50 Works

Data from: Oceanic swarms of Antarctic krill perform satiation sinking

Geraint A. Tarling & Sally E. Thorpe
Antarctic krill form some of the highest concentrations of animal biomass observed in the world’s ocean potentially due to their prolific ability to swarm. Determining the movement of Antarctic krill within swarms is important to identify drivers of their behaviour and their biogeochemical impact on their environment. We examined vertical velocity within approximately 2000 krill swarms through the combined use of a shipborne echosounder and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). We revealed a pronounced...

A framework for mapping the distribution of seabirds by integrating tracking, demography and phenology

Ana P. B. Carneiro, Elizabeth J. Pearmain, Steffen Oppel, Thomas A. Clay, Richard A. Phillips, Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Ross M. Wanless, Edward Abraham, Yvan Richard, Joel Rice, Jonathan Handley, Tammy E. Davies, Ben J. Dilley, Peter G. Ryan, Cleo Small, Javier Arata, John P. Y. Arnould, Elizabeth Bell, Leandro Bugoni, Letizia Campioni, Paulo Catry, Jaimie Cleeland, Lorna Deppe, Graeme Elliott, Amanda Freeman … & Maria P. Dias
1. The identification of geographic areas where the densities of animals are highest across their annual cycles is a crucial step in conservation planning. In marine environments, however, it can be particularly difficult to map the distribution of species, and the methods used are usually biased towards adults, neglecting the distribution of other life-history stages even though they can represent a substantial proportion of the total population. 2. Here we develop a methodological framework for...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Data from: Extinction and recolonization of maritime Antarctica in the limpet Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908) during the last glacial cycle: toward a model of Quaternary biogeography in shallow Antarctic invertebrates

Claudio A. González-Wevar, Thomas Saucède, Simon A. Morley, Steven L. Chown & Elie Poulin
Quaternary glaciations in Antarctica drastically modified geographical ranges and population sizes of marine benthic invertebrates and thus affected the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation. Here, we present new genetic information in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna, a dominant Antarctic benthic species along shallow ice-free rocky ecosystems. We examined the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in this broadcast spawner along maritime Antarctica and from the peri-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Genetic analyses showed...

Data from: Comparative population genomics reveals key barriers to dispersal in Southern Ocean penguins

Gemma V. Clucas, Jane L. Younger, Damian Kao, Louise Emmerson, Colin Southwell, Barbara Wienecke, Alex D. Rogers, Charles-Andre Bost, Gary D. Miller, Michael J. Polito, Patrick Lelliot, Jonathan Handley, Sarah Crofts, Richard A. Phillips, Michael J. Dunn, Karen J. Miller, Tom Hart & Patrick Lelliott
The mechanisms that determine patterns of species dispersal are important factors in the production and maintenance of biodiversity. Understanding these mechanisms helps to forecast the responses of species to environmental change. Here we used a comparative framework and genome-wide data obtained through RAD-seq to compare the patterns of connectivity among breeding colonies for five penguin species with shared ancestry, overlapping distributions, and differing ecological niches, allowing an examination of the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers governing...

Data from: Sex-specific effects of fisheries and climate on the demography of sexually dimorphic seabirds

Dimas Gianuca, Stephen C. Votier, Deborah Pardo, Andrew G. Wood, Richard B. Sherley, Louise Ireland, Remi Choquet, Roger Pradel, Stuart Townley, Jaume Forcada, Geoffrey N. Tuck & Richard A. Phillips
1. Many animal taxa exhibit sex-specific variation in ecological traits, such as foraging and distribution. These differences could result in sex-specific responses to change, but such demographic effects are poorly understood. 2. Here we test for sex-specific differences in the demography of northern (NGP, Macronectes halli) and southern (SGP, M. giganteus) giant petrels - strongly sexually size-dimorphic birds that breed sympatrically at South Georgia, South Atlantic Ocean. Both species feed at sea or on carrion...

