20 Works

Data from: Meta-analysis of yield response of foliar fungicide-treated hybrid corn in the United States and Ontario, Canada

Kiersten A. Wise, Damon L. Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price, Alison Robertson & Albert Tenuta
Background: Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return...

The influence of experimentally induced polyploidy on the relationships between endopolyploidy and plant function in Arabidopsis thaliana

Evan Pacey, Hafiz Maherali & Brian Husband
Whole genome duplication, leading to polyploidy and endopolyploidy, occurs in all domains and kingdoms and is especially prevalent in vascular plants. Both polyploidy and endopolyploidy increase cell size, but it is uncertain whether both processes have similar effects on plant morphology and function, or whether polyploidy influences the magnitude of endopolyploidy. To address these gaps in knowledge, fifty-five geographically separated diploid genotypes (i.e., accessions) of Arabidopsis thaliana that span a gradient of endopolyploidy were experimentally...

Data from: Length polymorphisms at two candidate genes explain variation of migratory behaviors in blackpoll warblers (Setophaga striata)

Joel Ralston, Lydia Lorenc, Melissa Montes, William Deluca, Jeremy Kirchman, Brad Woodworth, Stuart Mackenzie, Amy Newman, Hilary A. Cooke, Nikole Freeman, Alex Sutton, Lila Tauzer & D. Ryan Norris
Migratory behaviors such as the timing and duration of migration are genetically inherited and can be under strong natural selection, yet we still know very little about the specific genes or molecular pathways that control these behaviors. Studies in candidate genes Clock and Adcyap1 have revealed that both of these loci can be significantly correlated with migratory behaviors in birds, though observed relationships appear to vary across species. We investigated geographic genetic structure of Clock...

A meta-analysis of natural selection on plant functional traits

Christina Caruso, Hafiz Maherali & Ryan Martin
A common assumption in plant physiological ecology is that variation in functional traits reflects the adaptation of organisms to their abiotic environment. This assumption can be tested by estimating natural selection as the relationship between a functional trait and a fitness component (i.e. survival or reproduction) within a population. To understand how natural selection operates on plant functional traits, we compiled directional selection gradients (β), which estimate direct selection, and differentials (S), which estimate both...

Bacterial exposure mediates developmental plasticity and resistance to lethal Vibrio lentus Infection in purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) larvae

Nicholas Schuh, Tyler Carrier, Catherine Schrankel, Adam Reitzel, Andreas Heyland & Jonathan Rast
Exposure to and colonization by bacteria during development have wide-ranging beneficial effects on animal biology but can also inhibit growth or cause disease. The immune system is the prime mediator of these microbial interactions and is itself shaped by them. Studies using diverse animal taxa have begun to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and transmission of bacterial symbionts and their interactions with developing immune systems. Moreover, the contexts of these associations are often confounded...

Data from: The effects of river algae and porewater flow on the feeding of juvenile mussels

Josef Ackerman & Victor Fung
Juvenile mussels enter the benthos after excysting from a fish host and settling to the bottom where they inhabit the interstitial zone in rivers. We examined the algal composition in the surface water and pore waters in different locations in a temperate river (Thames River) in Southern Ontario. Surprisingly, algal concentration (C) was ~9× higher in pore water versus surface water, varied spatially in the riverbed (downstream of boulders > upstream of boulders and non-bedform...

Data from: Species-level predation network uncovers high prey specificity in a Neotropical army ant community

Philipp O. Hoenle, Nico Blüthgen, Adrian Brückner, Daniel J.C. Kronauer, Brigitte Fiala, David A. Donoso, M. Alex Smith, Bryan Ospina Jara & Christoph Von Beeren
Army ants are among the top arthropod predators and considered keystone species in tropical ecosystems. During daily mass raids with many thousand workers, army ants hunt live prey, likely exerting strong top-down control on prey species. Many tropical sites exhibit a high army ant species diversity (>20 species), suggesting that sympatric species partition the available prey niches. However, whether and to what extent this is achieved has not been intensively studied yet. We therefore conducted...

Data from: Ionome and elemental transport kinetics shaped by parallel evolution in threespine stickleback

Seth M. Rudman, Jared M. Goos, Joseph B. Burant, Kevin V. Brix, Taylor C. Gibbons, Colin J. Brauner & Punidan D. Jeyasingh
Evidence that organisms evolve rapidly enough to alter ecological dynamics necessitates investigation of the reciprocal links between ecology and evolution. Data that link genotype to phenotype to ecology are needed to understand both the process and ecological consequences of rapid evolution. Here we quantified the suite of elements in individuals (i.e., ionome) and the fluxes of key nutrients across populations of threespine stickleback. We find that allelic variation associated with freshwater adaptation that controls bony...

Data from: Climatic and vegetational drivers of insect beta diversity at the continental scale

Douglas Chesters, Philip Beckschäfer, Michael Orr, Sarah Adamowicz, Kwok-Pan Chun & Chao-Dong ZHU
Aim We construct a framework for mapping pattern and drivers of insect diversity at the continental scale and use it to test whether and which environmental gradients drive insect beta diversity. Location Global; North and Central America; Western Europe. Time period 21st century. Major taxa studied Insects. Methods An informatics system was developed to integrate terrestrial data on insects with environmental parameters. We mined repositories of data for distribution, climatic data were retrieved (WorldClim), and...

Data from: Testing predictions of inclusive fitness theory in inbreeding relatives with biparental care

Elizabeth Gow, Peter Arcese, Danielle Dagenais, Rebecca Sardell, Scott Wilson & Jane Reid
Inclusive fitness theory predicts that parental care will vary with relatedness between potentially caring parents and offspring, potentially shaping mating system evolution. Systems with extra-pair paternity (EPP), and hence variable parent-brood relatedness, provide valuable opportunities to test this prediction. However, existing theoretical and empirical studies assume that a focal male is either an offspring’s father with no inbreeding, or is completely unrelated. We highlight that this simple dichotomy does not hold given reproductive interactions among...

