61 Works

Expanding the agricultural - sanitation circular economy: opportunities and benefits

Steven Banwart, Laura Carter, Tim Daniell, Yong-Guan Zhu, Hongyan Guo, Jeremy Guest, Stuart Kirk, Barbara Evans, Patrick McKenna & Sarah Dennis
An expanded circular economy between agriculture and sanitation waste (sewage) can recycle essential resources for agriculture through the recovery of water, biomass, and nutrients from sewage at scale. Doing so can help to increase or maintain soil productivity and support agricultural outputs; produce heat and power; reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions; and minimise stresses on water reserves.

EnKF Analyses and Forecasts of Hurricane Harvey (2017)

Y. Zhang, S.B. Sieron, Y. Lu, X. Chen, R.G. Nystrom, M. Minamide, M. Chan, C.M. Hartman, Z. Yao, J.H. Ruppert, A. Okazaki, S.J. Greybush & E.E. Clothiaux
Ensemble-based data assimilation of radar observations across inner-core regions of tropical cyclones (TCs) in tandem with satellite all-sky infrared radiances across the TC domain improves TC track and intensity forecasts. This study further investigates potential enhancements in TC track, intensity, and rainfall forecasts via assimilation of all-sky microwave radiances using Hurricane Harvey (2017) as an example. Assimilating GPM constellation all-sky microwave radiances in addition to GOES-16 all-sky infrared radiances reduces the forecast errors in the...

Data from: Neighbourhood-dependent root distributions and the consequences on root separation in arid ecosystems

Bin J. W. Chen, Chi Xu, Mao-Song Liu, Zheng Y. X. Huang, Ming-Juan Zhang, Jian Tang & Niels P. R. Anten
1. Inter-specific root separation is an important example of spatial niche differentiation that drives species coexistence in many ecosystems. Particularly under water-stressed conditions, it is believed to be an inevitable outcome of species interactions. However, evidence for and against this idea has been found. So far, studies aiming at reconciling the debate mainly focus on abiotic determinants. It remains unclear if and to what extent root separation depends on the type and growth form of...

Data from: Nitrogen enrichment and warming shift community functional composition via distinct mechanisms: the role of intraspecific trait variability and species turnover

Xiaoyi Wang, Xuebin Yan, Kailing Huang, Xi Luo, Yuanyuan Zhang, Luyao Zhou, Fei Yang, Xiaohong Xu, Xianhui Zhou, Kechang Niu & Hui Guo
1. Global change factors may shift community functional composition by driving species turnover (species occurrence and species relative abundance) and intraspecific trait variability. However, their relative contribution in determining the functional response of community to global change, especially nitrogen enrichment and warming, remains unclear. 2. We conducted a fully factorial field experiment in a Tibetan alpine meadow to examine responses of plant community functional composition to nitrogen enrichment and warming by quantifying seven plant functional...

Data from: UV radiation doubles microbial degradation of standing litter in a subtropical forest

Han Jiang, Yueting Pan, Jiawen Liang, Yinghui Yang, Qi Chen, Meiqi Lv, Lu Pang, Weihua He & Xingjun Tian
UV radiation has been recognized as a direct driver of litter decomposition by photodegrading organic matter in dryland ecosystems. However, the importance and mechanism of UV radiation on litter decomposition, especially on standing litter, in humid forest ecosystems remain unclear. We conducted a factorial experiment in a humid subtropical forest gap, manipulating the effects of UV radiation on the decomposition of standing litter under different microbial conditions. After 366 days of standing incubation, under normal...

Data from: Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

Rebecca Y. Shirk, James L. Hamrick, Chaobin Zhang & Sheng Qiang
Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions, and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity ("founder effects") should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium...

Data from: Manganese molybdate nanoflakes on silicon microchannel plates as novel nano energetic material

Chi Zhang, Dajun Wu, Liming Shi, Yiping Zhu, Dayuan Xiong, Shaohui Xu, Rong Huang, Ruijuan Qi, Wenchao Zhang, Lianwei Wang & Paul K. Chu
Nano energetic materials have attracted great attention recently owing to their potential applications for both civilian and military purposes. By introducing the silicon microchannel plates (Si-MCPs) three dimensional (3D) ordered structure, monocrystalline MnMoO4 with a size of tens of micrometers and polycrystalline MnMoO4 nanoflakes are produced on the surface and sidewall of the nickel-coated Si-MCP, respectively. The MnMoO4 crystals ripen controllably forming polycrystalline nanoflakes with the lattice fringes of 0.542 nm corresponding to the (1...

