49 Works

Five-years of ocrelizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis: OPERA studies open-label extension

Stephen L Hauser, Ludwig Kappos, Douglas L Arnold, Amit Bar-Or, Bruno Brochet, Robert T Naismith, Anthony Traboulsee, Jerry S Wolinsky, Shibeshih Belachew, Harold Koendgen, Victoria Levesque, Marianna Manfrini, Fabian Model, Stanislas Hubeaux, Lahar Mehta & Xavier Montalban
Objective To assess over 3 years of follow-up, the effects of maintaining or switching to ocrelizumab (OCR) therapy on clinical and MRI outcomes and safety measures in the open-label extension (OLE) phase of the pooled OPERA studies in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Methods After 2 years of double-blind, controlled treatment, patients continued OCR (600 mg infusions every 24 weeks) or switched from interferon (IFN) β-1a (44 μg 3 times weekly) to OCR when entering the OLE...

Data from: Differential impact of severe drought on infant mortality in two sympatric neotropical primates

Fernando Campos, Urs Kalbitzer, Amanda Melin, Jeremy Hogan, Saul Cheves, Evin Murillo-Chacon, Adrián Guadamuz, Monica Myers, Colleen Schaffner, Katharine Jack, Filippo Aureli & Linda Fedigan
Extreme climate events can have important consequences for the dynamics of natural populations, and severe droughts are predicted to become more common and intense due to climate change. We analysed infant mortality in relation to drought in two primate species (white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus imitator, and Geoffroy's spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi) in a tropical dry forest in north-western Costa Rica. Our survival analyses combine several rare and valuable long-term data sets, including long-term primate life-history,...

Differential ESR1 promoter Methylation in the peripheral blood of healthy middle-aged and older women- findings from the women 40+ healthy aging study

Elena Gardini, Gary G. Chen, Serena Fiacco, Laura Mernone, Jasmine Willi, Gustavo Turecki & Ulrike Ehlert
Background Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) contributes to maintain biological processes preserving health during aging. DNA methylation changes of ERα gene (ESR1) were established as playing a direct role in the regulation of ERα levels. In this study, we hypothesized decreased DNA methylation of ESR1 associated with postmenopause, lower estradiol levels and increased age among healthy middle-aged and older women. Methods We assessed DNA methylation of ESR1 promoter region from dried blood spots and estradiol from...

Data from: The effects of food supply on reproductive hormones and timing of reproduction in an income-breeding seabird

Shannon Whelan, Scott A. Hatch, Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks, Charline Parenteau, Olivier Chastel & Kyle Elliott
Current food supply is a major driver of timing of breeding in income-breeding animals, likely because increased net energy balance directly increases reproductive hormones and advances breeding. In capital breeders, increased net energy balance increases energy reserves, which eventually leads to improved reproductive readiness and earlier breeding. To test the hypothesis that phenology of income-breeding birds is independent of energy reserves, we conducted an experiment on food-supplemented (“fed”) and control female black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)....

Data for: Parasitism risk and infection alter host dispersal

Celina Baines, Salma Diab & Shannon McCauley
Dispersal determines the spatial dynamics of host-parasite assemblages, particularly during invasions and disease epidemics. The risk of parasitism may create an incentive for dispersal, but infection is expected to reduce dispersal ability, which may alter the host’s dispersal response to biotic stressors including population density. We measured the dispersal of the semi-aquatic insect, Notonecta undulata, in aquatic mesocosms in which we manipulated the presence of ectoparasitic Hydrachnidia mites and of infected conspecifics. We found that...

Data from: Climate change increases predation risk for a keystone species of the boreal forest

Michael Peers, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Rudy Boonstra, Murray Humphries, Thomas Jung, Alice Kenney, Charles Krebs, Dennis Murray & Stan Boutin
Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) form a keystone predator-prey cycle that has large impacts on the North-American boreal forest vertebrate community. Snowshoe hares and lynx are both well-suited for snowy winters, but climate change associated shifts in snow conditions could lower hare survival and alter cyclic dynamics. Using detailed monitoring of snowshoe hare cause-specific mortality, behaviour, and prevailing weather, we demonstrate that hare mortality risk is strongly influenced by variation in...

