24 Works

Factors influencing fall departure phenology in migratory birds that bred in northeastern North America

Pascal Côté, Émile Brisson-Curadeau & Kyle Elliott
The phenology of migrating birds is shifting with climate change. For instance, short-distance migrants wintering in temperate regions tend to delay their migration in fall during spells of warmer temperature. However, some species do not show strong shifts, and the factors determining which species will react to temperature changes by delaying their migration are poorly known. In addition, it is not known whether a slower migration or a postponed departure creates the observed delays in...

Data from: Unveiling the food webs of tetrapods across Europe through the prism of the Eltonian niche

Louise O'Connor, Laura J. Pollock, João Braga, Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Alessandro Montemaggiori, Luigi Maiorano, Wilfried Thuiller, Marc Ohlmann & Camille Martinez-Almoyna
Aim Despite the recent calls on integrating the interaction networks into the study of large‐scale biodiversity patterns, we still lack a basic understanding of the functional characteristics of large interaction networks and how they are structured across environments. Here, building on recent advances in network science around the Eltonian niche concept, we aim to characterize the trophic groups in a large food web, and understand how these trophic groups vary across space. Location Europe and...

Data from: Repeatability of adaptive radiation depends on spatial scale: regional versus global replicates of stickleback in lake versus stream habitats

Antoine Paccard, Dieta Hanson, Yoel E Stuart, Frank A Von Hippel, Martin Kalbe, Tom Klepaker, Skúli Skúlason, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Daniel I Bolnick, Andrew P Hendry & Rowan D H Barrett
The repeatability of adaptive radiation is expected to be scale dependent, with determinism decreasing as greater spatial separation among “replicates” leads to their increased genetic and ecological independence. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provide an opportunity to test whether this expectation holds for the early stages of adaptive radiation -their diversification in freshwater ecosystems has been replicated many times. To better understand the repeatability of that adaptive radiation, we examined the influence of geographic scale on...

Data from: Conservation through the lens of (mal)adaptation: concepts and meta-analysis

Alison Derry, Dylan Fraser, Steven Brady, Louis Astorg, Elizabeth Lawrence, Gillian Martin, Jean-Michel Matte, Jorge Octavio Negrín Dastis, Antoine Paccard, Rowan Barrett, Lauren Chapman, Jeffrey Lane, Chase Ballas, Marissa Close & Erika Crispo
Evolutionary approaches are gaining popularity in conservation science, with diverse strategies applied in efforts to support adaptive population outcomes. Yet conservation strategies differ in the type of adaptive outcomes they promote as conservation goals. For instance, strategies based on genetic or demographic rescue implicitly target adaptive population states whereas strategies utilizing transgenerational plasticity or evolutionary rescue implicitly target adaptive processes. These two goals are somewhat polar: adaptive state strategies optimize current population fitness, which should...

Identifying diagnostic genetic markers for a cryptic invasive agricultural pest: a test case using the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Meredith M. Doellman, Glen R. Hood, Jacob Gersfeld, Amanda Driscoe, Charles C.Y. Xu, Ryan N. Sheehy, Noah Holmes, Wee L. Yee & Jeffrey L. Feder
Insect pests destroy ~15% of all USA crops, resulting in losses of $15 billion annually. Thus, developing cheap, quick and reliable methods for detecting harmful species is critical to curtail insect damage and lessen economic impact. The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major invasive pest threatening the multibillion-dollar apple industry in the Pacific Northwest USA. The fly is also sympatric with a benign but morphologically similar and genetically closely related species,...

Temporally varying disruptive selection in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis).

Marc-Olivier Beausoleil, Luke Frishkoff, Leithen M'Gonigle, Joost Raeymaekers, Sarah Knutie, Luis De León, Sarah Huber, Jaime Chaves, Dale Clayton, Jennifer Koop, Jeffrey Podos, Diana Sharpe, Andrew Hendry & Rowan Barrett
Disruptive natural selection within populations exploiting different resources is considered to be a major driver of adaptive radiation and the production of biodiversity. Fitness functions, which describe the relationships between trait variation and fitness, can help to illuminate how this disruptive selection leads to population differentiation. However, a single fitness function represents only a particular selection regime over a single specified time period (often a single season or a year), and therefore might not capture...

