102 Works

Muscle systems and motility of early animals highlighted by cnidarians from the basal Cambrian

Xing Wang, Jean Vannier, Xiaoguang Yang, Lucas Leclère, Qiang Ou, Xikun Song, Tsuyoshi Komiya & Jian Han
Although fossil evidence suggests that various animal groups were able to move actively through their environment in the early stages of their evolution, virtually no direct information is available on the nature of their muscle systems. The origin of jellyfish swimming, for example, is of great interest to biologists. Exceptionally preserved muscles are described here in benthic peridermal olivooid medusozoans from the basal Cambrian of China (Kuanchuanpu Formation, ca. 535 Ma) that have direct equivalent...

Drivers of amphibian population dynamics and asynchrony at local and regional scales

Hugo Cayuela, Richard A. Griffiths, Nurul Zakaria, Jan W. Arntzen, Pauline Priol, Jean-Paul Léna, Aurélien Besnard & Pierre Joly
Identifying the drivers of population fluctuations in spatially distinct populations remains a significant challenge for ecologists. Whereas regional climatic factors may generate population synchrony (i.e., the Moran effect), local factors including the level of density-dependence may reduce the level of synchrony. Although divergences in the scaling of population synchrony and spatial environmental variation have been observed, the regulatory factors that underlie such mismatches are poorly understood. Few previous studies have investigated how density-dependent processes and...

Data from: Ultrasonic cavitation induces necrosis and impairs growth in three-dimensional models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Einas Abou Ali, Benoit Bordacaha, Jean-Louis Mestas, Frederic Batteux, Cyril Lafon, Marine Camus & Frederic Prat
Introduction: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a rapidly increasing cause of mortality whose dismal prognosis is mainly due to overwhelming chemoresistance. New therapeutic approaches include physical agents such as ultrasonic cavitation, but clinical applications require further insights in the mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Three dimensional in vitro culture models such as spheroids exploit realistic spatial, biochemical and cellular heterogeneity that may bridge some of the experimental gap between conventional in vitro and in vivo experiments. Purpose:...

Data from: On the evolutionary consequences of increasing litter size with multiple paternity in wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa)

Thibault Gayet, Sebastien Devillard, Marlène Gamelon, Serge Brandt, Ludovic Say & Eric Baubet
Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter...

Data from: Exploring and visualising spaces of tree reconciliations

Katharina T. Huber, Vincent Moulton, Marie-France Sagot & Blerina Sinaimeri
Tree reconciliation is the mathematical tool that is used to investigate the coevolution of organisms, such as hosts and parasites. A common approach to tree reconciliation involves specifying a model that assigns costs to certain events, such as cospeciation, and then tries to find a mapping between two specified phylogenetic trees which minimises the total cost of the implied events. For such models, it has been shown that there may be a huge number of...

Data from: The influence of weather conditions during gestation on life histories in a wild Arctic ungulate

Mathieu Douhard, Leif Egil Loe, Audun Stien, Christophe Bonenfant, R. Justin Irvine, Vebjørn Veiberg, Erik Ropstad & Steve Albon
The internal predictive adaptive response (internal PAR) hypothesis predicts that individuals born in poor conditions should start to reproduce earlier if they are likely to have reduced performance in later life. However, whether this is the case remains unexplored in wild populations. Here, we use longitudinal data from a long-term study of Svalbard reindeer to examine age-related changes in adult female life-history responses to environmental conditions experienced in utero as indexed by rain-on-snow (ROSutero). We...

Data from: Immunogenetic heterogeneity in a widespread ungulate: the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

Erwan Quéméré, Maxime Galan, Jean-François Cosson, François Klein, Stéphane Aulagnier, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Joël Merlet, A. J. Mark Hewison & Nathalie Charbonnel
Understanding how immune genetic variation is shaped by selective and neutral processes in wild populations is of prime importance in both evolutionary biology and epidemiology. The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has considerably expanded its distribution range these last decades, notably by colonizing agricultural landscapes. This range shift is likely to have led to bottlenecks and increased roe deer exposure to a new range of pathogens that until recently predominantly infected humans and domestic fauna....

Data from: Bayesian phylogeographic inferences reveal contrasting colonization dynamics among European groundwater isopods

David Eme, Florian Malard, Lara Konecny-Dupré, Tristan Lefébure & Christophe J. Douady
The potentially important role of northern microrefugia during postglacial dispersal is challenging the view of southern Europe as a refuge and source area of European biota. In groundwaters, large geographic ranges of presumably good dispersers are increasingly suspected to consist of assemblages of cryptic species with narrow ranges. Moreover, a large species range, even when confirmed by molecular evidence, tells us little about the spatiotemporal dynamics of dispersal. Here, we used phylogenetic inferences, species delineation...

