83 Works

Data from: Artificial light at night desynchronises strictly seasonal reproduction in a wild mammal

Kylie A. Robert, John A. Lesku, Jesko Partecke & Brian Chambers
Change in day length is an important cue for reproductive activation in seasonally breeding animals to ensure that the timing of greatest maternal investment (e.g. lactation in mammals) coincides with favourable environmental conditions (e.g. peak productivity). However, artificial light at night has the potential to interfere with the perception of such natural cues. Following a 5-year study on two populations of wild marsupial mammals exposed to different night-time levels of anthropogenic light, we show that...

Data from: Sexual conflict in action: an antagonistic relationship between maternal and paternal sex allocation in the tammar wallaby, Notamacropus eugenii

Amy M. Edwards, Elissa Z. Cameron, Janine E. Deakin, Tariq Ezaz, Jorge C. Pereira, Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith & Kylie A. Robert
Sex ratio biases are often inconsistent, both among and within species and populations. While some of these inconsistencies may be due to experimental design, much of the variation remains inexplicable. Recent research suggests that an exclusive focus on mothers may account for some of the inconsistency, with an increasing number of studies showing variation in sperm sex ratios and seminal fluids. Using fluorescent in-situ hybridization we show a significant population level Y-chromosome bias in the...

Data from: The Phylogenetic Position of the Musky Rat-Kangaroo and the Evolution of Bipedal Hopping in Kangaroos (Macropodidae: Diprotodontia)

Angela Burk, Michael Westerman & Mark S. Springer
Kangaroos and their relatives (family Macropodidae) are divided into the subfamilies Macropodinae (kangaroos, wallabies, pademelons) and Potoroinae (rat-kangaroos, potoroos, bettongs). The musky rat-kangaroo, Hypsiprymnodon moschatus, is traditionally allied with other potoroines based primarily on osteological characters and aspects of the female reproductive system. Unlike other macropodids, however, which are capable of bipedal hopping, Hypsiprymnodon is a quadrupedal bounder and lacks several derived features of the pes and tarsus that are presumably adaptations for bipedal hopping....

Data from: Scope for genetic rescue of an endangered subspecies though re-establishing natural gene flow with another subspecies

Katherine A. Harrisson, Alexandra Pavlova, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Rebecca Rose, James K. Bull, Melanie L. Lancaster, Neil Murray, Bruce Quin, Peter Menkhorst, Michael J. Magrath, Paul Sunnucks & Michael J. L. Magrath
Genetic diversity is positively linked to the viability and evolutionary potential of species but is often compromised in threatened taxa. Genetic rescue by gene flow from a more diverse or differentiated source population of the same species can be an effective strategy for alleviating inbreeding depression and boosting evolutionary potential. The helmeted honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix is a critically endangered subspecies of the common yellow-tufted honeyeater. Cassidix has declined to a single wild population of...

Data from: A global synthesis of survival estimates for microbats

Pia E. Lentini, Tomas J. Bird, Stephen R. Griffiths, Lisa N. Godinho & Brendan A. Wintle
Accurate survival estimates are needed to construct robust population models, which are a powerful tool for understanding and predicting the fates of species under scenarios of environmental change. Microbats make up 17% of the global mammalian fauna, yet the processes that drive differences in demographics between species are poorly understood. We collected survival estimates for 44 microbat species from the literature and constructed a model to determine the effects of reproductive, feeding and demographic traits...

Data from: Riparian hunting spiders do not rely on aquatic subsidies from intermittent alpine streams

Andre Siebers, Amael Paillex & Christopher Robinson
Drying in alpine streams might decrease aquatic-terrestrial trophic linkages by reducing terrestrial predation on aquatic prey. We tested this hypothesis by investigating whether a common riparian predator (hunting spiders) in alpine environments assimilated a lower proportion of aquatic prey with increasing stream intermittency. We used high temporal-resolution data from electrical resistance sensors to map patterns of naturally-occurring flow intermittency across 30 headwater streams of Val Roseg, a glacierized catchment in the Swiss Alps. We collected...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Evolutionary origins of a bioactive peptide buried within preproalbumin

Alysha G. Elliott, Christina Delay, Huanle Liu, Zaiyang Phua, K. Johan Rosengren, Aurélie H. Benfield, Jose L. Panero, Michelle L. Colgrave, Achala S. Jayasena, Kerry M. Dunse, Marilyn A. Anderson, Edward E. Schilling, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos, David J. Craik & Joshua S. Mylne
The de novo evolution of proteins is now considered a frequented route for biological innovation, but the genetic and biochemical processes that lead to each newly created protein are often poorly documented. The common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) contains the unusual gene PawS1 (Preproalbumin with SFTI-1) that encodes a precursor for seed storage albumin; however, in a region usually discarded during albumin maturation, its sequence is matured into SFTI-1, a protease-inhibiting cyclic peptide with a motif...

