67 Works

Born under a Lucky Star

Alisha Meininghaus
This article examines illustrations of the zodiac signs on birth amulets from German- Jewish printing houses from the 18th century. These woodcuts are part of a long tradition of astrological references in Jewish art and literature. However, the amulet texts themselves do not contain any astrological topics. What, then, is the relationship of the woodcuts to the text and to the function of the amulets? By contextualizing the images with other contemporary traditions of illustration,...

Data from: Random-close packing limits for monodisperse and polydisperse hard spheres

Vasili Baranau & Ulrich Tallarek
We investigate how the densities of inherent structures, which we refer to as the closest jammed configurations, are distributed for packings of 10000 frictionless hard spheres. A computational algorithm is introduced to generate closest jammed configurations and determine corresponding densities. Closest jamming densities for monodisperse packings generated with high compression rates using Lubachevsky–Stillinger and force-biased algorithms are distributed in a narrow density range from φ = 0.634-0.636 to φ ≈ 0.64; closest jamming densities for...

Data from: Specific 50-kHz vocalizations are tightly linked to particular types of behavior in juvenile rats anticipating play

Candace J. Burke, Theresa M. Kisko, Hilarie Swiftwolfe, Sergio M. Pellis & David R. Euston
Rat ultrasonic vocalizations have been suggested to be either a byproduct of physical movement or, in the case of 50-kHz calls, a means to communicate positive affect. Yet there are up to 14 distinct types of 50-kHz calls, raising issues for both explanations. To discriminate between these theories and address the purpose for the numerous 50-kHz call types, we studied single juvenile rats that were waiting to play with a partner, a situation associated with...

Supporting data for: Gene-rich UV sex chromosomes harbor conserved regulators of sexual development (Carey et al., 2021)

Sarah Carey, Shenqiang Shu, John Lovell, Avinash Shenqiang, Florian Maumus, George Tiley, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Kerrie Barry, Cindy Chen, Mei Wang, Anna Lipzen, Chris Daum, Christopher Saski, Adam Payton, Jordan McBreen, Roth Conrad, Leslie Kollar, Sanna Olsson, Sanna Huttunen, Jacob Landis, Norman Wickett, Matthew Johnson, Stefan Rensing, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz … & Adam Healey
Non-recombining sex chromosomes, like the mammalian Y, often lose genes and accumulate transposable elements, a process termed degeneration. The correlation between suppressed recombination and degeneration is clear in animal XY systems, but the absence of recombination is confounded with other asymmetries between the X and Y. In contrast, UV sex chromosomes, like those found in bryophytes, experience symmetrical population genetic conditions. Here we generate and use nearly gapless female and male chromosome-scale reference genomes of...

Data from: Temperature-driven colour lightness and body size variation scale to local assemblages of European Odonata but are modified by propensity for dispersal

Daniel Acquah-Lamptey, Martin Braendle, Roland Brandl & Stefan Pinkert
Previous macrophysiological studies suggested that temperature-driven colour lightness and body size variations strongly influence biogeographical patterns in ectotherms. However, these trait-environment relationships scale to local assemblages and the extent to which they can be modified by dispersal remains largely unexplored. We test whether the predictions of the thermal melanism hypothesis and the Bergmann’s rule hold for local assemblages. We also assess whether these trait-environment relationships are more important for species adapted to less stable (lentic)...

Data from: Forest degradation limits the complementarity and quality of animal seed dispersal

Finn Rehling, Jan Schlautmann, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Dana G. Schabo & Nina Farwig
Forest degradation changes the structural heterogeneity of forests and species communities, with potential consequences for ecosystem functions including seed dispersal by frugivorous animals. While the quantity of seed dispersal may be robust towards forest degradation, changes in the effectiveness of seed dispersal through qualitative changes are poorly understood. Here, we carried out extensive field sampling on the structure of forest microhabitats, seed deposition sites, and plant recruitment along three characteristics of forest microhabitats (canopy cover,...

Fungal fruit body assemblages are tougher in harsh microclimates

Franz-Sebastian Krah, Jonas Hagge, Jasper Schreiber, Roland Brandl, Jörg Müller & Claus Bässler
Forest species are affected by macroclimate, however, the microclimatic variability can be more extreme and change through climate change. Fungal fruiting community composition was affected by microclimatic differences. Here we ask whether differences in the fruiting community can be explained by morphological traits of the fruit body, which may help endure harsh conditions. We used a dead wood experiment and macrofungal fruit body size, color, and toughness. We exposed logs of two host tree species...

Data from: Simulating climate change in situ in a tropical rainforest understorey using active air warming and CO2 addition

Maaike Y. Bader, Elodie Moureau, Nada Nikolić, Thomas Madena, Nils Koehn & Gerhard Zotz
Background: Future climate-change effects on plant growth are most effectively studied using microclimate-manipulation experiments, the design of which has seen much advance in recent years. For tropical forests, however, such experiments are particularly hard to install and have hence not been widely used. We present a system of active heating and CO2 fertilisation for use in tropical forest understoreys, where passive heating is not possible. The system was run for two years to study climate-change...

