45 Works

Data from: Quantification of the zygotic barrier between interbreeding taxa using gene flow data

Ronald Bialozyt, Marc Niggemann & Birgit Ziegenhagen
Hybridization and introgression via interspecific gene flow are common processes in the plant kingdom. The effectiveness of these processes is governed by the strengths of multiple zygotic barriers. These barriers have often been quantified in artificial settings using laborious and time-consuming hand-pollination experiments, but their quantification is nonexistent at the landscape level. In this study, we utilized gene flow data within a spatially explicit simulation to assess the strengths of zygotic barriers. Our model system...

Data from: Trait-associated loss of frugivores in fragmented forest does not affect seed removal rates

Nina Farwig, Dana G. Schabo & Jörg Albrecht
Seed dispersal by frugivorous animals forms the basis for regeneration of numerous plant species. Habitat fragmentation has been found to be one major factor perturbing frugivore communities and dependent plant species. Yet, community-wide consequences of fragmentation for both frugivore and plant communities are still hardly understood. Here, we studied the effects of habitat fragmentation on the seed removal by frugivorous birds and mammals from nine fleshy-fruited plant species in Białowieża Forest (Eastern Poland). This last...

Climate-diversity relationships underlying cross-taxon diversity of the Africa fauna and their implications for conservation

Stefan Pinkert, Dirk Zeuss, Viola Clausnitzer, Jens Kipping, Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra, Stefan Brunzel & Roland Brandl
Aim: Many taxa show remarkable similarities in their diversity patterns and these similarities are commonly used to define large-scale conservation priorities. Here, we investigated the relative importance of contemporary climate and climate change since the Last Glacial Maximum for determining the species richness and rarity patterns of four animal taxa. We assessed the extent to which diversity patterns are congruent across taxa because of similar responses to these climatic aspects and we identify regions that...

Comparison of native and non-native predator consumption rates and prey avoidance behavior in North America and Europe

Ayse Gül Ünlü, John J. Obrycki & Roman Bucher
Novel predator-prey interactions can contribute to the invasion success of non-native predators. For example, native prey can fail to recognize and avoid non-native predators due to a lack of co-evolutionary history and cue dissimilarity with native predators. This might result in a competitive advantage for non-native predators. Numerous lady beetle species were globally redistributed as biological control agents against aphids, resulting in novel predator-prey interactions. Here, we investigated the strength of avoidance behavior of the...

Data from: Moving from frugivory to seed dispersal: incorporating the functional outcomes of interactions in plant-frugivore networks

Benno I. Simmons, William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Jörg Albrecht, Nina Farwig, Daniel Garcia, Pedro Jordano & Juan P. González-Varo
1.There is growing interest in understanding the functional outcomes of species interactions in ecological networks. For many mutualistic networks, including pollination and seed dispersal networks, interactions are generally sampled by recording animal foraging visits to plants. However, these visits may not reflect actual pollination or seed dispersal events, despite these typically being the ecological processes of interest. 2.Frugivorous animals can act as seed dispersers, by swallowing entire fruits and dispersing their seeds, or as pulp...

Data from: Evolutionary processes, dispersal limitation and climatic history shape current diversity patterns of European dragonflies

Stefan Pinkert, Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra, Dirk Zeuss, Christoph Reudenbach, Roland Brandl & Christian Hof
We investigated the effects of contemporary and historical factors on the spatial variation of European dragonfly diversity. Specifically, we tested to what extent patterns of endemism and phylogenetic diversity of European dragonfly assemblages are structured by (i) phylogenetic conservatism of thermal adaptations and (ii) differences in the ability of post-glacial recolonization by species adapted to running waters (lotic) and still waters (lentic). We investigated patterns of dragonfly diversity using digital distribution maps and a phylogeny...

Data from: The effects of stress intensity and stress type on inbreeding depression in Silene vulgaris

Tobias Michael Sandner & Diethart Matthies
Inbreeding depression (ID) is generally assumed to increase under stressful conditions, but a number of studies have found the opposite pattern, i.e. that crossed offspring were more capable of exploiting benign conditions. Alternatively, the phenotypic variation hypothesis predicts that not stress intensity, but enhanced phenotypic variation in an environment leads to increased ID. We subjected inbred and crossed offspring of Silene vulgaris to drought, simulated herbivory, copper contamination, and two levels of nutrient deficiency and...