Data from: Cryptic niche switching in a chemosymbiotic gastropod

Chong Chen, Katrin Linse, Katsuyuki Uematsu & Julia D. Sigwart
Life stages of some animals, including amphibians and insects, are so different that they have historically been seen as different species. ‘Metamorphosis’ broadly encompasses major changes in organism bodies and, importantly, concomitant shifts in trophic strategies. Many marine animals have a biphasic lifestyle, with small pelagic larvae undergoing one or more metamorphic transformations before settling into a permanent, adult morphology on the benthos. Post-settlement, the hydrothermal vent gastropod Gigantopelta chessoia experiences a further, cryptic metamorphosis...

Data from: Metapopulation dynamics of Roseate Terns: sources, sinks and implications for conservation management decisions

Adam Seward, Norman Ratcliffe, Steve Newton, Richard Caldow, Daniel Piec, Paul Morrison, Tom Cadwallender, Wesley Davies & Mark Bolton
1. Habitat management to restore or create breeding sites may allow metapopulations to increase in size and reduce the risk of demographic stochasticity or disasters causing metapopulation extinction. However, if newly restored or created sites are of low quality, they may act as sinks that draw individuals away from better quality sites to the detriment of metapopulation size. 2. Following intensive conservation effort, the metapopulation of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) in NW Europe is recovering...

Data from: Projected distributions of Southern Ocean albatrosses, petrels and fisheries as a consequence of climatic change

Lucas Krüger, J. A. Ramos, J. C. Xavier, D. Grémillet, J. González-Solís, M. V. Petry, R. A. Phillips, R. M. Wanless & V. H. Paiva
Given the major ongoing influence of environmental change on the oceans, there is a need to understand and predict the future distributions of marine species in order to plan appropriate mitigation to conserve vulnerable species and ecosystems. In this study we use tracking data from seven large seabird species of the Southern Ocean (Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophris, Grey-headed Albatross T. chrysostoma, Northern Giant Petrel Macronectes halli, Southern Giant Petrel M. giganteus, Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena...

Data from: Effects of brooding and broadcasting reproductive modes on the population genetic structure of two Antarctic gastropod molluscs

J. I. Hoffman, A. Clarke, K. Linse & L. S. Peck
Life-history characteristics exert a profound influence upon the population structure of many marine organisms. However, relatively few genetic studies have compared direct with indirect-developing species in the same ecosystem or geographic region, and none to our knowledge within an Antarctic setting. To address this issue we have collected novel Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data from the direct-developing top shell Margarella antarctica to form a comparison with previously published data for the broadcast-spawning Antarctic limpet...

Data from: Combining correlative and mechanistic niche models with human activity data to elucidate the invasive potential of a sub-Antarctic insect

Luis Pertierra, Pedro Aragón, Miguel Olalla-Tarraga, Greta Vega, Grant Duffy, Pete Convey, Scott Hayward, Kevin Hughes & Jesamine Bartlett
Aim Correlative Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are subject to substantial spatio-temporal limitations when historical occurrence records of data-poor species provide incomplete and outdated information for niche modelling. Complementary mechanistic modelling techniques can, therefore, offer a valuable contribution to underpin more physiologically-informed predictions of biological invasions, the risk of which is often exacerbated by climate change. In this study we integrate physiological and human pressure data to address the uncertainties and limitations of correlative SDMs and...

Data from: The molecular evolution of spiggin nesting glue in sticklebacks

Paul J. Seear, Ezio Rosato, William P. Goodall-Copestake & Iain Barber
Gene duplication and subsequent divergence can lead to the evolution of new functions and lineage-specific traits. In sticklebacks, the successive duplication of a mucin gene (MUC19) into a tandemly arrayed, multigene family has enabled the production of copious amounts of ‘spiggin’, a secreted adhesive protein essential for nest construction. Here, we examine divergence between spiggin genes among three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from ancestral marine and derived freshwater populations, and propose underpinning gene duplication mechanisms. Sanger...

Data from: Competition between co-occurring invasive and native consumers switches between habitats

Nadescha Zwerschke, Henk Van Rein, Chris Harrod, Carl Reddin, Mark C. Emmerson, Dai Roberts, Nessa E. O'Connor & Henk Rein
1. The introduction of a non-native species frequently has adverse direct effects on native species. The underlying mechanisms, however, often remain unclear, in particular where native and invasive species are taxonomically similar. 2. We found evidence of direct competitive interactions between a globally distributed invasive species (the Pacific oyster, Magallana gigas) and its native counterpart (the European oyster, Ostrea edulis). We also discovered that the competitive outcome differed between different habitat types and structures by...