Data from: Revised Airlie House consensus guidelines for design and implementation of ALS clinical trials

Leonard H Van Den Berg, Eric Sorenson, Gary Gronseth, Eric A. Macklin, Jinsy Andrews, Robert H. Baloh, Michael Benatar, James D. Berry, Adriano Chio, Philippe Corcia, Angela Genge, Amelie K. Gubitz, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Christopher J. McDermott, Erik P. Pioro, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Vincenzo Silani, Martin R. Turner, Markus Weber, Benjamin Rix Brooks, Robert G. Miller & Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To revise the 1999 Airlie House consensus guidelines for the design and implementation of preclinical therapeutic studies and clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: A consensus committee comprising 140 key members of the international ALS community (ALS researchers, clinicians, patient representatives, research funding representatives, industry and regulatory agencies) addressed nine areas of need within ALS research: 1. Pre-clinical studies; 2. Biological and phenotypic heterogeneity; 3. Outcome measures; 4. Disease-modifying and symptomatic interventions;...

Data from: Predator-induced collapse of niche structure and coexistence on islands

Robert M. Pringle, Tyler R. Kartzinel, Todd M. Palmer, Timothy J. Thurman, Kena Fox-Dobbs, Charles C. Y. Xu, Matthew C. Hutchinson, Tyler C. Coverdale, Joshua H. Daskin, Dominic A. Evangelista, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, , Johanna E. Wegener, Jason J. Kolbe, Thomas W. Schoener, David A. Spiller, Jonathan B. Losos & Rowan D. H. Barrett
Biological invasions represent both a pressing environmental challenge and an opportunity to investigate fundamental ecological processes, such as the role of top predators in regulating species diversity and food-web structure. In whole-ecosystem manipulations of small Caribbean islands where brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) were the native top predator, we experimentally staged invasions by competitors (green anoles, A. smaragdinus) and/or novel top predators (curly-tailed lizards, Leiocephalus carinatus). We show that curly-tails destabilized coexistence of competing prey...

Data from: Species richness change across spatial scales

Jonathan M. Chase, Brian J. McGill, Patrick L. Thompson, Laura H. Antão, Amanda E. Bates, Shane A. Blowes, Maria Dornelas, Andrew Gonzalez, Anne E. Magurran, Sarah R. Supp, Marten Winter, Anne D. Bjorkmann, Helge Bruelheide, Jarrett E.K. Byrnes, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Robin Ehali, Catalina Gomez, Hector M. Guzman, Forest Isbell, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Holly P. Jones, Jessica Hines, Mark Vellend, Conor Waldock & Mary O'Connor
Humans have elevated global extinction rates and thus lowered global-scale species richness. However, there is no a priori reason to expect that losses of global species richness should always, or even often, trickle down to losses of species richness at regional and local scales, even though this relationship is often assumed. Here, we show that scale can modulate our estimates of species richness change through time in the face of anthropogenic pressures, but not in...

Data from: Estimated six percent loss of genetic variation in wild populations since the industrial revolution

Deborah M. Leigh, Andrew P. Hendry, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez & Vicki L. Friesen
Genetic variation is fundamental to population fitness and adaptation to environmental change. Human activities are driving declines in many wild populations and could have similar effects on genetic variation. Despite the importance of estimating such declines, no global estimate of the magnitude of ongoing genetic variation loss has been conducted across species. By combining studies that quantified recent changes in genetic variation across a mean of 27 generations for 91 species, we conservatively estimate a...

Data from: Pollination by wild bees yields larger strawberries than pollination by honey bees

Gail MacInnis & Jessica R.K. Forrest
1. A diverse array of wild bee species may provide more effective pollination than the widely employed European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). High species richness within crop pollinator assemblages has been linked to enhanced fruit and seed yields, but species richness is often confounded with abundance in studies of pollinator communities. 2. We investigated the effects of bee diversity and species identity on pollen deposition and crop yield in the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)...

Data from: The influence of warming on the biogeographic and phylogenetic dependence of herbivore-plant interactions

Xidong Mu, Meng Xu, Anthony Ricciardi, Jaimie T.A. Dick, Du Luo, Hui Wei, Yinchang Hu & Qiwei Wei
Evolutionary experience and the phylogenetic relationships of plants have both been proposed to influence herbivore-plant interactions and plant invasion success. However, the direction and magnitude of these effects, and how such patterns are altered with increasing temperature, are rarely studied. Through laboratory functional response (FR) experiments, we tested whether the per capita feeding efficiency of an invasive generalist herbivore, the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is dependent on the biogeographic origin and phylogenetic relatedness of...