Squamation and scale morphology at the root of jawed vertebrates

Yajing Wang & Min Zhu
Placoderms, as the earliest branching jawed vertebrates, are crucial to understanding how the characters of crown gnathostomes comprising Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes evolved from their stem relatives. Despite the growing knowledge of the anatomy and diversity of placoderms over the past decade, the dermal scales of placoderms are predominantly known from isolated material, either morphologically or histologically, resulting in their squamation being poorly understood. Here we provide a comprehensive description of the squamation and scale morphology...

Data from: Depressed TSH level as a predictor of poststroke fatigue in patients with acute ischemic stroke

Jinjing Wang, Fengli Li, Lulu Xiao, Feng Peng, Wen Sun, Min Li, Dezhi Liu, Ruibing Guo, Hua Li, Wusheng Zhu, Gelin Xu & Xinfeng Liu
Objectives: To investigate whether thyroid function profiles can predict the poststroke fatigue (PSF) in patients with AIS. Methods: Stroke patients were consecutively recruited within 3 days of onset in Jinling hospital. Serum levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies, haematological indexes, and biochemical indexes were measured on admission. Fatigue was scored by the FSS. Association were analyzed with multivariate regression and restricted cubic splines. Results: Of the 704 stroke patients, 292 (41.5%) were diagnosed with fatigue...

Data from: Phagocytic intracellular digestion in amphioxus (Branchiostoma)

Chunpeng He, Tingyu Han, Xin Liao, Yuxin Zhou, Xiuqiang Wang, Rui Guan, Tian Tian, Yixin Li, Changwei Bi, Na Lu, Ziyi He, Bing Hu, Qiang Zhou, Yue Hu, Zuhong Lu & Jun-Yuan Chen
The digestive methods employed by amphioxus (Branchiostoma)—both intracellular phagocytic digestion and extracellular digestion—have been discussed since 1937. Recent studies also show that epithelial cells lining the Branchiostoma digestive tract can express many immune genes. Here, in Branchiostoma belcheri, using a special tissue fixation method, we show that some epithelial cells, especially those lining the large diverticulum protruding from the gut tube, phagocytise food particles directly, and Branchiostoma can rely on this kind of phagocytic intracellular...

Data from: Proximity to roads disrupts rodents’ contributions to seed dispersal services and subsequent recruitment dynamics

Wenwen Chen, Jie Zhong, Walter Carson, Zhanhui Tang, Zongqiang Xie, Shucun Sun & Youbing Zhou
1. Seed dispersal and subsequent recruitment dynamics play a crucially important role in regulating species coexistence and structuring tree diversity in diverse forests. Wildlife, which can dually shape the tree recruitment process by simultaneously functioning as natural enemies and seed dispersers, are undergoing widespread changes in population and behaviour due to the detrimental effects of expanding global road networks. However, the impact of these changes on recruitment dynamics through the alteration of seed dispersal processes...

Data from: Middle Permian fusulines from the Thitsipin Formation of Shan State, Myanmar and their palaeobiogeographical and palaeogeographical implications

Yichun Zhang, Kyipyar Aung, Shuzhong Shen, Hua Zhang, Than Zaw, Lin Ding, Fulong Cai & Kyain Sein
Fusuline faunas including 29 species belonging to 19 genera/subgenera are described from the Thitsipin Formation in eight sections/localities on the Shan Plateau in eastern Myanmar. These fusulines broadly indicate a Midian (middle Permian, Guadalupian) age. The lower diversity and the presence of some genera, such as Monodiexodina and Eopolydiexodina, suggest that the Sibumasu Block belonged to the palaeobiogeographic Cimmerian Province during the Midian. Furthermore, quantitative cluster analyses of middle Permian fusulines from the Shan Plateau...

A global 0.05° dataset for gross primary production of sunlit and shaded vegetation canopies (1992–2020)

Bi Wenjun & Zhou Yanlian
Distinguishing gross primary production of sunlit and shaded leaves (GPPsun and GPPshade) is crucial for improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms regulating long-term GPP variations. Here we produce a global 0.05°, 8-day dataset for GPP, GPPshade and GPPsun over 1992-2020 using an updated two-leaf light use efficiency model (TL-LUE), which is driven by the GLOBMAP leaf area index, CRUJRA meteorology, and ESA-CCI land cover. Our products estimate the mean annual totals of global GPP,...