Data from: Population structure and historical demography of South American sea lions provide insights into the catastrophic decline of a marine mammal population

Joseph I. Hoffman, Gabriele J. Kowalski, Anastasia Klimova, Luke J. Eberhart-Phillips, Ian J. Staniland, Fritz Trillmich & Alastair M.M. Baylis
Understanding the causes of population decline is crucial for conservation management. We therefore used genetic analysis both to provide baseline data on population structure and to evaluate hypotheses for the catastrophic decline of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) in the South Atlantic. We genotyped 259 animals from 23 colonies across the Falklands at 281 bp of the mitochondrial hypervariable region and 22 microsatellites. A weak signature of population...

Files for phylogenetics, structure, and migration rate analyses for the bivalve Aequiyoldia eightsii

Carlos P. Muñoz-Ramírez, Chester Sands, David Barnes, James Scourse, Alejandro Roman-Gonzalez, Simon Morley, Leyla Cardenas, Antonio Brante & Michael Meredith
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) dominates the open-ocean circulation of the Southern Ocean, and both isolates and connects the Southern Ocean biodiversity. However, the impact on biological processes of other Southern Ocean currents is less clear. Adjacent to the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), the ACC flows offshore in a northeastward direction, whereas the Antarctic Peninsula Coastal Current (APCC) follows a complex circulation pattern along the coast, with topographically-influenced deflections depending on the area. Using genomic...

Exploring intraspecific variation in migratory destinations to investigate the drivers of migration

Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Marius Somveille, Ana S.L. Rodrigues & Andrea Manica
Various benefits (e.g. tracking of resources and of climate niche) and costs (e.g. distance travelled) are hypothesized to drive seasonal animal migrations. Until now, these potential factors have been investigated together at the species level, but migratory movements are made at the individual level, leading to intraspecific variability. Here, we use ringing/recovery data from 1308 individuals belonging to thirteen North American bird species to analyse patterns in intraspecific variability of migratory destinations in order to...

Data from: Genomics detects population structure within and between ocean basins in a circumpolar seabird: the white-chinned petrel

Kalinka Rexer-Huber, Andrew J. Veale, Paulo Catry, Yves Cherel, Ludovic Dutoit, Yasmin Foster, John C. McEwan, Graham C. Parker, Richard A. Phillips, Peter G. Ryan, Andrew J. Stanworth, Tracey Van Stijn, David R. Thompson, Jonathan Waters & Bruce C. Robertson
The Southern Ocean represents a continuous stretch of circumpolar marine habitat, but the potential physical and ecological drivers of evolutionary genetic differentiation across this vast ecosystem remain unclear. We tested for genetic structure across the full circumpolar range of the white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) to unravel the potential drivers of population differentiation and test alternative population differentiation hypotheses. Following range-wide comprehensive sampling, we applied genomic (genotyping-by-sequencing or GBS; 60,709 loci) and standard mitochondrial-marker approaches (cytochrome...

Integrating climate adaptation and biodiversity conservation in the global ocean

Derek Tittensor, Maria Beger, Kristina Boerder, Daniel Boyce, Rachel Cavanagh, Aurelie Cosandey-Godin, Guillermo Crespo, Daniel Dunn, Wildan Ghiffary, Susie Grant, Lee Hannah, Pat Halpin, Mike Harfoot, Susan Heaslip, Nicholas Jeffery, Naomi Kingston, Heike Lotze, Jennifer McGowan, Elizabeth McLeod, Chris McOwen, Bethan O'Leary, Laurenne Schiller, Ryan Stanley, Maxine Westhead, Kristen Wilson … & Boris Worm
The impacts of climate change and the socioecological challenges they present are ubiquitous and increasingly severe. Practical efforts to operationalize climate-responsive design and management in the global network of marine protected areas (MPAs) are required to ensure long-term effectiveness for safeguarding marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here, we review progress in integrating climate change adaptation into MPA design and management and provide eight recommendations to expedite this process. Climate-smart management objectives should become the default...