Global meta-analysis of how marine upwelling affects herbivory

Andrew Sellers, Brian Leung & Mark Torchin
Aim: Nutrient subsidies support high primary productivity, increasing herbivore abundance and influencing their top-down control of producers. Wind-driven upwelling events deliver cold nutrient-rich water to coastlines, supporting highly productive marine environments. Results from studies comparing ecological processes across upwelling regimes are mixed: some reveal weaker herbivory in upwelling regions, while others report a positive relationship between upwelling and herbivory. In this synthesis we examine the influence of upwelling on top-down control of producers across the...

Data from: The ecology and evolution of seed predation by Darwin's finches on Tribulus cistoides on the Galápagos Islands

Sofía Carvajal-Endara, Andrew P. Hendry, Nancy C. Emery, Corey P. Neu, Diego Carmona, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, T. Jonathan Davies, Jaime A. Chaves & Marc T. J Johnson
Predator-prey interactions play a key role in the evolution of species traits through antagonistic coevolutionary arms-races. The evolution of beak morphology in the Darwin’s finches in response to competition for seed resources is a classic example of evolution by natural selection. The seeds of Tribulus cistoides are an important food source for the largest ground finch species (Geospiza fortis, G. magnirostris, and G. conirostris) in dry months, and the hard spiny morphology of the fruits...

Upstream ORF-Encoded ASDURF Is a Novel Prefoldin-like Subunit of the PAQosome

Philippe Cloutier, Christian Poitras, Denis Faubert, Annie Bouchard, Mathieu Blanchette, Marie-Soleil Gauthier & Benoit Coulombe
The PAQosome is an eleven-subunit chaperone involved in the biogenesis of several human protein complexes. We show that ASDURF, a recently discovered upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the 5’ UTR of ASNSD1 mRNA, encodes the twelfth subunit of the PAQosome. ASDURF, displays significant structural homology to beta-prefoldins and assembles with the five known subunits of the prefoldin-like module of the PAQosome to form a heterohexameric prefoldin-like complex. A model of the PAQosome prefoldin-like module...

Data from: Effects of Lewy body disease and Alzheimer’s disease on brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction

Sung Woo Kang, Seun Jeon, Han Soo Yoo, Seok Jong Chung, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Mijin Yun, Alan C. Evans & Byoung Seok Ye
Objectives: We investigated the independent and interaction effects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD) on cognition and brain atrophy. Methods: We consecutively recruited 38 controls and 108 patients with AD-related cognitive impairment (ADCI) and/or LBD-related cognitive impairment (LBCI) from university-based dementia and movement clinics. Diagnoses of ADCI and LBCI were supported by 18F-Florbetaben PET and 18F-FP-CIT-PET, respectively. There were 38 controls, 26 patients with pure ADCI (18 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and...

Data from: Risk factors for possible REM sleep behavior disorder: a CLSA population-based cohort study

Chun Yao, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Mark R. Keezer, Christina Wolfson, Amélie Pelletier & Ronald B. Postuma
Objective: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a powerful marker of prodromal neurodegenerative synucleinopathy, with 80% of patients ultimately phenoconverting to defined disease. Several environmental risk factors for RBD have been suggested, but associations vary between studies. We assessed sociodemographic, socioeconomic and clinical correlates of RBD in a 30,000-subject national cohort. Methods: Subjects aged 45-85 years in Canada were collected as part of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Possible RBD (pRBD) was screened...

Data from: Comparing fitness and drift explanations of Neanderthal replacement

Dan Shultz, Marcel Montrey & Thomas Shultz
There is a general consensus among archaeologists that replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans in Europe occurred around 40K to 35K YBP. However, the causal mechanism for this replacement continues to be debated. Searching for specific fitness advantages in the archaeological record has proven difficult, as these may be obscured, absent, or subject to interpretation. Proposed models have therefore featured either fitness advantages in favor of anatomically modern humans, or invoked neutral drift under...

