54 Works

Data from: Geographic variation in larval metabolic rate between northern and southern populations of the invasive gypsy moth

Carolyn May, Noah Hillerbrand, Lily M. Thompson, Trevor M. Faske, Eloy Martinez, Dylan Parry, Salvatore J. Agosta & Kristine L. Grayson
Thermal regimes can diverge considerably across the geographic range of a species, and accordingly, populations can vary in their response to changing environmental conditions. Both local adaptation and acclimatization are important mechanisms for ectotherms to maintain homeostasis as environments become thermally stressful, which organisms often experience at their geographic range limits. The spatial spread of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) after introduction to North America provides an exemplary system for studying population variation in...

Data from: A comprehensive analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home range estimation

Michael J. Noonan, Marlee A. Tucker, Christen H. Fleming, Tom S. Akre, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Jeanne Altmann, Pamela C. Antunes, Jerrold L. Belant, Dean Beyer, Niels Blaum, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, , Rogerio De Paula Cunha, Jasja Dekker, Jonathan Drescher-Lehman, Nina Farwig, Claudia Fichtel, Christina Fischer, Adam T. Ford, Jacob R. Goheen, René Janssen, Florian Jeltsch, Matthew Kauffman, Peter M. Kappeler … & Justin M. Calabrese
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While advances in animal tracking technology have increased our capacity to collect data to support home range analysis, these same advances have also resulted in increasingly autocorrelated data. Consequently, the question of which home range estimator to use on modern, highly autocorrelated tracking data remains open. This question is particularly relevant given that most estimators assume independently sampled data. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of...

Data from: Combining genetic and demographic information to prioritize conservation efforts for anadromous alewife and blueback herring

Eric P. Palkovacs, Daniel J. Hasselman, Emily E. Argo, Stephen R. Gephard, Karin E. Limburg, David M. Post, Thomas F. Schultz & Theodore V. Willis
A major challenge in conservation biology is the need to broadly prioritize conservation efforts when demographic data are limited. One method to address this challenge is to use population genetic data to define groups of populations linked by migration and then use demographic information from monitored populations to draw inferences about the status of unmonitored populations within those groups. We applied this method to anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), species for...

Data from: Isolation-driven functional assembly of plant communities on islands

Luka Negoita, Jason D. Fridley, Mark V. Lomolino, Glen Mittelhauser, Joseph M. Craine & Evan Weiher
The physical and biotic environment is often considered the primary driver of functional variation in plant communities. Here, we examine the hypothesis that spatial isolation may also be an important driver of functional variation in plant communities where disturbance and dispersal limitation may prevent species from occupying all suitable habitats. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the vascular plant composition of 30 islands in the Gulf of Maine, USA, and used available functional trait and...

Data from: Naturally rare versus newly rare: demographic inferences on two timescales inform conservation of Galápagos giant tortoises

Ryan C. Garrick, Brittney Kajdacsi, Michael A. Russello, Edgar Benavides, Chaz Hyseni, James P. Gibbs, Washington Tapia & Adalgisa Caccone
Long-term population history can influence the genetic effects of recent bottlenecks. Therefore, for threatened or endangered species, an understanding of the past is relevant when formulating conservation strategies. Levels of variation at neutral markers have been useful for estimating local effective population sizes (Ne) and inferring whether population sizes increased or decreased over time. Furthermore, analyses of genotypic, allelic frequency, and phylogenetic information can potentially be used to separate historical from recent demographic changes. For...

Data from: Excavation and aggregation as organizing factors in de novo construction by mound-building termites

Ben Green, Paul Bardunias, J. Scott Turner, Radhika Nagpal & Justin Werfel
Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a...

Data from: Amino acid change in an orchid desaturase enables mimicry of the pollinator’s sex pheromone

Khalid E. M. Sedeek, Edward Whittle, Daniela Guthörl, Ueli Grossniklaus, John Shanklin & Philipp Schlüter
Mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology [ 1 ]. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species [ 2–4 ]. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females [ 2–7 ], especially their sex pheromones [ 8–11 ]. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly...

Genotype-phenotype association for mate choice in progeny of Drosophila simulans backcross

D.F. Erezyilmaz & K. Lu
The data resource contains Drosophila simulans backcross female mate choice (phenotype) aligned with whole-genome genotypes of 784 female backcross progeny. The data were generated in a laboratory at Stony Brook University, New York and each test was conducted in 28.5 x 95mm plastic vials. Phenotype data was collected in 2015 and the final analysis was completed in 2021. Illumina libraries were sequenced at University of Oregon G3 Genomics Center, and the multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG)...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: Multi-locus analyses reveal four giraffe species instead of one

Julian Fennessy, Tobias Bidon, Friederike Reuss, Vikas Kumar, Paul Elkan, Maria A. Nilsson, Melita Vamberger, Uwe Fritz & Axel Janke
Traditionally, one giraffe species and up to eleven subspecies have been recognized [ 1 ]; however, nine subspecies are commonly accepted [ 2 ]. Even after a century of research, the distinctness of each giraffe subspecies remains unclear, and the genetic variation across their distribution range has been incompletely explored. Recent genetic studies on mtDNA have shown reciprocal monophyly of the matrilines among seven of the nine assumed subspecies [ 3, 4 ]. Moreover, until...