Risk exposure trade-offs in the ontogeny of sexual segregation in Antarctic fur seal pups

Kayleigh Jones, Hannah Wood, Jonathan Ashburner, Jaume Forcada, Norman Ratcliffe, Stephen Votier & Iain Staniland
Sexual segregation has important ecological implications, but its initial development in early life stages is poorly understood. We investigated the roles of size dimorphism, social behavior and predation risk on the ontogeny of sexual segregation in Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, pups at South Georgia. Beaches and water provide opportunities for pup social interaction and learning (through play and swimming), but increased risk of injury and death (from other seals, predatory birds, and harsh weather),...

Data from: Degradation of internal organic matter is the main control on pteropod shell dissolution after death

Rosie L. Oakes, Victoria L. Peck, Clara Manno & Timothy J. Bralower
The potential for preservation of thecosome pteropods is thought to be largely governed by the chemical stability of their delicate aragonitic shells in seawater. However, sediment trap studies have found that significant carbonate dissolution can occur above the carbonate saturation horizon. Here we present the results from experiments conducted on two cruises to the Scotia Sea to directly test whether the breakdown of the organic pteropod body influences shell dissolution. We find that, on the...

Data from: A draft fur seal genome provides insights into factors affecting SNP validation and how to mitigate them

E. Humble, A. Martinez-Barrio, J. Forcada, P.N. Trathan, M.A.S. Thorne, M. Hoffmann, J. B. W. Wolf, J.I. Hoffman, J. I. Hoffman, P. N. Trathan & M. A. S. Thorne
Custom genotyping arrays provide a flexible and accurate means of genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large number of individuals of essentially any organism. However, validation rates, defined as the proportion of putative SNPs that are verified to be polymorphic in a population, are often very low. A number of potential causes of assay failure have been identified, but none have been explored systematically. In particular, as SNPs are often developed from transcriptomes, parameters...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

Data from: Detailed insights into pan-European population structure and inbreeding in wild and hatchery Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) populations revealed by genome-wide SNP data

David L.J. Vendrami, Ross D. Houston, Karim Gharbi, Luca Telesca, Alejandro P. Gutierrez, Helen Gurney-Smith, Natsuki Hasegawa, Pierre Boudry, Joseph I. Hoffman & David L. J. Vendrami
Cultivated bivalves are hugely important not only because of their economic value, but also due to their impacts on natural ecosystems. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is the world's most heavily cultivated shellfish species and has been introduced to all continents except Antarctica for aquaculture. We therefore used a medium density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to investigate the genetic structure of this species in Europe, where it was introduced during the 1960s and has...

Data from: Predicting future distributions of lanternfish; a significant ecological resource within the Southern Ocean

Jennifer J. Freer, Geraint A. Tarling, Martin A. Collins, Julian C. Partridge & Martin J. Genner
Aim: Lanternfish (Myctophidae) are one of the most abundant and ecologically important families of pelagic teleosts, yet how these species will respond to climate change is unclear, especially within polar regions. The aim of this study is to predict the impact of climate change on the distribution of Southern Ocean lanternfish, and to relate these predicted responses to species traits. Location: Circumpolar, 35-75° S. Methods: We used MaxEnt ecological niche models to estimate the present...

Data from: Multiple late-Pleistocene colonisation events of the Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) reveal the recent arrival of native Antarctic vascular flora

E. M. Biersma, C. Torres-Díaz, K. K. Newsham, M. A. Vidal, G. Ballesteros, C. C. Figueroa, W. P. Goodall-Copestake, M.A. Leppe, M. Cuba-Díaz, M. A. Valladares, L. R. Pertierra, P. Convey, I. S. Acuña-Rodríguez, G. A. Collado & M. A. Molina-Montenegro
Aim: Antarctica’s remote and extreme terrestrial environments are inhabited by only two species of native vascular plants. We assessed genetic connectivity amongst Antarctic and South American populations of one of these species, Colobanthus quitensis, to determine its origin and age in Antarctica. Location: Maritime Antarctic, sub-Antarctic islands, South America Taxon: Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) Methods: Four chloroplast markers and one nuclear marker were sequenced from 270 samples from a latitudinal transect spanning 21–68° S....

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