Data from: One-locus-several-primers: a strategy to improve the taxonomic and haplotypic coverage in diet metabarcoding studies

Emmanuel Corse, Christelle Tougard, Gaït Archambaud-Suard, Jean-François Agnèse, Françoise D. Messu Mandeng, Charles F. Bilong Bilong, David Duneau, Lucie Zinger, Rémi Chappaz, Charles C. Y. Xu, Emese Meglécz & Vincent Dubut
In diet metabarcoding analyses, insufficient taxonomic coverage of PCR primer sets generates false negatives that may dramatically distort biodiversity estimates. In this paper, we investigated the taxonomic coverage and complementarity of three cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) primer sets based on in silico analyses and we conducted an in vivo evaluation using fecal and spider web samples from different invertivores, environments, and geographic locations. Our results underline the lack of predictability of both...

Data from: INTREPAD: a randomized trial of naproxen to slow progress of presymptomatic Alzheimer disease

Pierre-Francois Meyer, Jennifer Tremblay-Mercier, Jeannie Leoutsakos, Cecile Madjar, Marie-Elyse Lafaille-Magnan, Melissa Savard, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Judes Poirier, Pierre Etienne & John Breitner
Objective: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose naproxen for prevention of progression in pre-symptomatic AD among cognitively intact persons at-risk. Methods: INTREPAD, a two-year double-masked pharmaco-prevention trial, enrolled 195 AD family history-positive elderly (mean age 63 years) screened carefully to exclude cognitive disorder. These were randomized 1:1 to naproxen sodium 220mg twice-daily or placebo. Multimodal imaging, neurosensory, cognitive and (in ~50%) CSF biomarker evaluations were performed at Baseline, 3, 12, and 24 months. A...

Data from: No consistent effects of humans on animal genetic diversity worldwide

Katie Millette, Vincent Fugère, Chloé Debyser, Ariel Greiner, Frédéric Chain & Andrew Gonzalez
Human impacts on genetic diversity are poorly understood yet critical to biodiversity conservation. We used 175,247 COI sequences collected between 1980 and 2016 to assess the global effects of land use and human density on the intraspecific genetic diversity of 17,082 species of birds, fishes, insects, and mammals. Human impacts on mtDNA diversity were taxon and scale-dependent, and were generally weak or non-significant. Spatial analyses identified weak latitudinal diversity gradients as well as negative effects...

Data from: Trophic structure modulates community rescue following acidification

Graham Bell, Vincent Fugère, Rowan Barrett, Beatrix Beisner, Melania Cristescu, Gregor Fussmann, B. Jesse Shapiro & Andrew Gonzalez
Community rescue occurs when a community that experiences a lethal stress persists only through the spread of rare types, either genotypes or species, resistant to the stress. Rescue interacts with trophic structure because a physical stress experienced by a focal assemblage within the community may also be experienced by its predators and prey. In general, trophic structure will facilitate rescue only when a stress has a less severe effect on a focal assemblage than on...

Data from: Quantity and quality of seed dispersal by a large arboreal frugivore in small and large Atlantic forest fragments

Óscar M. Chaves, Júlio César Bicca-Marques & Colin A. Chapman
Seed dispersal is a key process driving the structure, composition, and regeneration of tropical forests. Larger frugivores play a crucial role in community structuring by dispersing large seeds not dispersed by smaller frugivores. We assessed the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) provide seed dispersal services for a wide assemblage of plant species in both small and large Atlantic forest fragments. Although fruit availability often decreases in small fragments compared with large ones,...

Data from: Evidence for contemporary and historical gene flow between guppy populations in different watersheds, with a test for associations with adaptive traits

Léa Blondel, Lyndsey Baillie, Jessica Quinton, Jahson B. Alemu, Ian Paterson, Andrew P. Hendry & Paul Bentzen
In dendritic river systems, gene flow is expected to occur primarily within watersheds. Yet, rare cross‐watershed transfers can also occur, whether mediated by (often historical) geological events or (often contemporary) human activities. We explored these events and their potential evolutionary consequences by analyzing patterns of neutral genetic variation (microsatellites) and adaptive phenotypic variation (male color) in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata) distributed across two watersheds in northern Trinidad. We found the expected signatures of within‐watershed gene...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    24

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    24

Affiliations

  • McGill University
    24
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Universidad San Francisco de Quito
    2
  • University of Toronto
    2
  • University of Massachusetts Boston
    2
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
    1
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
    1
  • University of the West Indies
    1
  • Hólar University College
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1