25 Works

Data from: Frequency-dependent fitness in gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica

Lillian Ruth Rivkin, Andrea L. Case & Christina Marie Caruso
Selection is frequency dependent when an individual's fitness depends on the frequency of its phenotype. Frequency-dependent selection should be common in gynodioecious plants, where individuals are female or hermaphroditic; if the fitness of females is limited by the availability of pollen to fertilize their ovules, then they should have higher fitness when rare than when common. To test whether the fitness of females is frequency dependent, we manipulated the sex ratio in arrays of gynodioecious...

Data from: Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change

Nicole E. Miller-Struttmann, Jennifer C. Geib, James D. Franklin, Peter G. Kevan, Ricardo M. Holdo, Diane Ebert-May, Austin M. Lynn, Jessica A. Kettenbach, Elizabeth Hedrick & Candace Galen
Ecological partnerships, or mutualisms, are globally widespread, sustaining agriculture and biodiversity. Mutualisms evolve through the matching of functional traits between partners, such as tongue length of pollinators and flower tube depth of plants. Long-tongued pollinators specialize on flowers with deep corolla tubes, whereas shorter-tongued pollinators generalize across tube lengths. Losses of functional guilds because of shifts in global climate may disrupt mutualisms and threaten partner species. We found that in two alpine bumble bee species,...

Data from: Discrimination of grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) diet and niche overlap using next-generation sequencing of gut contents

Beverly McClenaghan, Joel F. Gibson, Shadi Shokralla & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Species of grasshopper have been divided into three diet classifications based on mandible morphology: forbivorous (specialist on forbs), graminivorous (specialist on grasses), and mixed feeding (broad-scale generalists). For example, Melanoplus bivittatus and Dissosteira carolina are presumed to be broad-scale generalists, Chortophaga viridifasciata is a specialist on grasses, and Melanoplus femurrubrum is a specialist on forbs. These classifications, however, have not been verified in the wild. Multiple specimens of these four species were collected, and diet...

Data from: Experimental evidence for within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproduction

Kyle H. Elliott, Gustavo S. Betini, Ian Dworkin & D. Ryan Norris
Fear of predation can have non-lethal effects on individuals within a season but whether, and to what extent, these effects carry over into subsequent seasons is not known. Using a replicated seasonal population of the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we examined both within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproductive output. Compared to controls, flies exposed to the scent of mantid (Tenodera sinensis) predators in the non-breeding season had 64% higher mortality,...

Data from: DNA barcodes from century-old type specimens using next generation sequencing

Sean W. J. Prosser, Jeremy R. DeWaard, Scott E. Miller & Paul D. N. Hebert
Type specimens have high scientific importance because they provide the only certain connection between the application of a Linnean name and a physical specimen. Many other individuals may have been identified as a particular species, but their linkage to the taxon concept is inferential. Because type specimens are often more than a century old and have experienced conditions unfavorable for DNA preservation, success in sequence recovery has been uncertain. The present study addresses this challenge...

Data from: Species patch size at seeding affects diversity and productivity responses in establishing grasslands

Shannon E. Seahra, Kathryn A. Yurkonis & Jonathan A. Newman
1. Species interactions in diverse plant communities affect community-scale functions such as above-ground biomass production, diversity and invasion resistance. While the strength of these formative interactions can be affected by the balance of inter- and intraspecific interactions among the resident species, it is unclear over what distances individuals typically interact in grasslands and whether or not species interactions at seeding can be effectively manipulated to improve these responses. 2. In a three-year study, we tested...

Data from: Experimental effects of early-life corticosterone on the HPA axis and pre-migratory behaviour in a wild songbird

Jesse J. Pakkala, D. Ryan Norris, James S. Sedinger & Amy E. M. Newman
1.Although laboratory studies have shown that chronic exposure to elevated glucocorticoids during development can have profound effects on the physiology and behaviour of animals, we still have a poor understanding of the proximate and ultimate consequences of early-life stress on individuals in the wild. 2. In an island population of Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), we examined multiple hypotheses to explain how elevated glucocorticoid exposure during the nestling period influenced both hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function during...

Data from: When anthropogenic-related disturbances overwhelm demographic persistence mechanisms

Alisha Duwyn & Andrew S. MacDougall
1. Population decline is associated with increased vulnerability to extinction, but also with possible density-, frequency-, or distance-related ‘rarity advantages’ that increase recruitment success as individuals become isolated from their congeners. Distinguishing between these alternatives (risk versus recovery of rare populations via demographic processes) has become critical, given how anthropogenic disturbances are causing population declines globally. 2. Here, we demonstrate how distance-related rarity advantages are evident in spatially isolated recruits of a canopy-dominant but regionally...

Data from: The nature of nurture in a wild mammal’s fitness

S. Eryn McFarlane, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin & Andrew G. McAdam
Genetic variation in fitness is required for the adaptive evolution of any trait but natural selection is thought to erode genetic variance in fitness. This paradox has motivated the search for mechanisms that might maintain a population's adaptive potential. Mothers make many contributions to the attributes of their developing offspring and these maternal effects can influence responses to natural selection if maternal effects are themselves heritable. Maternal genetic effects (MGEs) on fitness might, therefore, represent...