Data from: A long-term evaluation of applied nucleation as a strategy to facilitate forest restoration

Jeffrey D. Corbin, George R. Robinson, Lauren M. Hafkemeyer & Steven N. Handel
Applied nucleation is a restoration technique that seeks to facilitate woody plant establishment by attracting birds or other animals that may introduce seeds of dispersal-limited species. In 1991, an experimental test of applied nucleation was initiated in an abandoned landfill in New Jersey, USA. Trees and shrubs were planted into 16 10 × 10-m plots, covering less than 3% of the 6 ha site. In 2010-2011, we sampled the plant community to test the impact...

Data from: Range-wide populations of a long-distance migratory songbird converge during stopover in the tropics

Camila Gomez, Sara L. Guerrero, Alyssa M. FitzGerald, Nicholas J. Bayly, Keith A. Hobson & Carlos Daniel Cadena
Geographic convergence during migration influences the extent to which animal populations may experience carry-over effects across periods of the annual cycle. When most individuals of a population share geographic areas during a given period, carry-over effects are likely stronger than when individuals occupy multiple areas. We used genetic data and stable isotope (δ2H) measurements from feathers and claws to describe the likely breeding and wintering geographic origins of a long-distance migratory songbird (Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus...

Data from: Estimates of gene flow and dispersal in wild riverine Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations reveal ongoing migration and introgression from stocked fish

Spencer A. Bruce & Jeremy J. Wright
As anthropogenic impacts accelerate changes to landscapes across the globe, understanding how genetic population structure is influenced by habitat features and dispersal is key to preserving evolutionary potential at the species level. Furthermore, knowledge of these interactions is essential to identifying potential constraints on local adaptation and for the development of effective management strategies. We examined these issues in Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations residing in the Upper Hudson River watershed of New York State...

Climate-related geographic variation in performance traits across the invasion front of a widespread nonnative insect

Lily Thompson, Sean Powers, Ashley Appolon, Petra Hafker, Lelia Milner, Dylan Parry, Salvatore Agosta & Kristine Grayson
Aim: Invasive species are an ideal system for testing geographic differences in performance traits and measuring evolutionary responses as a species spreads across divergent climates and habitats. The European gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), is a generalist forest defoliator introduced to Medford, Massachusetts, USA in 1869. Currently, the invasion front extends from Minnesota to North Carolina and the ability of gypsy moth populations to adapt to local climate may contribute to its...

Forecasting NDVI in the Galapagos

Noah Charney, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Charles Yackulic, Stephen Blake & James Gibbs
Forecasting ecosystem response to climate change is critical for guiding policy-making but challenging due to: complicated relationships between microclimates and regional climates; species’ responses that are driven by extremes rather than averages; the multifaceted nature of species’ interactions; and the lack of historical analogs to future climates. Given these challenges, even model systems such as the Galapagos Islands, a world-famous biodiversity hotspot and World Heritage Site, lack clear forecasts for future environmental change. Here, we...

Universal temperature sensitivity of denitrification nitrogen losses in forest soils

Haoming Yu, Yihang Duan, Jan Mulder, Peter Dörsch, Ronghua Kang, Kai Huang, Dongwei Liu, Chao Wang, Zhoutao Zheng, Zhi Quan, Feifei Zhu, Shushi Peng, Weixing Zhu, Yangjian Zhang & Yunting Fang
Soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen gas (N2) produced from denitrification are crucial components of the global nitrogen cycle and contribute to nitrogen limitation in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the temperature sensitivity of these gaseous N losses and their underlying processes in forest soils are poorly constrained, limiting our ability to predict nitrogen cycling responses to global warming. Here, we quantify temperature sensitivities (expressed as Q10) of denitrification N2O and N2 production in 18 forest soils...

Data from: Sexual cannibalism increases male material investment in offspring: quantifying terminal reproductive effort in a praying mantis

William D. Brown & Katherine L. Barry
Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism argue that males may offset the cost of cannibalism if components of the male body are directly allocated to the eggs that they fertilize. We tested this idea in the praying mantid Tenodera sinensis. Males and females were fed differently radiolabelled crickets and allowed to mate. Half of the pairs progressed to sexual cannibalism and we prevented cannibalism in the other half. We assess the relative allocation of...

