220 Works

Data from: Using metagenomics to show the efficacy of forest restoration in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

William D. Eaton, Shadi Shokralla, Kathleen M. McGee & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
The Franklin Parker Preserve within the New Jersey Pine Barrens contains 5,000 acres of wetlands habitat, including old-growth Atlantic White Cedar (or AWC; Chamaecyparis thyoides) swamps, cranberry bogs, and former cranberry bogs undergoing restoration into AWC forests. This study showed that the C-use efficiency was greater in the old-growth AWC soils than in soils from 8-year old mid-stage restored AWC stands, which were greater than found in soil from 4-year old AWC stands—the latter two...

Data from: Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

S. Eryn McFarlane, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell & David W. Coltman
A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the Taeniapterini (Diptera: Micropezidae) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, with a reclassification of the genus Taeniaptera Macquart

Morgan D. Jackson, Stephen A. Marshall & Jeffrey H. Skevington
DNA molecular data are used to generate a phylogeny for the micropezid subfamily Taeniapterinae. Thirty-two taeniapterine species were sampled, including 10 of the 20 New World genera recognized by Steyskal, as well as one genus formerly treated as a synonym of Poecilotylus Hennig (Hemichaeta Steyskal). Five species from the Micropezinae were included as outgroups. A total DNA dataset of 4705 bp, including mitochondrial genes (12S and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI)) and nuclear coding genes...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Physiological effects of temperature do not explain prevalence of females in populations of gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica growing in warmer climates

Maia F. Bailey, Andrea L. Case & Christina M. Caruso
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gynodioecy is a sexual polymorphism whereby female and hermaphroditic plants co-occur within populations. In many gynodioecious species, stressful abiotic environments are associated with higher frequencies of females. This association suggests that abiotic stress affects the relative fitness of females and hermaphrodites and, thus, the maintenance of gynodioecy. METHODS:To test whether abiotic stress affects the fitness of females and hermaphrodites, we grew open-pollinated Lobelia siphilitica families in temperature regimes characteristic of the...

Data from: Using playback of territorial calls to investigate mechanisms of kin discrimination in red squirrels

Julia Shonfield, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, David Wilson & Andrew G. McAdam
Kin recognition can facilitate kin selection and may have played a role in the evolution of sociality. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) defend territories using vocalizations known as rattles. They use rattles to discriminate kin, though the mechanism underlying this ability is unknown. Our objective was to distinguish between the mechanisms of prior association, where animals learn the phenotypes of kin they associate with early in life, and phenotype matching/recognition alleles, where animals use a template...

Data from: Assessing costs of carrying geolocators using feather corticosterone in two species of aerial insectivore

Graham D. Fairhurst, Lisha L. Berzins, David W. Bradley, Andrew J. Laughlin, Andrea Romano, Maria Romano, Chiara Scandolara, Roberto Ambrosini, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Keith A. Hobson, Felix Liechti, Tracy A. Marchant, D. Ryan Norris, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino, Caz M. Taylor, Linda A. Whittingham & Robert G. Clark
Despite benefits of using light-sensitive geolocators to track animal movements and describe patterns of migratory connectivity, concerns have been raised about negative effects of these devices, particularly in small species of aerial insectivore. Geolocators may act as handicaps that increase energetic expenditure, which could explain reported effects of geolocators on survival. We tested this ‘Energetic Expenditure Hypothesis’ in 12 populations of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from North America and Europe,...

Data from: Genetic and maternal effects on tail spine and body length in the invasive spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus)

Andrea L. J. Miehls, Scott D. Peacor & Andrew G. McAdam
Interest in the evolution of invasive species has grown in recent years, yet few studies have investigated sources of variation in invasive species traits experiencing natural selection. The spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, is an invasive zooplankton in the Great Lakes that exhibits seasonal changes in tail spine and body length consistent with natural selection. Evolution of Bythotrephes traits, however, depends on the presence and magnitude of quantitative genetic variation, which could change within or...

Data from: Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg & Elizabeth T. Borer
Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and...

Data from: Wolves adapt territory size, not pack size to local habitat quality

Andrew M. Kittle, Morgan Anderson, Tal Avgar, James A. Baker, Glen S. Brown, Jevon Hagens, Ed Iwachewski, Scott Moffatt, Anna Mosser, Brent R. Patterson, Douglas E.B. Reid, Arthur R. Rodgers, Jen Shuter, Garrett M. Street, Ian D. Thompson, Lucas M. Vander Vennen & John M. Fryxell
1. Although local variation in territorial predator density is often correlated with habitat quality, the causal mechanism underlying this frequently observed association is poorly understood and could stem from facultative adjustment in either group size or territory size. 2. To test between these alternative hypotheses, we used a novel statistical framework to construct a winter population-level utilization distribution for wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Ontario, which we then linked to a suite of environmental variables...