Data from: The extracellular domains of IgG1 and T cell-derived IL-4/IL-13 are critical for the polyclonal memory IgE response in vivo

Adriana Turqueti-Neves, Manuel Otte, Christian Schwartz, Michaela Erika Renate Schmitt, Cornelia Lindner, Oliver Pabst, Philipp Yu & David Voehringer
IgE-mediated activation of mast cells and basophils contributes to protective immunity against helminths but also causes allergic responses. The development and persistence of IgE responses are poorly understood, which is in part due to the low number of IgE-producing cells. Here, we used next generation sequencing to uncover a striking overlap between the IgE and IgG1 repertoires in helminth-infected or OVA/alum-immunized wild-type BALB/c mice. The memory IgE response after secondary infection induced a strong increase...

Changes in hydro-chemical regime characteristics of transboundary Ishim river

Diana Burlibayeva, Almas Tleukulov, Christian Opp & Ivan Kirvel
At the present time there are problems with water supplies to the city of Astana. The problems are related to the quality of water in the Ishim River. In the future, after commissioning of the Satpayev Canal, this problem will become more serious due to the Irtysh River pollution. Because of it, considering the currently observed hydro-chemical regime of the Ishim and Irtysh rivers pollution, the following preventive measures to be taken in advance to...

Data from: Peptidomics-based phylogeny and biogeography of Mantophasmatodea (Hexapoda)

Reinhard Predel, Susanne Neupert, Wolf Huetteroth, Jörg Kahnt, Dietmar Waidelich & Steffen Roth
The insect order Mantophasmatodea was described in 2002. Prior to that time, several generations of entomologists had assumed that all major insect taxa were known; thus, its description was a sensation for zoologists. Since then, a surprising abundance and species diversity of this taxon have been found, particularly in the winter rainfall region of South Africa. To learn more about the evolutionary lineages, speciation, and biogeography of Mantophasmatodea, we applied an unusual peptidomics approach. We...

Data from: Natural habitat loss and exotic plants reduce the functional diversity of flower visitors in a heterogeneous subtropical landscape

Ingo Grass, Dana G. Berens & Nina Farwig
1. Functional diversity (FD) of pollinators can increase plant reproductive output and the stability of plant-pollinator communities. Yet, in times of worldwide pollinator declines, effects of global change on pollinator FD remain poorly understood. Loss of natural habitat and exotic plant invasions are two major drivers of global change that particularly threaten pollinator diversity. 2. In a subtropical South African landscape, we investigated changes in the FD of flower visitor assemblages on native and exotic...

Data from: Detection of SNPs based on transcriptome sequencing in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst)

Katrin Heer, Kristian Karsten Ullrich, Sascha Liepelt, Stefan Andreas Rensing, Jiabin Zhou, Birgit Ziegenhagen & Lars Opgenoorth
A novel set of SNPs was derived from transcriptome data of ten Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees from the Bavarian Forest National Park in Germany (BaFoNP). SNPs were identified by mapping against a de-novo transcriptome assembly and against pre-mRNAs of predicted genes of the reference genome assembly. This resulted in 111,849 and 366,577 SNPs, respectively. Out of these, 311 were either randomly selected or chosen because of their pronounced divergence between sampling sites and genotyped...

Data from: Competitor or facilitator? The ambiguous role of alpine grassland for the early establishment of tree seedlings at treeline

Hannah Loranger, Gerhard Zotz & Maaike Y. Bader
Alpine treelines are expected to move upslope with a warming climate. However, so far treelines have responded inconsistently and future shifts remain difficult to predict since many factors unrelated to temperature, such as biotic interactions, affect responses at the local scale. Especially during the earliest regeneration stages, trees can be strongly influenced by alpine vegetation via both competition and facilitation. We aimed to understand the relative importance of these two types of interaction in different...

Data from: A comprehensive analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home range estimation

Michael J. Noonan, Marlee A. Tucker, Christen H. Fleming, Tom S. Akre, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Jeanne Altmann, Pamela C. Antunes, Jerrold L. Belant, Dean Beyer, Niels Blaum, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, , Rogerio De Paula Cunha, Jasja Dekker, Jonathan Drescher-Lehman, Nina Farwig, Claudia Fichtel, Christina Fischer, Adam T. Ford, Jacob R. Goheen, René Janssen, Florian Jeltsch, Matthew Kauffman, Peter M. Kappeler … & Justin M. Calabrese
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While advances in animal tracking technology have increased our capacity to collect data to support home range analysis, these same advances have also resulted in increasingly autocorrelated data. Consequently, the question of which home range estimator to use on modern, highly autocorrelated tracking data remains open. This question is particularly relevant given that most estimators assume independently sampled data. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of...