Data from: Quantifying individual heterogeneity and its influence on life-history trajectories: different methods for different questions and contexts

Sandra Hamel, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Mathieu Douhard, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Fanie Pelletier & Nigel G. Yoccoz
Heterogeneity among individuals influences the life-history trajectories we observe at the population level because viability selection, selective immigration and emigration processes, and ontogeny change the proportion of individuals with specific trait values with increasing age. Here, we review the two main approaches that have been proposed to account for these processes in life-history trajectories, contrasting how they quantify ontogeny and selection, and proposing ways to overcome some of their limitations. Nearly all existing approaches to...

Data from: A single multiplex of twelve microsatellite markers for the simultaneous study of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and the mountain hare (Lepus timidus)

Marie-Pauline Beugin, Jérôme Letty, Cécile Kaerle, Jean-Sébastien Guitton, Lina Muselet, Guillaume Queney & Dominique Pontier
The management of hunted species is challenging, as it must conciliate the conservation of species and their sustainable exploitation. Non-genetic tools are widely used in this context but they may present limitations notably when species can hybridize or when large-scale spatial monitoring is required to establish optimal management actions. This is why genetic tools have been more and more integrated in wildlife management practices. However, the markers proposed are often amplified in small multiplexes when...

Data from: Testing determinants of the annual individual fitness: an overall mean mixture model for de-lifing data

Pierre Dupont, Dominique Allainé, Aurélie Cohas & Roger Pradel
1. The de-lifing method (Coulson et al. 2006), though very promising for studying ecological and evolutionary changes, has been scarcely used to identify factors influential on fitness. 2. Through simulations representative of a variety of iteroparous species, we establish that a two-component normal mixture usually provides a much better representation of de-lifing data than the single normal distribution assumed in classical linear models. 3. To test determinants of the annual individual fitness, we propose the...

Data from: Metabarcoding for the parallel identification of several hundred predators and their preys: application to bat species diet analysis

Maxime Galan, Jean-Baptiste Pons, Orianne Tournayre, Eric Pierre, Maxime Leuchtmann, Dominique Pontier & Nathalie Charbonnel
Assessing diet variability is of main importance to better understand the biology of bats and design conservation strategies. Although the advent of metabarcoding has facilitated such analyses, this approach does not come without challenges. Biases may occur throughout the whole experiment, from fieldwork to biostatistics, resulting in the detection of false negatives, false positives or low taxonomic resolution. We detail a rigorous metabarcoding approach based on a short COI minibarcode and two-step PCR protocol enabling...

Data from: Non-traditional isotope perspectives in vertebrate palaeobiology

Jeremy E. Martin, Theo Tacail & Vincent Balter
The recent development of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) notably in the disciplines of earth sciences, now allows the precise measurement of isotope ratios, even at low concentration. Non-traditional isotope systems, such as alkaline earth (Ca, Mg) and transition (Cu, Fe, Zn) metals are now being measured in a variety of biological tissues, including bone and teeth. Although our understanding of the environmental and biological mechanisms behind the fractionation of such elements is...

Data from: Evaluating the accuracy of biodiversity changes through geological times: from simulation to solution

Corentin Gibert & Gilles Escarguel
Estimating biodiversity and its variations through geologic time is a notoriously difficult task, due to several taphonomic and methodological effects that make the reconstructed signal potentially distinct from the unknown, original one. Through a simulation approach, we examine the effect of a major, surprisingly still understudied, source of potential disturbance: the effect of time discretization through biochronological construction, which generates spurious coexistences of taxa within discrete time intervals (i.e., biozones), and thus potentially makes continuous-...

Enforced monoandry and female investment into reproduction

Gabriele Sorci, Loïc Lesobre, Pauline Vuarin, Gwènaëlle Levêque, Michel Saint Jalme & Frédéric Lacroix
While uncovering the costs and benefits of polyandry has attracted considerable attention, assessing the net effect of sexual selection on population fitness requires the experimental manipulation of female mating over generations, which is usually only achievable in laboratory populations of arthropods. However, knowing if sexual selection improves or impairs the expression of life history traits is key for the management of captive populations of endangered species, which are mostly long-lived birds and mammals. It might...

