19 Works

Data from: Prey responses to fine-scale variation in predation risk from combined predators

Jason T. Hoverman & Rick A. Relyea
While it is well documented that organisms can express phenotypic plasticity in response to single gradients of environmental variation, our understanding of how organisms integrate information along multiple environmental gradients is limited in many systems. Using the freshwater snail Helisoma trivolvis and two common predators (water bugs Belostoma flumineum and crayfish Orconectes rusticus), we explored how prey integrate information along multiple predation risk gradients (i.e. caged predators fed increasing amounts of prey biomass) that induce...

Quantifying representativeness in RCTs using ML fairness metrics - Data and codes

Miao Qi
The "Quantifying representativeness in RCTs using ML fairness metrics - Data and codes" is used to quantify representativeness in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and provide insights to improve the clinical trial equity and health equity. We developed RCT representativeness metrics based on Machine Learning (ML) Fairness Research. Visualizations and statistical tests based on proposed metrics enable researchers and physicians to rapidly visualize and assess subgroup representation in RCTs. The approach enables users to determine underrepresentation,...

Data from: Evolved pesticide tolerance influences susceptibility to parasites in amphibians

Jessica Hua, Vanessa P. Wuerthner, Devin K. Jones, Brian Mattes, Rickey D. Cothran, Rick A. Relyea & Jason T. Hoverman
Because ecosystems throughout the globe are contaminated with pesticides, there is a need to understand how natural populations cope with pesticides and the implications for ecological interactions. From an evolutionary perspective, there is evidence that pesticide tolerance can be achieved via two mechanisms: selection for constitutive tolerance over multiple generations or by inducing tolerance within a single generation via phenotypic plasticity. While both mechanisms can allow organisms to persist in contaminated environments, they might result...

Effects of freshwater salinization and biotic stressors on amphibian morphology

Jacquelyn Lewis, Jonathan Borrelli, Devin Jones & Rick Relyea
Organisms are commonly exposed to numerous stressors that induce behavioral, physiological, or morphological changes in some combination. In northern temperate latitudes, de-icing agents are a major stressor to species in freshwater ecosystems (primarily sodium chloride; NaCl). Species-specific responses to road salt toxicity range from lethal to sublethal effects, but it remains unclear how these effects interact with biotic stressors. Morphology can be quite sensitive to environmental changes, yet we know little about how it is...

Data from: The contribution of phenotypic plasticity to the evolution of insecticide tolerance in amphibian populations

Jessica Hua, Devin K. Jones, Brian M. Mattes, Rickey D. Cothran, Rick A. Relyea & Jason T. Hoverman
Understanding population responses to rapid environmental changes caused by anthropogenic activities, such as pesticides, is a research frontier. Genetic assimilation (GA), a process initiated by phenotypic plasticity, is one mechanism potentially influencing evolutionary responses to novel environments. While theoretical and laboratory research suggests that GA has the potential to influence evolutionary trajectories, few studies have assessed its role in the evolution of wild populations experiencing novel environments. Using the insecticide, carbaryl, and 15 wood frog...

Data from: Humans exploit the biomechanics of bipedal gait during visually guided walking over complex terrain

Jonathan Samir Matthis & Brett R. Fajen
How do humans achieve such remarkable energetic efficiency when walking over complex terrain such as a rocky trail? Recent research in biomechanics suggests that the efficiency of human walking over flat, obstacle-free terrain derives from the ability to exploit the physical dynamics of our bodies. In this study, we investigated whether this principle also applies to visually guided walking over complex terrain. We found that when humans can see the immediate foreground as little as...

Data from: Evolution to environmental contamination ablates the circadian clock of an aquatic sentinel species

Kayla D. Coldsnow, Rick A. Relyea & Jennifer M. Hurley
Environmental contamination is a common cause of rapid evolution. Recent work has shown that Daphnia pulex, an important freshwater species, can rapidly evolve increased tolerance to a common contaminant, sodium chloride (NaCl) road salt. While such rapid evolution can benefit organisms, allowing them to adapt to new environmental conditions, it can also be associated with unforeseen tradeoffs. Given that exposure to environmental contaminants can cause circadian disruption, we investigated whether the circadian clock was affected...

Data from: Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Rickey D. Cothran, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Cindy Murray, Beverly J. French, Paul W. Bradley, Jenny Urbina, Andrew R. Blaustein & Rick A. Relyea
Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival...

Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from tadpoles

Rick Relyea, John Hammond & Patrick Stephens
Environmental heterogeneity has led to widespread evolution of phenotypic plasticity in all taxonomic groups. Although phenotypic plasticity has been examined from multiple perspectives, few studies have examined evolutionary patterns of plasticity within a phylogeny. We conducted common-garden experiments on 20 species of tadpoles, spanning three families, exposed for 4 weeks to a control, predator cues, or reduced food (i.e., increased intraspecific competition). We quantified tadpole activity, growth, and relative morphology and found widespread differences in...

