Global warming is affecting the Antarctic continent in complex ways. Because Antarctic organisms are specialized to living in the cold, they are vulnerable to increasing temperatures, though quantitative analyses of this issue are currently lacking. Here we compiled a total of 184 estimates of heat tolerance belonging to 39 marine species and quantified how survival is affected concomitantly by the intensity and duration of a thermal stress. Species exhibit thermal limits displaced towards colder temperatures,...
Data from: Extra-pair paternity in two populations of the socially monogamous Thorn-tailed Rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda (Passeriformes: Furnariidae)Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Yanina Poblete, Silvina Ippi, Bart Kempenaers & Rodrigo Vasquez
Studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) are key to understanding the ecological and evolutionary drivers of variation in avian mating strategies, but information is currently lacking for most tropical and sub-tropical taxa. We describe the occurrence of EPP in two populations of a South American socially monogamous bird, the Thorn-tailed Rayadito, based on data from 266 broods and 895 offspring that were sampled during six breeding seasons in north-central and southern Chile. In the northern population,...
Data from: Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean PatagoniaMauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Paves & Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic...
Synthesis of batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in South America: amphibian species under risk and areas to focus research and disease mitigationClaudio Azat, Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Jaiber Solano-Iguaran, Anibal Velasco, Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Sandra Flechas, Alexandra Peñafiel-Ricaurte, Andrew Cunningham & Leonardo Bacigalupe
Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been recognized as the infectious disease causing the most catastrophic loss of biodiversity known to science, with South America being the most impacted region. We tested whether Bd prevalence is distributed among host taxonomy, ecoregion, conservation status and habitat preference in South America. Here we provide a synthesis on the extent of Bd infection across South America based on 21,648 molecular diagnostic assays, roles of certain species...
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...
Data from: Genetic structure of introduced American mink (Neovison vison) in Patagonia: colonisation insights and implications for control and management strategiesMónica Mora, Gonzalo Medina-Vogel, Maximiliano A. Sepúlveda, Daly Noll, Rocío Álvarez-Varas & Juliana A. Vianna
Context: Biological invasions have caused dramatic changes in native biodiversity and ecosystem function. Studies of genetic variation and evolutionary changes are useful for understanding population dynamics during biological invasions, and shed light on management, prevention and restoration strategies. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the structure and genetic variability of American mink (Neovison vison), an invasive species in southern South America, introduced for fur farming in the 1930s. Methods: Samples from 153 mink were obtained...
Phenotypic plasticity and the leaf economics spectrum: plasticity is positively associated with specific leaf areaGisela C. Stotz, Gisela Stotz, Cristian Salgado-Luarte, Víctor Escobedo, Fernando Valladares & Ernesto Gianoli
Phenotypic plasticity is a key mechanism by which plants respond to changing or heterogeneous conditions. Efforts to predict phenotypic plasticity across plant species have mainly focused on environmental variability or abiotic conditions, i.e., site characteristics. However, the considerable variation in phenotypic plasticity within sites calls for alternative approaches. Different functional groups are thought to differ in their plasticity levels. Further, traits such as leaf specific area (SLA), leaf area (LA) and maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax)...
Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding groundEmma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...
Data from: Heterozigosity-fitness correlations in a continental island population of Thorn-tailed RayaditoEsteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Rodrigo A. Vásquez & Bart Kempenaers
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been used to monitor the effects of inbreeding in threatened populations. HFCs can also be useful to investigate the potential effects of inbreeding in isolated relict populations of long-term persistence, and to better understand the role of inbreeding and outbreeding as drivers of changes in genetic diversity. We studied a continental island population of thorn-tailed rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) inhabiting the relict forest of Fray Jorge National Park, north-central Chile. This population...
Body size variation in polyplacophoran mollusks: geographic clines and community structure along the Southeastern PacificChristian Ibanez, Mauricio Carter, Moises Aguilera, M. Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas & Enrico Rezende
Aim: To evaluate the latitudinal pattern of body size within and among chiton species employing phylogenetically structured analyses, and to examine the role of geographic variation in temperature, productivity and oxygen availability as potential environmental drivers. Location: Coastal habitats of the Southeastern Pacific along a latitudinal range of nearly 6,000 km, from the Equator to Patagonia (~ 2º to 56º S). Time Period: Present (2011 – 2017). Major taxa: 31 species of polyplacophoran mollusks. Methods:...
Data from: Evidence of low within-pair genetic relatedness in a relict population of Thorn-tailed Rayadito despite long-term isolationEsteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Silvina Ippi, Rodrigo Vásquez & Bart Kempenaers
Investigating whether mating patterns are biased in relation to kinship in isolated populations can provide a better understanding of the occurrence of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in wild populations. Here we report on the genetic relatedness (r) among breeding pairs in a relict population of Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) in north-central Chile that has experienced a long-term history of isolation. We used simulations based on eight years of data to assess whether mating is random with...
Andrés Bello University11
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology3
University of Chile3
Universidad de las Américas2
National University of Comahue2
Pontifical Catholic University of Chile2
Victoria University of Wellington1
National Oceanography Centre1
University of Newcastle Australia1