Diurnal timing of nonmigratory movement by birds: the importance of foraging spatial scales

Julie Mallon, Marlee Tucker, Annalea Beard, , Keith Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, John Brzorad, Evan Buechley, Javier Bustamante, Carlos Carrapato, José Castillo-Guerrero, Elizabeth Clingham, Mark Desholm, Christopher DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Hayley Douglas, Olivier Duriez, Peter Enggist, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Anna Gagliardo, Clara García-Ripollés, Juan Antonio Gil, Morgan Gilmour, Roi Harel … & Bill Fagan
Timing of activity can reveal an organism’s efforts to optimize foraging either by minimizing energy loss through passive movement or by maximizing energetic gain through foraging. Here, we assess whether signals of either of these strategies are detectable in the timing of activity of daily, local movements by birds. We compare the similarities of timing of movement activity among species using six temporal variables: start of activity relative to sunrise, end of activity relative to...

Relative effects of climate and litter traits on decomposition change with time, climate and trait variability

Rafaella Canessa, Liesbeth Van Den Brink, Alfredo Saldana, Rodrigo Rios, Stephan Hattenschwiler, Carsten Mueller, Isabel Prater, Katja Tielboerger & Maaike Bader
Climate and litter quality drive litter decomposition, but there is currently little consensus on their relative importance, likely because studies differ in the duration, the climatic gradients, and variability in litter-trait values. Understanding these drivers is important because they determine the direct and indirect (via vegetation composition) effects of climate change on decomposition and thereby on carbon and nutrient cycling. We studied how microclimate (soil moisture and temperature) and litter traits interactively affect litter mass...

Data from: Olfactory testing in Parkinson’s disease & REM behavior disorder: a machine learning approach

Christine Lo, Siddharth Arora, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Barber, Michael Lawton, Johannes Klein, Sofia Kanavou, Annette Janzen, Elisabeth Sittig, Wolfgang Oertel, Donald Grosset & Michele Hu
Objective: We sought to identify an abbreviated test of impaired olfaction, amenable for use in busy clinical environments in prodromal (isolated REM sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD)) and manifest Parkinson’s. Methods: 890 PD and 313 control participants in the Discovery cohort study underwent Sniffin’ stick odour identification assessment. Random forests were initially trained to distinguish individuals with poor (functional anosmia/hyposmia) and good (normosmia/super-smeller) smell ability using all 16 Sniffin’ sticks. Models were retrained using the top...

Kinder als Akteure in Qualitätsentwicklung und Forschung

Iris Nentwig-Gesemann, Bastian Walther, Elena Bakels & Lisa-Marie Munk
Was ist für Kinder eine "gute" KiTa und wie kann es gelingen, ihre Perspektiven in Qualitätsentwicklungsprozesse einzubeziehen? Im Auftrag der Bertelsmann Stiftung nahm sich das Institut für Demokratische Entwicklung und Soziale Integration im Rahmen des Forschungs- und Praxisentwicklungsprojektes „Kinder als Akteure der Qualitätsentwicklung in KiTas“ diesen Fragestellungen an. Nach einem intensiven Forschungsprozess mit rund 200 vier- bis sechsjährigen Kindern liegen nun 23 Qualitätsdimensionen aus Kinderperspektive vor, die wiederum sieben Qualitätsbereichen zugeordnet werden können. Die Studie...

Noctuid and geometrid moth assemblages show divergent elevational gradients in body size and color lightness

Lea Heidrich, Stefan Pinkert, Roland Brandl, Claus Bässler, Hermann Hacker, Nicolas Roth, Annika Busse & Jörg Müller
Previous macroecological studies have suggested that larger and darker insects are favored in cold environments and that the importance of body size and color for the absorption of solar radiation is not limited to diurnal insects. However, whether these effects hold true for local communities and are consistent across taxonomic groups and sampling years remains unexplored. This study examined the variations in body size and color lightness of the two major families of nocturnal moths,...

Mobility costs and energy uptake mediate the effects of morphological traits on species’ distribution and abundance

Stefan Pinkert, Nicolas Friess, Dirk Zeuss, Martin Gossner, Roland Brandl & Stefan Brunzel
Individuals of large or dark-colored ectothermic species often have a higher reproduction and activity than small or light-colored ones. However, investments into body size or darker colors should negatively affect the fitness of individuals as they increase their growth and maintenance costs. Thus, it is unlikely that morphological traits directly affect species’ distribution and abundance. Yet, this simplification is frequently made in trait-based ecological analyses. Here, we integrated the energy allocation strategies of species into...

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