Frontal tau pathology underlies behavioural/dysexecutive presentations of Alzheimer’s disease

Joseph Therriault, Tharick Pascoal, Melissa Savard, Andrea Benedet, Mira Chamoun, Cecile Tissot, Firoza Lussier, Min Su Kang, Emilie Thomas, Tatsuhiro Terada, Soham Rej, Gassan Massarweh, Ziad Nasreddine, Paolo Vitali, Jean-Paul Soucy, Paramita Saha-Chaudhuri, Serge Gauthier & Pedro Rosa-Neto
Objective: To determine the associations between amyloid-PET, tau-PET and atrophy with the behavioural/dysexecutive presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and how these differ from amnestic AD. Background: The behavioural/dysexecutive variant of AD is a rare clinical syndrome presenting with behavioural changes, apathy and/or executive dysfunction, similar to frontotemporal dementia. Small autopsy studies provide conflicting reports of frontal pathology and recent studies challenge the notion of frontal involvement in this condition. We tested the hypothesis that patterns...

Mass spectrometry data of Chalmydomonas reinhardtii central pair mutants

Khanh Huy Bui, Muneyoshi Ichikawa, Daniel Dai, Reid Rebinsky & Katya Peri
The following data includes the mass spectrometry results from 5 different strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The first strain is CC-124 or more commonly referred to as the wild type strain. The second strain is a mutant that lacks the central pair pf15. Other central pair mutants are pf16, pf6 and cpc1. All strains were cultured under identical conditions and the doublet microtubules were purified and treated twice with NaCl before mass spectrometry. Biological triplicates were...

Effect of the Central American Isthmus on gene flow and divergence of the American crocodile Crocodylus acutus

Jose Avila-Cervantes, Carlos Arias, Miryam Venegas-Anaya, Marta Vargas, Hans C. E. Larsson & W. Owen McMillan
The final formation of the Central American Isthmus (CAI) about 3.5 Ma altered global ocean circulation, connected North and South America terrestrial biotas and established the Caribbean Sea. The nature of this event creates a natural scenario to test vicariance, divergence, and speciation by allopatry. Studies have shown the effect of the CAI on marine and terrestrial species, but none have examined a large-bodied amphibious taxon. We used RAD sequencing on populations of the American...

Communities that thrive in extreme conditions captured from a freshwater lake

Etienne Low-Decarie, Gregor F. Fussmann, Alex J. Dumbrell & Graham Bell
Organisms that can grow in extreme conditions would be expected to be confined to extreme environments. However, we were able to capture highly productive communities of algae and bacteria capable of growing in acidic (pH 2), basic (pH 12) and saline (40 ppt) conditions from an ordinary freshwater lake. Microbial communities may thus include taxa that are highly productive in conditions that are far outside the range of conditions experienced in their host ecosystem. The...

Genetic and phenotypic diversity of guppy population pre- and post-flood disturbance

Léa Blondel
Rare extreme “black swan” disturbances can impact ecosystems in many ways, such as destroying habitats, depleting resources, and causing high mortality. In rivers, for instance, exceptional floods that occur infrequently (e.g., so-called “50-year floods”) can strongly impact the abundance of fishes and other aquatic organisms. Beyond such ecological effects, these floods could also impact intraspecific diversity by elevating genetic drift or dispersal and by imposing strong selection, which could then influence the population’s ability to...