Dataset: Cool birds: First evidence of energy-saving nocturnal torpor in free-living common swifts Apus apus resting in their nests

Arndt H. J. Wellbrock, Luca R. H. Eckhardt, Natalie A. Kelsey, Gerhard Heldmaier, Jan Rozman & Klaudia Witte
Daily torpor is a means of saving energy by controlled lowering of the metabolic rate (MR) during resting, usually coupled with a decrease in body temperature. We studied nocturnal daily torpor under natural conditions in free-living common swifts Apus apus resting in their nests as a family using two non-invasive approaches. First, we monitored nest temperature (Tnest) in up to 50 occupied nests per breeding season in 2010-2015. Drops in Tnest were the first indication...

Macroinvertebrate along Vestari-Jökulsá Iceland

Peter Chifflard
1. Background: The impact of climate change on the longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrates in glacier‐fed streams has been the subject of increasing awareness in recent years. Despite prior intensive research on the longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrates in glacier-fed ecosystems, long-term studies in glacier-fed rivers of arctic regions, that investigate the temporal change of macroinvertebrate communities during periods of rapid climate change, are largely missing, although climate change is expected to cause large shifts in arctic...

Data from: Colour lightness of dragonfly assemblages across North America and Europe

Stefan Pinkert, Roland Brandl & Dirk Zeuss
Dark-coloured ectotherms absorb energy from the environment at higher rates than light-coloured ectotherms. The thermal melanism hypothesis (TMH) states that this physical mechanism links the colour lightness of the body surfaces of ectotherms to their thermal environment and hence to their geographical distribution. Studies on different insect taxa in Europe found support for this prediction of the TMH. However, whether these results hold also for other biogeographical regions remains unclear. Here, we quantify and map...

Data from: Multiple choice: hemiparasite performance in multi-species mixtures

Tobias Michael Sandner & Diethart Matthies
Hemiparasitic plants have green leaves, but extract water and solutes from neighbouring plants. It is still poorly understood how different host plants in communities contribute to parasite performance, as species that are good hosts in single-host experiments may not necessarily be preferred hosts in mixtures. We grew the root hemiparasite Rhinanthus alectorolophus (Orobanchaceae) together with each of 13 host species (experiment 1) and with 15 different four-species mixtures of these hosts (exp. 2) that differed...

Complex floral traits shape pollinator attraction to ornamental plants

Emily Erickson, Robert Junker, Jared Ali, Nathaniel McCartney, Harland Patch & Christina Grozinger
Background and Aims Ornamental flowering plant species are often used in managed greenspaces to attract and support pollinator populations. In natural systems, selection by pollinators is hypothesized to result in convergent multimodal floral phenotypes that are more attractive to specific pollinator taxa. In contrast, ornamental cultivars are bred via artificial selection by humans, and exhibit diverse and distinct phenotypes. Despite their prevalence in managed habitats, the influence of cultivar phenotypic variation on plant attractiveness to...

Data from: Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic

Almudena Marí Saéz, Sabrina Weiss, Kathrin Nowak, Vincent Lapeyre, Fee Zimmermann, Ariane Düx, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Moussa Kaba, Sébastien Regnaut, Kevin Merkel, Andreas Sachse, Ursula Thiesen, Lili Villányi, Christophe Boesch, Piotr W. Dabrowski, Aleksandar Radonic, Andreas Nitsche, Siv Aina J. Leendertz, Stefan Petterson, Stephan Becker, Verena Krähling, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Chantal Akoua-Koffi, Natalie Weber, Lars Schaade … & Fabian H. Leendertz
The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger wildlife. Exposure to fruit bats is common in the region, but the index case may have been infected by playing in...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: LiDAR-derived canopy structure supports the more-individuals hypothesis for arthropod diversity in temperate forests

Jörg Müller, Roland Brandl, Martin Brändle, Bernhard Förster, Bruno Cancian De Araujo, Martin M. Gossner, Alexander Ladas, Martin Wagner, Mark Maraun, Peter Schall, Stefan Schmidt, Marco Heurich, Simon Thorn & Sebastian Seibold
Despite considerable progress in the ability to measure the complex 3-D structure of forests with the improvement of remote-sensing techniques, our mechanistic understanding of how biodiversity is linked to canopy structure is still limited. Here we tested whether the increase in arthropod abundance and richness in beech forest canopies with increasing canopy complexity supports the more-individuals hypothesis or the habitat-heterogeneity hypothesis. We used fogging to collect arthropod samples from 80 standardized plots from canopies of...