Data from: Persistent genetic signatures of historic climatic events in an Antarctic octopus

Jan M. Strugnell, Phill C. Watts, Peter J. Smith & A. Louise Allcock
Repeated cycles of glaciation have had major impacts on the distribution of genetic diversity of the Antarctic marine fauna. During glacial periods, ice cover limited the amount of benthic habitat on the continental shelf. Conversely, more habitat and possibly altered seaways, were available during interglacials when the ice receded and the sea level was higher. We used microsatellites and partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene to examine genetic structure...

Abstraction through the Merger of Iconic Elements in Forming New Allographs: The Logogram 539

Sven Gronemeyer
One contributor to the calligraphic complexity of Classic Maya writing is the ability afforded by the script to create allographs. There are examples with multiple stages of extraction and simplification to create allographs. In order to create a unique graph, distinctive parts of the feline WAY icon are merged into the well-known allograph with its right half covered in jaguar fur, although both allographs represent the very same sign.

Shedding New Light on the Maya Stela from Hix Witz in Stuttgart

Christian M. Prager, Sven Gronemeyer & Elisabeth Wagner
A Maya stela with a hieroglyphic text and a portrayal of a Maya ruler that is now in the collections of the Linden Museum in Stuttgart, Germany (inventory no. M 30751), has received scant attention from scholars to date 1). This stela is the focus of current research by the authors as members of the project “Text Database and Dictionary of Classic Mayan”, who have been collaborating with Doris Kurella of the Linden Museum since...

Teacher Targeted Bullying and Harassment by Students and Parents: The East Coast Project

Paulina Billett, Kristina Turner, Dona Martin & rochelle fogelgarn

Long term environmental stability drives reduced stress tolerance in salt lake invertebrates

James O'Dwyer & Nicholas Murphy
The capacity of species to tolerate physical stressors is critical in a world of increasing environmental instability, however, past selective environments should dramatically impact on future stress tolerance, particularly in isolated populations. Through stabilising selection, long-term environmental stasis may reduce physiological tolerance, creating an evolutionary legacy where populations are less fit if environments change. Few empirical studies have investigated this evolutionary legacy of past selection, and of particular interest whether stabilising selection in a benign...

Data from: Seasonal and functional variation in the trophic base of intermittent Alpine streams

Andre Siebers, Amael Paillex & Christopher Robinson
In high-altitude Alpine streams, seasonal cycles of snowmelt, glacial melt, and rainfall drive variation in the availability of algal food resources. Yet high-altitude streams also exhibit varying degrees of flow intermittency, from solely winter-drying streams to others that dry periodically throughout summer and autumn. These environmental drivers may interact in different ways to determine the functional trophic base of macroinvertebrates inhabiting high-altitude streams. Here, we estimated the proportional contribution of autochthonous resources to the assimilated...

Data from: Elevated [CO2] mitigates the effect of surface drought by stimulating root growth to access sub-soil water

Shihab Uddin, Markus Löw, Shahnaj Parvin, Glenn J. Fitzgerald, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Roger Armstrong, Garry O’Leary & Michael Tausz
Through stimulation of root growth, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) may facilitate access of crops to sub-soil water, which could potentially prolong physiological activity in dryland environments, particularly because crops are more water use efficient under elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]). This study investigated the effect of drought in shallow soil versus sub-soil on agronomic and physiological responses of wheat to e[CO2] in a glasshouse experiment. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yitpi) was grown in split-columns with...

Data from: Genetic rescue increases fitness and aids rapid recovery of an endangered marsupial population

Andrew R. Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A. Hoffmann, Anthony Van Rooyen, Tom Kelly & Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after...

Data from: Genomic selection for recovery of original genetic background from hybrids of endangered and common breeds

Carmen Amador, Ben J. Hayes & Hans D. Daetwyler
Critically endangered breeds and populations are often crossed with more common breeds or subspecies. This results in genetic admixture that can be undesirable when it challenges the genetic integrity of wild and domestic populations, causing a loss in special characteristics or unique genetic material and ultimately extinction. Here, we present two genomic selection strategies, using genome-wide DNA markers, to recover the genomic content of the original endangered population from admixtures. Each strategy relies on the...

Data from: Restoration potential of threatened ecosystem engineers increases with aridity: broad scale effects on soil nutrients and function

Orsi Decker, David J. Eldridge & Heloise Gibb
Species extinctions alter ecosystem services, and the magnitude of this impact is likely to change across environmental gradients. In Australia, soil-disturbing mammals that are now considered ecologically extinct are thought to be important ecosystem engineers. Previous studies have demonstrated microsite-level impacts of reintroduced soil-disturbing mammals on soil functions, but effects are yet to be tested across larger scales. Further, it is unclear how impacts vary across environmental gradients and if the restoration potential of reintroductions...