Fish mock community with 41 species from 13 orders

Jose Sergio Hleap, Joanne E. Littlefair, Dirk Steinke, Paul D. N. Hebert & Melania E. Cristescu
Tissue extracts of 41 North American fish species were obtained from the Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs (Québec). The selected species were chosen to represent a diversity of families within the Actinopterygii, and to include some species known to be present at the Experimental Lakes Area. Muscle or fin tissue was extracted using Qiagen Blood and Tissue kits and equimolarised to 15ng/µl. Library preparation and next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed by...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Data from: Noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the amygdala constrain fear memory reconsolidation

Josué Haubrich, Matteo Bernabo & Karim Nader
Memory reconsolidation is a fundamental plasticity process in the brain that allows established memories to be changed or erased. However, certain boundary conditions limit the parameters under which memories can be made plastic. Strong memories do not destabilize, for instance, although why they are resilient is mostly unknown. Here, we extend the understanding of the mechanisms implicated in reconsolidation-resistant memories by investigating the hypothesis that specific modulatory signals shape memory formation into a state that...

The evolution of reproductive isolation in Daphnia

Tiffany Chin, Carla E. Cáceres & Melania E. Cristescu
Background The process by which populations evolve to become new species involves the emergence of various reproductive isolating barriers (RIB). Despite major advancements in understanding this complex process, very little is known about the order in which RIBs evolve or their relative contribution to the total restriction of gene flow during various stages of speciation. This is mainly due to the difficulties of studying reproductive isolation during the early stages of species formation. This study...

A global meta-analysis of temperature effects on marine fishes’ digestion across trophic groups

Nicole Knight, Frederic Guichard & Andrew Altieri
Aim: The temperature constraint hypothesis proposes that marine herbivorous fishes are rare at high latitudes relative to carnivorous fishes because low temperatures impair the digestion of plant material. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of temperature on the digestive performance and investment of marine fishes across trophic groups. Location: Global marine ecosystems. Major Taxa Studied: Marine fishes. Methods: We analyzed data from 304 species consuming a range of diets to quantify the effects...

Adding the third dimension to studies of parallel evolution of morphology and function: an exploration based on parapatric lake-stream stickleback

Grant Haines, Yoel Stuart, Dieta Hanson, Tania Tasneem, Daniel Bolnick, Hans Larsson & Andrew Hendry
Recent methodological advances have led to a rapid expansion of evolutionary studies employing three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometrics (GM). GM methods generally enable researchers to capture and compare complex shape phenotypes, and to quantify their relationship to environmental gradients. However, some recent studies have shown that the common, inexpensive, and relatively rapid two-dimensional GM methods can distort important information and produce misleading results because they cannot capture variation in the depth (Z) dimension. We use micro-CT...

What Peer-review Experiences Can Offer To Early Career Scientists And To The Scientific Community

Gwenaëlle Gremion, Mathieu Casado, Kelsey Aho, Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Nicolas Champollion, Emily Choy, Sarah L. Connors, Rahul Dey, Alfonso Fernandez, Gerlis Fugmann, Juan Höfer, Shridhar Jawak, Martine Lizotte, Sarah Maes, Kyle Mayers, Katja Mintenbeck, Jhon Fredy Mojica Moncada, Prashant H. Pandit, Elvira Poloczanska, Paul Rosenbaum, Elisa Seyboth, Sarah Shakil & Maud van Soest

Heliconiini butterflies can learn time-dependent reward associations

Wyatt Toure, Fletcher Young, W. McMillan & Stephen Montgomery
For many pollinators, flowers provide predictable temporal schedules of resource availability, meaning an ability to learn time-dependent information could be widely beneficial. However, this ability has only been demonstrated in a handful of species. Observational studies of Heliconius butterflies suggest that they may have an ability to form time-dependent foraging preferences. Heliconius are unique among butterflies in actively collecting pollen, a dietary behaviour linked to spatiotemporally faithful ‘trap-line’ foraging. Time-dependency of foraging preferences is hypothesised...

Data from: Asymmetries affecting aggressive contests between solitary parasitoids: the effect of host species

Eric Guerra-Grenier, Paul K. Abram & Jacques Brodeur
Conflicts in animals are usually resolved based on asymmetries, where contest winners are often those that value a resource the most and/or those who have the greatest potential to retain it. In parasitoid wasps, contests between females determine which individual exploits hosts for offspring production. Previous studies on solitary parasitoids rarely considered the role of biotic factors generating phenotypic variation that could influence the strength of asymmetries. Some parasitoid species parasitize host species of various...