Data from: Evolutionary stasis despite selection on a heritable trait in an invasive zooplankton

Andrea L.J. Miehls, Scott D. Peacor, Lindsey Valliant, Andrew G. McAdam & A. L. J. Miehls
Invasive species are one of the greatest threats to ecosystems and there is evidence that evolution plays an important role in the success or failure of invasions. Yet, few studies have measured natural selection and evolutionary responses to selection in invasive species, particularly invasive animals. We quantified the strength of natural selection on the defensive morphology (distal spine) of an invasive zooplankton, Bythotrephes longimanus, in Lake Michigan across multiple months during three growing seasons. We...

Data from: Stress and the microbiome: linking glucocorticoids to bacterial community dynamics in wild red squirrels

Mason R. Stothart, Colleen B. Bobbie, Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Nadia C. S. Mykytczuk & Amy E. M. Newman
Bacterial diversity within animals is emerging as an essential component of health, but it is unknown how stress may influence the microbiome. We quantify a proximate link between the oral microbiome and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) in wild red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Not only was bacterial diversity lower at higher levels of FGM, but also between capture periods a change in bacterial relative abundance was related to an increase in...

Data from: The adaptive capacity of lake food webs: from individuals to ecosystems

Bailey C. McMeans, Kevin S. McCann, Tyler D. Tunney, Aaron T. Fisk, Andrew M. Muir, Nigel Lester, Brian Shuter & Neil Rooney
Aquatic ecosystems support size structured food webs, wherein predator-prey body sizes span orders of magnitude. As such, these food webs are replete with extremely generalized feeding strategies, especially among the larger bodied, higher trophic position taxa. The movement scale of aquatic organisms also generally increases with body size and trophic position. Together, these body size, mobility, and foraging relationships suggest that organisms lower in the food web generate relatively distinct energetic pathways by feeding over...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Large-scale biomonitoring of remote and threatened ecosystems via high-throughput sequencing

Joel F. Gibson, Shadi Shokralla, Colin Curry, Donald J. Baird, Wendy A. Monk, Ian King & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Biodiversity metrics are critical for assessment and monitoring of ecosystems threatened by anthropogenic stressors. Existing sorting and identification methods are too expensive and labour-intensive to be scaled up to meet management needs. Alternately, a high-throughput DNA sequencing approach could be used to determine biodiversity metrics from bulk environmental samples collected as part of a large-scale biomonitoring program. Here we show that both morphological and DNA sequence-based analyses are suitable for recovery of individual taxonomic richness,...

Data from: No influence of water limitation on the outcome of competition between diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae)

Kenneth A. Thompson, Brian C. Husband, Hafiz Maherali & Ken A. Thompson
1. Polyploid plants often occupy different geographic ranges than their diploid progenitors, but the causes of this segregation are poorly understood. Differential competitive abilities of cytotypes across an environmental gradient could be responsible for these observed geographic range differences. 2. Cytotypes of Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae) are mostly allopatric, and prior research indicates that tetraploids are more physiologically tolerant of water limitation and occupy drier habitats than diploids. We hypothesized that tetraploids are stronger competitors than...

Data from: Space-use behavior of woodland caribou based on a cognitive movement model

Tal Avgar, Glen S. Brown, Ian Thompson, Art R. Rodgers, Anna Mosser, John M. Fryxell, Brent R. Patterson, Steven G. Newmaster, Doug E. B. Reid, Merritt Turetsky, Jevon S. Hagens, Douglas E. B. Reid, Jennifer Shuter, James A. Baker, Andrew M. Kittle, Erin E. Mallon, Madeleine T. McGreer, Garrett M. Street & Merritt J. Turetsky
1. Movement patterns offer a rich source of information on animal behaviour and the ecological significance of landscape attributes. This is especially useful for species occupying remote landscapes where direct behavioural observations are limited. In this study, we fit a mechanistic model of animal cognition and movement to GPS positional data of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou; Gmelin 1788) collected over a wide range of ecological conditions. 2. The model explicitly tracks individual animal informational...

Data from: Massively parallel multiplex DNA sequencing for specimen identification using an Illumina MiSeq platform

Shadi Shokralla, Teresita M. Porter, Joel F. Gibson, Rafal Dobosz, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs, G. Brian Golding & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Genetic information is a valuable component of biosystematics, especially specimen identification through the use of species-specific DNA barcodes. Although many genomics applications have shifted to High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) or Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, sample identification (e.g., via DNA barcoding) is still most often done with Sanger sequencing. Here, we present a scalable double dual-indexing approach using an Illumina Miseq platform to sequence DNA barcode markers. We achieved 97.3% success by using half of an Illumina...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of plant-soil feedback and root-associated fungal communities over 100 years of invasion by a non-native plant

Nicola J. Day, Kari E. Dunfield & Pedro M. Antunes
1. Pathogens can accumulate on invasive plants over time, which could lead to population declines. The time required for these dynamics to occur is unknown and seldom addressed. Furthermore, no study has assessed plant-soil feedback while characterising plant pathogen and mutualist root fungal communities in the context of invasion time. 2. We used a plant-soil feedback study and 454 pyrosequencing to investigate pathogen accumulation over 100 years on a highly invasive plant in eastern North...

