctic cliff-nesting seabirds (glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, Iceland gull Larus glaucoides, common murre Uria aalge and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia) using a UAV and compared censusing techniques to ground photography. An average of 8.5% of murres flew off in...

Data from: Population correlates of rapid captive-induced maladaptation in a wild fish

Dylan J. Fraser, Lisa Walker, Matthew C. Yates, Kia Marin, Jacquelyn L.A. Wood, Thais A. Bernos, Carol Zastavniouk & Jacquelyn L. A. Wood
Understanding the extent to which captivity generates maladaptation in wild species can inform species recovery programs and elucidate wild population responses to novel environmental change. Though rarely quantified, effective population size (Ne) and genetic diversity should influence the magnitude of plastic and genetic changes manifested in captivity that reduce wild fitness. Sexually-dimorphic traits might also mediate consequences of captivity. To evaluate these relationships, we generated >600 full- and half-sibling families from nine wild brook trout...

Data from: Assessing among-lineage variability in phylogenetic imputation of functional trait datasets

Rafael Molin-Venegas, Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz, Isabel Castro Castro, T. Jonathan Davies, Pedro R. Peres-Neto, Miguel Á. Rodriguez & Rafael Molina-Venegas
Phylogenetic imputation has recently emerged as a potentially powerful tool for predicting missing data in functional traits datasets. As such, understanding the limitations of phylogenetic modelling in predicting trait values is critical if we are to use them in subsequent analyses. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between phylogenetic signal and clade-level prediction accuracy, yet variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips of phylogenies remains largely unexplored. Here, we used simulations of trait evolution...

Data from: Male-mediated species recognition among African weakly electric fishes

Rebecca Nagel, Frank Kirschbaum, Jacob Engelmann, Volker Hofmann, Felix Pawelzik & Ralph Tiedemann
Effective communication among sympatric species is often instrumental for behavioural isolation, where the failure to successfully discriminate between potential mates could lead to less fit hybrid offspring. Discrimination between con- and heterospecifics tends to occur more often in the sex that invests more in offspring production, i.e. females, but males may also mediate reproductive isolation. In this study, we show that among two Campylomormyrus African weakly electric fish species, males preferentially associate with conspecific females...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    47

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    47

Affiliations

  • McGill University
    47
  • Harvard University
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • University of Alberta
    3
  • Concordia University
    3
  • University of Saskatchewan
    2
  • New York University
    2
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    2