Data from: Heterogeneous patterns of abundance of epigeic arthropod taxa along a major elevation gradient

Juliane Röder, Florian Detsch, Insa Otte, Tim Appelhans, Thomas Nauss, Marcell K. Peters & Roland Brandl
Species diversity is the variable most commonly studied in recent ecological research. Ecological processes, however, are driven by individuals and affected by their abundances. Understanding the variation in animal abundances along climatic gradients is important for predicting changes in ecosystem processes under global warming. High abundances make arthropods, despite their small body sizes, important actors in food webs, yet abundance distributions of major arthropod taxa along climatic gradients remain poorly documented. We sampled arthropod assemblages...

Data from: Biodiversity along temperate forest succession

Torben Hilmers, Nicolas Friess, Claus Bässler, Marco Heurich, Roland Brandl, Hans Pretzsch, Rupert Seidl & Jörg Müller
1. The successional dynamics of forests – from canopy openings to regeneration, maturation and decay – influences the amount and heterogeneity of resources available for forest-dwelling organisms. Conservation has largely focused only on selected stages of forest succession (e.g. late-seral stages). However, to develop comprehensive conservation strategies and to understand the impact of forest management on biodiversity, a quantitative understanding of how different trophic groups vary over the course of succession is needed. 2. We...

Das digitale Panopticon – Wie die NSA-Überwachung unser Verhalten verändert

Elsa-Margareta Venzmer

Data from: Epiphyll specialization for leaf and forest successional stages in a tropical lowland rainforest

Anna Mežaka, Maaike Y. Bader, Noris Salazar Allen & Glenda Mendieta Leiva
Questions The importance of tropical rainforest gap dynamics in biodiversity maintenance is not fully understood, in particular for taxa other than trees and lianas. We used epiphylls on rainforest leaves to study the importance of leaf- and forest-scale succession in determining biodiversity patterns by characterizing community change with leaf age in gaps and closed-forest habitats. We asked: 1. Do epiphylls show specialization for leaf and forest successional stages? 2. Can early and late-successional epiphyllous species...

Catering to the Patient

Miriam Urff, Antonio Krüger, Steffen Ruchholtz & Eva C. Stibane
Introduction: It has been shown that communication skills acquired during undergraduate medical education are of great importance. Hence, many countries require teaching communication as part of their medical curricula. To assess students’ learning progress, “Catering to the Patient”, as an aspect of showing empathy, should be evaluated. Since there was no description of a validated instrument fitting for this purpose, one had to be developed. To describe its process of development and its psychometric properties...

Host specificity and species colouration mediate the regional decline of nocturnal moths in central European forests

Nicolas Roth, Herrman Hacker, Lea Heidrich, Nicolas Friess, Enrique García-Barros, Jan Habel, Simon Thorn & Jörg Müller
The high diversity of insects has limited the volume of long-term community data with a high taxonomic resolution and considerable geographic replications, especially in forests. Therefore, trends and causes of changes are poorly understood. Here we analyse trends in species richness, abundance and biomass of nocturnal macro moths in three quantitative data sets collected over four decades in forests in southern Germany. Two local data sets, one from coppiced oak forests and one from high...

Stresses affect inbreeding depression in complex ways: Disentangling stress-specific genetic effects from effects of initial size in plants

Tobias M. Sandner, Diethart Matthies & Donald M. Waller
The magnitude of inbreeding depression (ID) varies unpredictably among environments. ID often increases in stressful environments suggesting that these expose more deleterious alleles to selection or increase their effects. More simply, ID could increase under conditions that amplify phenotypic variation (CV²), e.g. by accentuating size hierarchies among plants. These mechanisms are difficult to distinguish when stress increases both ID and phenotypic variation. We grew in- and outbred progeny of Mimulus guttatus under six abiotic stress...

Climate warming changes synchrony of plants and pollinators

Jonas Freimuth, Oliver Bossdorf, J.F. Scheepens & Franziska Willems
Climate warming changes the phenology of many species. When interacting organisms respond differently, climate change may disrupt their interactions and affect the stability of ecosystems. Here, we used GBIF occurrence records to examine phenology trends in plants and their associated insect pollinators in Germany since the 1980s. We found strong phenological advances in plants, but differences in the extent of shifts among pollinator groups. The temporal trends in plant and insect phenologies were generally associated...

ddRAD-derived genotypes of Centaurea jacea and Betonica officinalis populations from the White Carpathians

Johannes Höfner, Theresa Klein-Raufhake, Christian Lampei, Ondrej Mudrak, Anna Bucharova & Walter Durka
Ecological restoration and plant re-introductions aim to create plant populations that are genetically similar to natural populations to preserve the regional gene pool, yet genetically diverse to allow adaptation to a changing environment. For this purpose, seeds for restoration are increasingly sourced from multiple populations in the target region. However, it has only rarely been tested whether using regional seed indeed leads to genetically diverse restored populations which are genetically similar to natural populations. We...

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