Data from: Genetics, morphology, advertisement calls, and historical records distinguish six new polyploid species of African clawed frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa

Ben J. Evans, Timothy F. Carter, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Darcy B. Kelley, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Olivier S. G. Pauwels, Daniel M. Portik, Edward L. Stanley, Richard C. Tinsley, Martha L. Tobias & David C. Blackburn
African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness...

Data from: Closely related species of birds differ more in body size when their ranges overlap—in warm, but not cool, climates

Emma Bothwell, Robert Montgomerie, Stephen C. Lougheed & Paul R. Martin
Differences in body size are widely thought to allow closely related species to coexist in sympatry, but body size also varies as an adaptive response to climate. Here, we use a sister lineage approach to test the prediction that body size differences between closely related species of birds worldwide are greater for species whose ranges are sympatric rather than allopatric. We further test if body size differences among sympatric versus allopatric species vary with geography,...

Data from: Wolves adapt territory size, not pack size to local habitat quality

Andrew M. Kittle, Morgan Anderson, Tal Avgar, James A. Baker, Glen S. Brown, Jevon Hagens, Ed Iwachewski, Scott Moffatt, Anna Mosser, Brent R. Patterson, Douglas E.B. Reid, Arthur R. Rodgers, Jen Shuter, Garrett M. Street, Ian D. Thompson, Lucas M. Vander Vennen & John M. Fryxell
1. Although local variation in territorial predator density is often correlated with habitat quality, the causal mechanism underlying this frequently observed association is poorly understood and could stem from facultative adjustment in either group size or territory size. 2. To test between these alternative hypotheses, we used a novel statistical framework to construct a winter population-level utilization distribution for wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Ontario, which we then linked to a suite of environmental variables...

Data from: Assessing costs of carrying geolocators using feather corticosterone in two species of aerial insectivore

Graham D. Fairhurst, Lisha L. Berzins, David W. Bradley, Andrew J. Laughlin, Andrea Romano, Maria Romano, Chiara Scandolara, Roberto Ambrosini, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Keith A. Hobson, Felix Liechti, Tracy A. Marchant, D. Ryan Norris, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino, Caz M. Taylor, Linda A. Whittingham & Robert G. Clark
Despite benefits of using light-sensitive geolocators to track animal movements and describe patterns of migratory connectivity, concerns have been raised about negative effects of these devices, particularly in small species of aerial insectivore. Geolocators may act as handicaps that increase energetic expenditure, which could explain reported effects of geolocators on survival. We tested this ‘Energetic Expenditure Hypothesis’ in 12 populations of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from North America and Europe,...

Data from: Untangling taxonomy: a DNA barcode reference library for Canadian spiders

Gergin A. Blagoev, Jeremy R. DeWaard, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Stephanie L. DeWaard, Liuqiong Lu, James Robertson, Angela C. Telfer & Paul D. N. Hebert
Approximately 1460 species of spiders have been reported from Canada, 3% of the global fauna. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for 1018 of these species based upon the analysis of more than 30 000 specimens. The sequence results show a clear barcode gap in most cases with a mean intraspecific divergence of 0.78% vs. a minimum nearest-neighbour (NN) distance averaging 7.85%. The sequences were assigned to 1359 Barcode index numbers (BINs) with...

Data from: Diel movement patterns influence daily variation in wolf kill rates on moose

Lucas M. Vander Vennen, Brent R. Patterson, Arthur R. Rodgers, Scott Moffatt, Morgan L. Anderson & John M. Fryxell
Variation in predation can have important consequences for predators and prey, but little is known about associated mechanisms. Diel interactions between predators and prey are commonly assumed to be influenced by movement speeds of both predators and prey individuals, sensu the ideal gas model, but the influencing factors of diel predation dynamics have yet to be empirically examined. In this study, we apply principles of the ideal gas model to predict diel variation in kill...

Data from: Molecular insights into the lichen genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae) in North America

Richard Troy McMullin, James C. Lendemer, Heather E. Braid & Steven G. Newmaster
Alectoria is a genus of fruticose lichen characterised by the presence of usnic acid and conspicuous raised pseudocyphellae. This genus is particularly diverse and abundant in montane, boreal, and Arctic regions of North America. Because intermediate forms have been reported for several species of Alectoria on the continent, it has been suggested that these species were initially delimited based on the extremes of morphological gradients. Here, we use the results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Guelph
  • Ministry of Natural Resources
  • McMaster University
  • McGill University
  • Environment Canada
  • Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
  • Trent University
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Eastern Finland
  • Lincoln University