Data from: Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities

, Rick A. Relyea & William R. Brogan
Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity...

Data from: How common road salts and organic additives alter freshwater food webs: in search of safer alternatives

Matthew S. Schuler, William D. Hintz, Devin K. Jones, Lovisa A. Lind, Brian M. Mattes, Aaron B. Stoler, Kelsey A. Sudol & Rick A. Relyea
The application of deicing road salts began in the 1940s and has increased drastically in regions where snow and ice removal is critical for transportation safety. The most commonly applied road salt is sodium chloride (NaCl). However, the increased costs of NaCl, its negative effects on human health, and the degradation of roadside habitats has driven transportation agencies to seek alternative road salts and organic additives to reduce the application rate of NaCl or increase...

Data from: Nutritional state reveals complex consequences of risk in a wild predator–prey community

Philip D. DeWitt, Matt S. Schuler, Darcy R. Visscher, Richard P. Thiel & Matthew S. Schuler
Animal populations are regulated by the combined effects of top-down, bottom-up and abiotic processes. Ecologists have struggled to isolate these mechanisms because their effects on prey behaviour, nutrition, security and fitness are often interrelated. We monitored how forage, non-consumptive effects (NCEs), consumptive predation and climatic conditions influenced the demography and nutritional state of a wild prey population during predator recolonization. Combined measures of nutrition, survival and population growth reveal that predators imposed strong effects on...

Data from: Salinization triggers a trophic cascade in experimental freshwater communities with varying food-chain length

William D. Hintz, Brian M. Mattes, Matthew S. Schuler, Devin K. Jones, Aaron B. Stoler, Lovisa Lind & Rick A. Relyea
The application of road deicing salts in northern regions worldwide is changing the chemical environment of freshwater ecosystems. Chloride levels in many lakes, streams, and wetlands exceed the chronic and acute thresholds established by the United States and Canada for the protection of freshwater biota. Few studies have identified the impacts of deicing salts in stream and wetland communities and none have examined impacts in lake communities. We tested how relevant concentrations of road salt...

Data from: Road salt and organic additives affect mosquito growth and survival: an emerging problem in wetlands

Matthew S. Schuler & Rick A. Relyea
The global increase in the application rate of road salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl) has led to concern about their negative effects on roadside habitats and freshwater ecosystems. To reduce the application rate of NaCl and minimize the ecological effects of road salts, transportation agencies are continuously seeking alternative salts such as magnesium chloride (MgCl 2) and organic additives such as beet juice and distillation byproducts. Yet, there is remarkably little information about how...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

Data from: Biologically and diagenetically derived peptide modifications in Moa collagens

Timothy P. Cleland, Elena R. Schroeter & Mary Higby Schweitzer
The modifications that occur on proteins in natural environments over time are not well studied, yet characterizing them is vital to correctly interpret sequence data recovered from fossils. The recently extinct moa (Dinornithidae) is an excellent candidate for investigating the preservation of proteins, their post-translational modifications (PTMs) and diagenetic alterations during degradation. Moa protein extracts were analysed using mass spectrometry, and peptides from collagen I, collagen II and collagen V were identified. We also identified...

Data from: Peptide sequences from the first Castoroides ohioensis skull and the utility of old museum collections for paleoproteomics

Timothy Cleland, Elena Schroeter, Robert Feranec, Deepak Vashishth, Elena R. Schroeter, Timothy P. Cleland & Robert S. Feranec
Vertebrate fossils have been collected for hundreds years and are stored in museum collections around the world. These remains provide a readily available resource to search for preserved proteins; however, the vast majority of paleoproteomic studies have focused on relatively recently collected bones with a well-known handling history. Here, we characterize proteins from the nasal turbinates of the first Castoroides ohioensis skull ever discovered. Collected in 1845, this is the oldest museum curated specimen characterized...

Data from: The effects of nutrient enrichment and invasive mollusks on freshwater environments

Matthew Schuler, William Hintz, Devin Jones, Brian Mattes, Aaron Stoler & Rick Relyea
The effects of invasive species might be altered by anthropogenic activities such as nutrient pollution or the presence of additional invasive species with similar or unique traits. Using experimental mesocosms, we tested the separate and combined effects of three invasive mollusks (zebra mussels, Asian clams, and banded mystery snails) on freshwater environments in nutrient-poor and nutrient-enriched conditions. We predicted that in nutrient-poor conditions, single mollusk species would reduce the abundance of algae and zooplankton, but...

The U.S. Government Technical Report and Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion: Results of an On-Going Investigation

Thomas E. Pinelli, A.R. Khan, R.O. Barclay & J.M. Kennedy
This paper contains descriptive and analytical data concerning the U.S. government technical report. These data were collected as part of an on-going investigation directed toward understanding the transfer of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The paper summarizes current literature and research, discusses U.S. government technical report use, and presents data obtained from the Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. U.A. aerospace engineers and scientists use technical reports primarily for research and indicate that relevance,...

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