Coping with the commute: behavioural responses to wind conditions in a foraging seabird

Philip Collins, Jonathan Green, Kyle Elliott, Peter Shaw, Lorraine Chivers, Scott Hatch & Lewis Halsey
Movement is a necessary yet energetically expensive process for motile animals. Yet how individuals modify their behaviour to take advantage of environmental conditions and hence optimise energetic costs during movement remains poorly understood. This is especially true for animals that move through environments where they cannot easily be observed. We examined the behaviour during commuting flights of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska in relation to wind conditions they face. By simultaneously...

Data from: DG-CA3 circuitry mediates hippocampal representations of latent information

Alexandra T. Keinath, Andrés Nieto-Posadas, Jennifer C. Robinson & Mark P. Brandon
Survival in complex environments necessitates a flexible navigation system that incorporates memory of recent behavior and associations. Yet, how the hippocampal spatial circuit represents latent information independent of sensory inputs and future goals has not been determined. To address this, we imaged the activity of large ensembles in subregion CA1 via wide-field fluorescent microscopy during a novel behavioral paradigm. Our results demonstrated that latent information is represented through reliable firing rate changes during unconstrained navigation....

Data from: The inner junction complex of the cilia is an interaction hub that involves tubulin post-translational modifications

Khanh Huy Bui, Ichikawa Muneyoshi, Daniel Dai, Katya Peri, Ahmad Abdelzaher Zaki Khalifa, Muneyoshi Ichikawa, Shintaroh Kubo, Corbin Steven Black, Thomas S McAlear, Simon Veyron, Shun Kai Yang, Javier Vargas, Susanne Bechstedt & Jean-François Trempe
Microtubules are cytoskeletal structures involved in stability, transport and organization in the cell. The building blocks, the α- and β-tubulin heterodimers, form protofilaments that associate laterally into the hollow microtubule. Microtubule also exists as highly stable doublet microtubules in the cilia where stability is needed for ciliary beating and function. The doublet microtubule maintains its stability through interactions at its inner and outer junctions where its A- and B-tubules meet. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy, bioinformatics...

Data From: Ecosystem size shapes antipredator trait evolution in estuarine threespine stickleback

Ben A. Wasserman, Antoine Paccard, Travis M. Apgar, Simone Des Roches, Rowan D.H. Barrett, Andrew P. Hendry & Eric P. Palkovacs
Ecosystem size is known to influence both community structure and ecosystem processes. Less is known about the evolutionary consequences of ecosystem size. A few studies have shown that ecosystem size shapes the evolution of trophic diversity by shaping habitat heterogeneity, but the effects of ecosystem size on antipredator trait evolution have not been explored. Ecosystem size may impact antipredator trait evolution by shaping predator presence (larger ecosystems have longer food chains) and habitat complexity (larger...

Education is associated with Aβ burden in preclinical familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

Julie Gonneaud, Christophe Bedetti, Alexa Pichet Binette, Tammie Benzinger, John Morris, Randall Bateman, Judes Poirier, John Breitner & Sylvia Villeneuve
Objective. To determine whether years of education and the ε4 risk allele at APOE influence β-amyloid pathology similarly in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and pre-symptomatic autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers. Methods. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 106 asymptomatic individuals with a parental history of sporadic AD (PREVENT-AD cohort; age=67.28±4.72 years) and 117 pre-symptomatic autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers (DIAN cohort; age=34.00±9.43 years). All participants underwent structural MRI and...

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  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • McGill University
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  • University of Alberta
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  • University of Toronto
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  • University of British Columbia
    4
  • University of Calgary
    3
  • Queen Mary University of London
    2
  • University of Florida
    2
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    2
  • Colorado State University
    2
  • Uppsala University
    2