Direct observation of hyperpolarization breaking through the spin diffusion barrier

Quentin Stern, Samuel F. Cousin, Frederic Mentink-Vigier, Arthur C. Pinon, Stuart J. Elliott, Olivier Cala & Sami Jannin
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a widely used tool for overcoming the low intrinsic sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Its practical applicability is typically bounded, however, by the so-called ‘spin diffusion barrier’, which relates to the poor efficiency of polarization transfer from highly polarized nuclei close to paramagnetic centers to bulk nuclei. A quantitative assessment of this barrier has been hindered so far by the lack of general methods for studying nuclear-polarization...

Quand le cinéma postrévolutionnaire chante le syncrétisme cubain

Magali Kabous

Le malentendu impossible ou l’histoire d’un échec

Thibaut Rioufreyt

Context dependent fitness costs of reproduction despite stable body mass costs in an Arctic herbivore

Gabriel Pigeon, Steve Albon, Leif Egil Loe, Richard Bischof, Christophe Bonenfant, Mads Farchhammer, Justine Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Vebjorn Veiberg & Audun Stein
1. The cost of reproduction on demographic rates is often assumed to operate through changing body condition. Several studies have found that reproduction depresses body mass more if the current conditions are severe, such as high population densities or adverse weather, than under benign environmental conditions. However, few studies have investigated the association between the fitness and body mass costs of reproduction. 2. Using 25 years of individual-based capture-recapture data from Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus...

Data from: Influence of oxidative homeostasis on bacterial density and cost of infection in Drosophila–Wolbachia symbioses

David Monnin, Natacha Kremer, Clément Berny, Hélène Henri, Adeline Dumet, Yann Voituron, Emmanuel Desouhant & Fabrice Vavre
The evolution of symbioses along the continuum between parasitism and mutualism can be influenced by the oxidative homeostasis, i.e. the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant molecules. Indeed, ROS can contribute to the host immune defence to regulate symbiont populations, but are also toxic. This interplay between ROS and symbiosis is notably exemplified by recent results in arthropod-Wolbachia interactions. Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria involved in a wide range of interactions with their arthropods...

Data from: Genome-wide analysis of allele frequency change in sunflower crop-wild hybrid populations evolving under natural conditions

Jonathan Corbi, Eric J. Baack, Jennifer M. Dechaine, Gerald Seiler & John M. Burke
Crop-wild hybridization occurs in numerous plant species, and could alter the genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of wild populations. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assessing/mitigating the risks associated with transgene escape. To date, crop-wild hybridization has generally been examined via short-term studies, typically within a single generation, focusing on few traits or genetic markers. Little is known about patterns of selection on crop-derived alleles over multiple generations, particularly at a...

Data from: Combining familiarity and landscape features helps break down the barriers between movements and home ranges in a non-territorial large herbivore

Pascal Marchand, Mathieu Garel, Gilles Bourgoin, Antoine Duparc, Dominique Dubray, Daniel Maillard & Anne Loison
Recent advances in animal ecology have enabled identification of certain mechanisms that lead to the emergence of territories and home ranges from movements considered as unbounded. Among them, memory and familiarity have been identified as key parameters in cognitive maps driving animal navigation, but have been only recently used in empirical analyses of animal movements. At the same time, the influence of landscape features on movements of numerous species and on space division in territorial...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification

Raphaël Covain, Sonia Fisch-Muller, Claudio Oliveira, Jan H. Mol, Juan I. Montoya-Burgos & Stéphane Dray
The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial...

Data from: Cophylogeny Reconstruction via an Approximate Bayesian Computation

Christian Baudet, Beatrice Donati, Blerina Sinaimeri, Pierluigi Crescenzi, Christian Gautier, Catherine Matias, Marie-France Sagot & M.-F. Sagot
Despite an increasingly vast literature on cophylogenetic reconstructions for studying host-parasite associations, understanding the common evolutionary history of such systems remains a problem that is far from being solved. Most algorithms for host-parasite reconciliation use an event-based model, where the events include in general (a subset of) cospeciation, duplication, loss, and host switch. All known parsimonious event-based methods then assign a cost to each type of event in order to find a reconstruction of minimum...

Data from: Accurate estimation of substitution rates with neighbour-dependent models in a phylogenetic context

Jean Bérard & Laurent Guéguen
Most models and algorithms developed to perform statistical inference from DNA data make the assumption that substitution processes affecting distinct nucleotide sites are stochastically independent. This assumption ensures both mathematical and computational tractability, but is in disagreement with observed data in many situations -- one well-known example being CpG dinucleotide hypermutability in mammalian genomes. In this paper, we consider the class of RN95+YpR substitution models, which allows neighbour-dependent effects -- including CpG hypermutability -- to...

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