11 Works

Data from: Vascular patterns in the heads of crocodilians: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange

William Ruger Porter, Jayc C. Sedlmayr & Lawrence M. Witmer
Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is endothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated...

Anatomy, ontogeny, and evolution of the archosaurian respiratory system: a case study on Alligator mississippiensis and Struthio camelus

Emma Schachner, Brandon Hedrick, Heather Richbourg, John Hutchinson & CG Farmer
The avian lung is highly specialized and is both functionally and morphologically distinct from that of their closest extant relatives, the crocodilians. It is highly partitioned, with a unidirectionally ventilated and immobilized gas-exchanging lung, and fully decoupled, compliant, poorly vascularized ventilatory air-sacs. To understand the evolutionary history of the archosaurian (birds, crocodilians and their common ancestors) respiratory system, it is essential to determine which anatomical characteristics are shared between birds and crocodilians and the role...

Analysis of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) titers of recovered COVID-19 patients

Jeffrey Gold, William Baumgartl, Ramazan Okyay, Warren Licht, Paul Fidel, Mairi Noverr, Larry Tilley, David Hurley, Balázs Rada & John Ashford
The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been theorized to provide protection against COVID-19. Our aim was to determine whether any MMR IgG titers are inversely correlated with severity in recovered COVID-19 patients previously vaccinated with MMR II. We divided 80 subjects into two groups, comparing MMR titers to recent COVID-19 severity. The MMR II group consisted of 50 subjects who would primarily have MMR antibodies from the MMR II vaccine, and a comparison group of 30...

Data from: Quantifying shape and ecology in avian pedal claws: the relationship between the bony core and keratinous sheath

Brandon Hedrick, Samantha Cordero, Lindsay Zanno, Christopher Noto & Peter Dodson
Terrestrial tetrapods use their claws to interact with their environments in a plethora of ways. Birds in particular have developed a diversity of claw shapes since they are often not bound to terrestrial locomotion and have heterogeneous body masses ranging several orders of magnitude. Numerous previous studies have hypothesized a connection between pedal claw shape and ecological mode in birds, yet have generated conflicting results, spanning from clear ecological groupings based on claw shape to...

Architecture of the bronchial tree in Cuvier’s dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus)

Emma Schachner, , Rob Coke, M Scott Echols, Michelle Osborn & Brandon Hedrick
We imaged the lungs of five Cuvier's dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) via computed tomography (CT) and micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared these data to the lungs of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). These data demonstrate anatomical commonalities between the lungs of P. palpebrosus and A. mississippiensis, and a few notable differences. The structural similarities are (a) a proximally narrow, distally widened, hook-shaped primary bronchus; (b) a cervical ventral bronchus that branches of the primary bronchus...

Anatomy, variation, and asymmetry of the bronchial tree in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus)

Adam B. Lawson, Brandon P. Hedrick, M. Scott Echols & Emma R. Schachner
The avian respiratory system includes an immobilized, nearly volume-constant, gas-exchanging lung connected to a set of air sacs that fill the body cavity. These micro-computed tomography (µCT) scans of deceased African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) were used to analyse anatomical variation in the the gas-exchanging lung by taking select metrics and by generating 3D surface models of airways. The data include select portions of eleven axial µCT image series taken every 94.19–97.23 µm and one...

Osteology of the late Triassic bipedal archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from Western North America

Emma R. Schachner, Randall B. Irmis, Adam K. Huttenlocker, Kent Sanders, Robert L. Cieri & Sterling J. Nesbitt
Poposaurus gracilis is a bipedal pseudosuchian archosaur that has been poorly understood since the discovery of the holotype fragmentary partial postcranial skeleton in 1915. Poposaurus. gracilis is a member of Poposauroidea, an unusually morphologically divergent clade of pseudosuchians containing taxa that are bipedal, quadrupedal, toothed, edentulous, and some individuals with elongated thoracic neural spines (i.e., sails). In 2003, a well preserved, fully articulated, and nearly complete postcranial skeleton of P. gracilis was discovered with some...

Facemasks: Perceptions and use in an ED population during COVID-19

Vidya Eswaran, Anna Marie Chang, R Gentry Wilkerson, Kelli O'Laughlin, Brian Chinnock, Stephanie Eucker, Brigitte Baumann, Nancy Anaya, Daniel Miller, Adrianne Haggins, Jesus Torres, Erik Anderson, Stephen Lim, Martina Caldwell, Ali Raja & Robert Rodriguez
Study Objective: Facemask use is associated with reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Most surveys assessing perceptions and practices of mask use miss the most vulnerable racial, ethnic, and socio-economic populations. These same populations have suffered disproportionate impacts from the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess beliefs, access, and practices of mask wearing across 15 urban emergency department (ED) populations. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of ED patients from...

DMT in the Mammalian Brain: A Critical Appraisal

Charles D. Nicholas & David E. Nichols
Recently, a publication from Dean et al. reported that N,N-dimethyl tryptamine (DMT) is synthesized in the rat brain cortex, present at levels similar to other monoamine neurotransmitters, and significantly increases in concentration at death. They further promoted the theory that DMT may serve as the causative agent for “near death experiences”, which have been compared to peak psychedelic experiences. The publication certainly is interesting and suggests additional directions to explore scientifically but does not meet...

Data from: Elovanoids counteract oligomeric β-Amyloid-induced gene expression and protect photoreceptors

Nicolas Bazan, Khanh Do, Marie-Audrey Kautzmann, Bokkyoo Jun, William Gordon, Robert Nshimiyimana, Rong Yang & Nicos Petasis
The onset of neurodegenerative diseases activates inflammation that leads to progressive neuronal cell death and impairments in cognition (Alzheimer’s disease, AD) and sight (age-related macular degeneration, AMD). How neuroinflammation can be counteracted is not known. In AMD, amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) accumulates in subretinal drusen. In the 5xFAD retina, we found early functional deficiencies (ERG) without photoreceptor cell (PRC) death and identified early insufficiency in biosynthetic pathways of pro-homeostatic/neuroprotective mediators, neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) and elovanoids (ELVs)....

Papel dos sistemas mediados por serotonina e glicocorticóides na resposta ao estresse

Cláudia Padovan
Stress has been considered as one of the etiological factors in Psychiatric Disease, since it induces behavioural, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular changes, leading to an arousal state which in turn can be observed by changes in behaviour and central nervous system functioning. Such responses are coordinated by several brain structures such as prefrontal cortex (PFCx), hippocampus (dH), median raphe nucleus (MnRN) and amygdala, among the serotonergic system and glucocorticoids which interfere on the acquisition, consolidation/expression and...

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