Data from: Mlh3 mutations in baker's yeast alter meiotic recombination outcomes by increasing noncrossover events genome-wide

Najla Al-Sweel, Vandana Raghavan, Abhishek Dutta, V. P. Ajith, Luigi Di Vietro, Nabila Khondakar, Carol M. Manhart, Jennifer Surtees, K. T. Nishant, Eric Alani & Jennifer A. Surtees
Mlh1-Mlh3 is an endonuclease hypothesized to act in meiosis to resolve double Holliday junctions into crossovers. It also plays a minor role in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR). To understand how Mlh1-Mlh3 functions in both meiosis and MMR, we analyzed in baker's yeast 60 new mlh3 alleles. Five alleles specifically disrupted MMR, whereas one (mlh3-32) specifically disrupted meiotic crossing over. Mlh1-mlh3 representatives for each class were purified and characterized. Both Mlh1-mlh3-32 (MMR+, crossover-) and Mlh1-mlh3-45...

Data from: Standing geographic variation in eclosion time and the genomics of host race formation in Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies

Meredith M. Doellman, Scott P. Egan, Gregory J. Ragland, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, Patrik Nosil, Jeff L. Feder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
Taxa harboring high levels of standing variation may be more likely to adapt to rapid environmental shifts and experience ecological speciation. Here, we characterize geographic and host-related differentiation for 10,241 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies to infer if standing genetic variation in adult eclosion time in the ancestral hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)-infesting host race, as opposed to new mutations, contributed substantially to its recent shift to earlier fruiting apple (Malus domestica). Allele frequency...

Data from: Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species

Richard P. Shefferson, Tiiu Kull, Michael J. Hutchings, Marc-André Selosse, Hans Jacquemyn, Kimberly M. Kellett, Eric S. Menges, Richard B. Primack, Juha Tuomi, Kirsi Alahuhta, Sonja Hurskainen, Helen M. Alexander, Derek S. Anderson, Rein Brys, Emilia Brzosko, Slavomir Dostálik, Katharine Gregg, Zdeněk Ipser, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Jana Jersáková, W. Dean Kettle, Melissa K. McCormick, Ana Mendoza, Michael T. Miller, Asbjørn Moen … & Dennis F. Whigham
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...

Data from: Associations among elementary school children's actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity and BMI: a cross-sectional study

An De Meester, David Stodden, Ali Brian, Larissa True, Greet Cardon, Isabel Tallir & Leen Haerens
Background: Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. Methods: Children's (N=361; Boys=50%; Mage=9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor...

Data from: Is it the song or the singers? Acoustic and social experiences shape adult reproductive tactics and condition

Susan L. Balenger, Elizabeth Bastiaans & Marlene Zuk
When sexual signals are perceived during growth and development they can provide information regarding the social conditions likely to be encountered as an adult. Perception of cues related to the presence and density of future mates and potential competitors can result in altered adult phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that adult male Teleogryllus oceanicus field crickets from a Kauai, Hawaii population reared alone and without hearing conspecific song are more phonotactic than those reared with...

Habitat use as an indicator of adaptive capacity to climate change

Claire Teitelbaum, Alexej Siren, Ethan Coffel, Jane Foster, Jacqueline Frair, Joseph Hinton, Radley Horton, David Kramer, Corey Lesk, Colin Raymond, David Wattles, Katherine Zeller & Toni Lyn Morelli
Aim: Populations of cold-adapted species at the trailing edges of geographic ranges are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change from the combination of exposure to warm temperatures and high sensitivity to heat. Many of these species are predicted to decline under future climate scenarios, but they could persist if they can adapt to warming climates either physiologically or behaviorally. We aim to understand local variation in contemporary habitat use and use this...

Data from: Genetic rediscovery of an ‘extinct’ Galápagos giant tortoise species

Ryan C. Garrick, Edgar Benavides, Michael Russello, James Gibbs, Nikos Poulakakis, Kirstin Dion, Chaz Hyseni, Brittney Kajdacsi, Lady Márquez, Sarah Bahan, Claudio Ciofi, Washington Tapia, Adalgisa Caccone, Kirstin B. Dion, James P. Gibbs & Michael A. Russello
Genes from recently extinct species can live on in the genomes of extant individuals of mixed ancestry. Recently, Poulakakis et al. detected genetic signatures of the giant Galápagos tortoise once endemic to Floreana Island (Chelonoidis elephantopus) within eleven hybrid individuals of otherwise pure C. becki on Volcano Wolf, Isabela Island. Movement of tortoises among islands by pirate and whaling ships was not uncommon during the 1800’s, representing a likely mechanism by which individuals from Floreana...

Data from: High-throughput adaptive sampling for whole-slide histopathology image analysis (HASHI) via convolutional neural networks: application to invasive breast cancer detection

Angel Cruz-Roa, Hannah Gilmore, Ajay Basavanhally, Michael Feldman, Shridar Ganesan, Natalie Shih, John Tomaszewski, Anant Madabhushi & Fabio González
Precise detection of invasive cancer on whole-slide images (WSI) is a critical first step in digital pathology tasks of diagnosis and grading. Convolutional neural network (CNN) is the most popular representation learning method for computer vision tasks, which have been successfully applied in digital pathology, including tumor and mitosis detection. However, CNNs are typically only tenable with relatively small image sizes (200x200 pixels). Only recently, Fully convolutional networks (FCN) are able to deal with larger...

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