Data from: Gape-limited predators as agents of selection on the defensive morphology of an invasive invertebrate

Andrea L. J. Miehls, Scott D. Peacor & Andrew G. McAdam
Invasive species have widespread and pronounced effects on ecosystems and adaptive evolution of invaders is often considered responsible for their success. Despite the potential importance of adaptation to invasion, we still have limited knowledge of the agents of natural selection on invasive species. Bythotrephes longimanus, a cladoceran zooplankton, invaded multiple Canadian Shield lakes over the past several decades. Bythotrephes have a conspicuous caudal process (tail spine) that provides a morphological defense against fish predation. We...

Data from: Patchy distribution and low effective population size raise concern for an at-risk top predator

Linda Y. Rutledge, Glenn Desy, John M. Fryxell, Kevin Middel, Bradley N. White & Brent R. Patterson
Aim: Understanding carnivore distribution is important for management decisions that aim to restore naturally-regulated ecosystems and preserve biodiversity. Eastern Wolves, a species at risk in Canada, are centralized in Algonquin Provincial Park and their ability to disperse and establish themselves elsewhere is limited by human-caused mortality associated with hunting, trapping, and vehicle collisions. Here, we refine our understanding of Eastern Wolf distribution and provide the first estimates of their effective population size. Location: Southern Ontario...

Data from: Reducing cryptic relatedness in genomic datasets via a central node exclusion algorithm

Pablo A.S. Fonseca, Thiago P. Leal, Fernanda Caroline Santos, Mateus Henrique Gouveia, Samir Id-Lahoucine, Izinara C. Rosse, Ricardo V. Ventura, Frank Angelo T. Bruneli, Marco Antônio Machado, Maria Gabriela C.D. Peixoto, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Maria Raquel S. Carvalho & Pablo A. S. Fonseca
Cryptic relatedness is a confounding factor in genetic diversity and genetic association studies. Development of strategies to reduce cryptic relatedness in a sample is a crucial step for downstream genetic analyzes. The present study uses a node selection algorithm, based on network degrees of centrality, to evaluate its applicability and impact on evaluation of genetic diversity and population stratification. 1,036 Guzerá (Bos indicus) females were genotyped using Illumina Bovine SNP50 v2 BeadChip. Four strategies were...

Data from: Why hate the good guy? Antisocial punishment of high cooperators is greater when people compete to be chosen

Aleta Pleasant & Pat Barclay
When choosing social partners, people prefer good cooperators (all else equal). Given this preference, anyone wishing to be chosen can either increase their own cooperation to become more desirable, or suppress others’ cooperation to make them less desirable. Previous research shows that very cooperative people sometimes get punished (“antisocial punishment”) or criticized (“do-gooder derogation”) in many cultures. Here we use a public goods game with punishment to test whether antisocial punishment is used as a...

Data from: Diel movement patterns influence daily variation in wolf kill rates on moose

Lucas M. Vander Vennen, Brent R. Patterson, Arthur R. Rodgers, Scott Moffatt, Morgan L. Anderson & John M. Fryxell
Variation in predation can have important consequences for predators and prey, but little is known about associated mechanisms. Diel interactions between predators and prey are commonly assumed to be influenced by movement speeds of both predators and prey individuals, sensu the ideal gas model, but the influencing factors of diel predation dynamics have yet to be empirically examined. In this study, we apply principles of the ideal gas model to predict diel variation in kill...

Data from: Revisiting the ichthyodiversity of Java and Bali through DNA barcodes: taxonomic coverage, identification accuracy, cryptic diversity and identification of exotic species

Hadi Dahruddin, Aditya Hutama, Frédéric Busson, Sopian Sauri, Robert Hanner, Philippe Keith, Renny Hadiaty & Nicolas Hubert
Among the 899 species of freshwater fishes reported from Sundaland biodiversity hotspot, nearly 50% are endemics. The functional integrity of aquatic ecosystems is currently jeopardized by human activities, and landscape conversion led to the decline of fish populations in several part of Sundaland, particularly in Java. The inventory of the Javanese ichthyofauna has been discontinuous, and the taxonomic knowledge is scattered in the literature. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for the inland...

Data from: Meta-analysis of yield response of foliar fungicide-treated hybrid corn in the United States and Ontario, Canada

Kiersten A. Wise, Damon L. Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price, Alison Robertson & Albert Tenuta
Background: Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return...

Data from: Adaptation of diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium to elevation but not local environment

Sara Lauretta Martin & Brian C. Husband
Polyploid organisms often have different geographic ranges than their diploid relatives. However, it is unclear whether this divergence is maintained by adaptation or results from historical differences in colonization. Here we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment with diploid and autotetraploid Chamerion angustifolium to test for adaptation at the ploidy and population level. In the Rocky Mountains, pure diploid populations occur at high elevations and pure autotetraploid populations occur at low elevations with mixed-ploidy populations between....