Data from: Maternal effects obscure condition-dependent sex allocation in changing environments

Amy Edwards, Elissa Cameron, Erik Wapstra & Joanne McEvoy
Climate change increases environmental fluctuations which thereby impact population demography. Species with temperature-dependent sex determination may experience more extreme sex ratio skews, but this has not been considered in species with chromosomally-determined sex. However, anticipatory maternal effects cause lifelong physiological changes impacting sex ratios. Here we show, in mice, that more sons were born to mothers in good condition when their breeding environment matched their gestational environment, consistent with theoretical predictions, but mothers in mismatched...

Data from: The cascading pathogenic consequences of Sarcoptes scabiei infection that manifest in host disease

Alynn M. Martin, Tamieka A. Fraser, John A. Lesku, Kellie Simpson, Georgia L. Roberts, Jillian Garvey, Adam Polkinghorne, Christopher P. Burridge & Scott Carver
Sarcoptic mange, caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, causes a substantive burden of disease to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, globally. There are many effects of S. scabiei infection, culminating in the disease which hosts suffer. However, major knowledge gaps remain on the pathogenic impacts of this infection. Here, we focus on the bare-nosed wombat host (Vombatus ursinus) to investigate the effects of mange on: (i) host heat loss and thermoregulation, (ii) field metabolic...

Data from: Compact cities or sprawling suburbs? optimising the distribution of people in cities to maximise species diversity

Andrew Geschke, Simon James, Andrew F. Bennett & Dale G. Nimmo
1. Conservation of biodiversity in urban environments depends on the responses of species to the intensity of urban development. ‘Land sharing’ and ‘land sparing’ represent alternate ends of a gradient that conceptualises a trade-off between the human population and biodiversity. We used a linear optimisation procedure to 1) identify the optimal allocation of land for people and nature, 2) assess whether the optimal allocation is more similar to land sparing or land sharing, and 3)...

Data from: Population genetic signatures of a climate change driven marine range extension

Jorge E. Ramos, Gretta T. Pecl, Natalie A. Moltschaniwskyj, Jayson M. Semmens, Carla A. Souza & Jan M. Strugnell
Shifts in species distribution, or ‘range shifts’, are one of the most commonly documented responses to ocean warming, with important consequences for the function and structure of ecosystems, and for socio-economic activities. Understanding the genetic signatures of range shifts can help build our knowledge of the capacity of species to establish and persist in colonised areas. Here, seven microsatellite loci were used to examine the population connectivity, genetic structure and diversity of Octopus tetricus, which...

Data from: Outlier SNPs enable food traceability of the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii

Cecilia Villacorta-Rath, Irina Ilyushkina, Jan M. Strugnell, Bridget S. Green, Nicholas P. Murphy, Stephen R. Doyle, Nathan E. Hall, Andrew J. Robinson & James J. Bell
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have enhanced the resolution of population genetic studies of non-model organisms through increased marker generation and sample throughput. Using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), we investigated the population structure of the commercially important southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, in Australia and New Zealand with the aim of identifying a panel of SNP markers that could be used to trace country of origin. Four ddRADseq libraries comprising a total...

Data from: Current and projected global distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi, one of the world’s worst plant pathogens

Treena Burgess, John K. Scott, Keith L. McDougall, Michael J. C. Stukely, Colin Crane, William A. Dunstan, Frances Brigg, Vera Andjic, Diane White, Tim Rudman, Frans Arentz, Noboru Ota, Giles E. St.J. Hardy, Treena I. Burgess & Giles E. St. J. Hardy
Globally, Phytophthora cinnamomi is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species and active management is required to reduce impact and prevent spread in both horticulture and natural ecosystems. Conversely, there are regions thought to be suitable for the pathogen where no disease is observed. We developed a CLIMEX model for the global distribution of P. cinnamomi based on the pathogen's response to temperature and moisture and by incorporating extensive empirical evidence on...

Experimental evidence for ecological cascades following threatened mammal reintroduction: Arachnids at Scotia Sanctuary, NSW, Australia

Heloise Gibb
Please see the abstract from the Ecology paper: Gibb, Heloise, Silvey, C.J., Robinson, C., L’Hotellier, F.A. & Eldridge, D.J. (accepted August 2020) Experimental evidence for ecological cascades following threatened mammal reintroduction. This dataset includes: foraging pits, scorpion burrows and spider abundances from mensurative, exclusion and disturbance experiments at Scotia Sanctuary.

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