Interspecific competition in bats and diet shifts in response to White-Nose Syndrome

Derek Morningstar, Chloe Robinson, Shadi Shokralla & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Since the introduction of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America, numerous species of bat have dwindled in numbers. These declines observed are often species-specific and thus provides opportunity for a natural experiment to test for shifts in diet through relaxed resource partitioning in bat communities post-introduction of WNS. Acoustic monitoring at locations in Southern Ontario pre- (2009– 2011) and post-WNS (2012–2014) introduction showed an increase in activity of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) corresponding to...

Data from: More salt, please: global patterns, responses, and impacts of foliar sodium in grasslands

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric M. Lind, Jennifer Firn, Eric W. Seabloom, T. Michael Anderson, Elizabeth S. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew S. MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schutz & Carly J. Stevens
Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically...

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: Validation of COI metabarcoding primers for terrestrial arthropods

Vasco Elbrecht, Thomas W. A. Braukmann, Natalia V. Ivanova, Sean W. J. Prosser, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Michael Wright, Evgeny V. Zakharov, Paul D. N. Hebert & Dirk Steinke
Metabarcoding can rapidly determine the species composition of bulk samples and thus aids biodiversity and ecosystem assessment. However, it is essential to use primer sets that minimize amplification bias among taxa to maximize species recovery. Despite this fact, the performance of primer sets employed for metabarcoding terrestrial arthropods has not been sufficiently evaluated. This study tests the performance of 36 primer sets on a mock community containing 374 insect species. Amplification success was assessed with...

Priority effects will impede range shifts of temperate tree species into the boreal forest

Kevin Solarik, Kevin Cazelles, Christian Messier, Yves Bergeron & Dominique Gravel
Temperate tree species are expected to expand their distribution into the boreal forest in response to climate change. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that many species will experience significant setbacks in capacity to migrate due to a series of unfavourable conditions impacting their recruitment success, and thus their ability to colonize new locations. We quantify the relative influence of a series of factors important for tree seedling recruitment at range margins: propagule dispersal, substrate...

Data from: Riverine transport and nutrient inputs affect phytoplankton communities in a coastal embayment

Josef D. Ackerman, Christopher R. Farrow, Ralph E. H. Smith & Dave Snider
1. Rivers often transport phytoplankton to coastal embayments and introduce nutrients that can enrich coastal plankton communities. We investigated the effects of the Nottawasaga River on the nearshore (i.e., within 500 m of shore) phytoplankton composition along a 10 km transect of Nottawasaga Bay, Lake Huron in 2015 and 2016. Imaging flow cytometry was used to identify and enumerate algal taxa, which were resolved at sizes larger than small nanoplankton (i.e., > 5 mm). Multivariate...

One-dimensional models of radiation transfer in heterogeneous canopies: a review, re-evaluation, and improved model

Brian Bailey, María Ponce De León & E. Scott Krayenhoff
This dataset contains the project files and data output for the publication: Bailey, Brian; Ponce de León, María; Krayenhoff, E. Scott (2019), One-dimensional models of radiation transfer in heterogeneous canopies: A review, re-evaluation, and improved model. The file main.cpp contains the main program that sets up and runs the simulations. Output files are stored in the 'output' directory. The current version of the Helios source code can be downloaded at https://www.github.com/PlantSimulationLab/Helios

Data from: Stochastic and deterministic processes drive wetland community assembly across a gradient of environmental filtering

Jody Daniel-Simon, Jennifer Erin Gleason, Karl Cottenie & Rebecca C Rooney
The role of deterministic and stochastic processes in community assembly is a key question in community ecology. We evaluated the effect of an abiotic filter (hydroperiod) on the partitioned diversity of three taxonomic groups (birds, vegetation, macroinvertebrates) from prairie pothole wetlands in Alberta, Canada, which naturally vary in water permanence. We observed that alpha and gamma diversity were higher in permanent than temporary wetlands (16-25% and 34-47% respectively, depending on the taxon). This suggests an...

Data from: Autumn freeze-thaw events carry over to depress late-winter reproductive performance in Canada Jays

Alex Sutton, Dan Strickland, Nikole Freeman, Amy Newman & Ryan Norris
Evidence suggests that range-edge populations are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change but few studies have examined the specific mechanisms that are driving observed declines. Species that store perishable food for extended periods of time may be particularly susceptible to environmental change because shifts in climatic conditions could accelerate the natural degradation of their cached food. Here, we use 40 years of breeding data from a marked population of Canada jays (Perisoreus canadensis)...

Simulated pollinator declines intensify selection on floral traits that facilitate selfing and outcrossing in Impatiens capensis

Christina Caruso & Hazel Panique
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Anthropogenic environmental change is causing pollinator populations to decline. These declines should intensify selection for floral traits that facilitate outcrossing by making plants more attractive to pollinators and/or for floral traits that facilitate selfing in the absence of pollinators. However, the effect of pollinator declines on selection on floral traits could be modified by other environmental factors such as herbivores. METHODS: We studied the effect of simulated pollinator declines on selection...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    20

Affiliations

  • University of Guelph
    20
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Waterloo
    2
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
    2
  • University of Kentucky
    2
  • Queensland University of Technology
    2
  • University of British Columbia
    2
  • University of Nebraska - Lincoln
    2
  • Lancaster University
    2
  • Iowa State University
    2