Data from: Next-generation DNA barcoding: using next-generation sequencing to enhance and accelerate DNA barcode capture from single specimens

Shadi Shokralla, Joel F. Gibson, Hamid Nikbakht, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
DNA barcoding is an efficient method to identify specimens and to detect undescribed/cryptic species. Sanger sequencing of individual specimens is the standard approach in generating large-scale DNA barcode libraries and identifying unknowns. However, the Sanger sequencing technology is, in some respects, inferior to next-generation sequencers, which are capable of producing millions of sequence reads simultaneously. Additionally, direct Sanger sequencing of DNA barcode amplicons, as practiced in most DNA barcoding procedures, is hampered by the need...

Data from: Length polymorphisms at two candidate genes explain variation of migratory behaviors in blackpoll warblers (Setophaga striata)

Joel Ralston, Lydia Lorenc, Melissa Montes, William Deluca, Jeremy Kirchman, Brad Woodworth, Stuart Mackenzie, Amy Newman, Hilary A. Cooke, Nikole Freeman, Alex Sutton, Lila Tauzer & D. Ryan Norris
Migratory behaviors such as the timing and duration of migration are genetically inherited and can be under strong natural selection, yet we still know very little about the specific genes or molecular pathways that control these behaviors. Studies in candidate genes Clock and Adcyap1 have revealed that both of these loci can be significantly correlated with migratory behaviors in birds, though observed relationships appear to vary across species. We investigated geographic genetic structure of Clock...

Data from: Decreased root heterogeneity and increased root length following grassland invasion

Brenda M. Vaness, Scott D. Wilson & Andrew S. MacDougall
1. Plant invasions can be promoted by environmental heterogeneity, but the opposite effect, the impact of plant invasion on heterogeneity, has received little attention. Grassland invasions might contribute to decreased spatial heterogeneity because invaders tend to be larger than native vegetation. Lowered heterogeneity may contribute to the low diversity of invaded communities, as well as to the persistence of invasive populations. 2. We compared the spatial heterogeneity of roots and resources in uninvaded native grassland...

Data from: Molecular detection of trophic links in a complex insect host-parasitoid food web

Jan Hrcek, Scott E Miller, Donald L J Quicke & M. Alex Smith
Previously, host-parasitoid links have been unveiled almost exclusively by time-intensive rearing, while molecular methods were used only in simple agricultural host-parasitoid systems in the form of species specific primers. Here we present a general method for molecular detection of these links applied to a complex caterpillar-parasitoid food web from tropical rainforest of Papua New Guinea. We DNA barcoded hosts, parasitoids and their tissue remnants and matched the sequences to our extensive library of local species....

Data from: A comprehensive DNA barcode database for Central European beetles with a focus on Germany: adding more than 3,500 identified species to BOLD

Jérôme Morinière, Lars Hendrich, Gerhard Haszprunar, Paul D. N. Hebert, Axel Hausmann, Frank Köhler & Michael Balke
Beetles are the most diverse group of animals and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. In many countries, they are well established for environmental impact assessment, but even in the well-studied Central European fauna, species identification can be very difficult. A comprehensive and taxonomically well-curated DNA barcode library could remedy this deficit and could also link hundreds of years of traditional knowledge with next generation sequencing technology. However, such a beetle library is missing to date....

Data from: Untangling taxonomy: a DNA barcode reference library for Canadian spiders

Gergin A. Blagoev, Jeremy R. DeWaard, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Stephanie L. DeWaard, Liuqiong Lu, James Robertson, Angela C. Telfer & Paul D. N. Hebert
Approximately 1460 species of spiders have been reported from Canada, 3% of the global fauna. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for 1018 of these species based upon the analysis of more than 30 000 specimens. The sequence results show a clear barcode gap in most cases with a mean intraspecific divergence of 0.78% vs. a minimum nearest-neighbour (NN) distance averaging 7.85%. The sequences were assigned to 1359 Barcode index numbers (BINs) with...

Data from: Eating local: influences of habitat on the diet of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)

Elizabeth L Clare, Brittany R Barber, Bernard W Sweeney, Paul DN Hebert & M Brock Fenton
We employ molecular methods to profile the diet of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and describe spatial and temporal changes in diet over their maternity season. We identified 61 prey species of insects and 5 species of arachnid. The largest proportion of prey (∼32%) were identified as species of the mass-emerging Ephemeroptera (mayfly) genus Caenis. Bats roosting in agricultural settings had lower dietary richness than those occupying a roost located on a forest fragment...

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