Drought risk of global terrestrial gross primary productivity in recent 40 years detected by a remote sensing-driven process model

Qiaoning He, Weimin Ju, Shengpei Dai, Wei He, Lian Song, Songhan Wang, Xinchuan Li & Guangxiong Mao
Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest flux in the global terrestrial carbon cycle and affected by multiple factors. In recent decades, drought has significantly impacted global terrestrial GPP and been projected to occur with increasing frequency and intensity. However, the drought risk of global terrestrial GPP has not been well investigated. In this study, global terrestrial GPP over the period from 1981 to 2016 was simulated with the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS)...

Data and code for a high-resolution summary of Cambrian to Early Triassic marine invertebrate biodiversity

Jun-Xuan Fan, Shu-Zhong Shen, Xiang-Dong Wang, Yue Wang, Hua Zhang, Xu Chen, Guo-Xiang Li, Yi-Chun Zhang, Yu-Kun Shi, Dong-Xun Yuan, Qing Chen, Lin-Na Zhang, Ying-Ying Zhao, Jiao Yang, Xu-Dong Hou & Peter M. Sadler
Data compilation and standardization were conducted through the Geobiodiversity Database from 2013 to 2017. The raw dataset contained 266,110 local Cambrian to Triassic records of 45,318 taxonomic units from 3,766 published stratigraphic sections. These were collected from all major Chinese tectonic plates. The authors spent three years verifying the taxonomic assignments into a consistent paleontological taxonomic classification system. Identifications to genus or higher taxonomic ranks were omitted. All non-marine fossil groups (e.g., plants, vertebrates, pollen,...

Data from: Evaluating the reintroduction project of Przewalski’s horse in China using genetic and pedigree data

Gang Liu, Aaron B. A. Shafer, Defu Hu, Wenting Wang, Hongjun Chu, Aaron B.A. Shafer, Jie Cao & Chongxue Zhao
Przewalski's horse went extinct in the wild in the mid 1960’s. Starting in 1985, individuals were brought from western zoos to two centers in China and breeding programs were initiated. With the increasing size of captive populations, two reintroduction projects were launched in the northwestern China in 2001 and 2010. Knowledge on genetic diversity in China’s horse populations is limited, but would help improve the genetic management and assess the success of the reintroduction. Accordingly,...

Rare plant species are at a disadvantage when both herbivory and pollination interactions are considered in an alpine meadow

Xinqiang Xi, Wenlong Zhou, Zhao Li, Lei Hu, Yuran Dong, Karl Niklas & Shucun Sun
1. Rare plant species often suffer less damage than common species because of positive density-dependent herbivory, and it has been suggested that this “rare species advantage” fosters plant species coexistence. However, it is unknown whether rare species have an advantage when pollination interactions are also considered. 2. We hypothesized that a “positive density-dependent pollination success” across plant species would result in common plants experiencing higher seed set rates compared to rare species, and that positive...

Relative species abundance successfully predicts nestedness and interaction frequency of monthly pollination networks in an alpine meadow

Lei Hu, Yuran Dong & Shucun Sun
Plant-pollinator networks have been repeatedly reported as cumulative ones that are described with >1 years observations. However, such cumulative networks are composed of pairwise interactions recorded at different periods, and thus may not be able to reflect the reality of species interactions in nature (e.g., early-flowering plants typically do not compete for shared pollinators with late-flowering plants, but they are assumed to do so in accumulated networks). Here, we examine the monthly sampling structure of...

‘Social distancing’ between plants may amplify coastal restoration at early stage

Hao Huang, Chi Xu & Quan‐Xing Liu
This dataset contains data and codes from three field experiments described in the paper: “Hao Huang, Chi Xu and Quan-Xing Liu. (2021) ‘Social distancing’ between plants may amplify coastal restoration at early stage, Journal of Applied Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.14044”. The experiment investigates the effects of a factorial combination of three factors: above-ground spatial configurea and below-ground connectivity with low- and high-elevation environmental stress. We test the two species (Scirpus and Spartina) on performance such as...

Nitrogen addition increases aboveground silicon and phytolith concentrations in understory plants of a tropical forest

Xiao Fei Lu
Purpose: Silicon (Si) is a beneficial element for plants and plays important roles in the biogeochemical cycle of mineral elements. Yet, few studies have focused on the impact of nitrogen (N) deposition on plant Si uptake and the Si biocycle. Methods: We designed an experiment dealing with canopy and understory N addition in a tropical forest to comprehensively assess the response of Si cycle to N addition focusing on understory plants and topsoil. After six...

Maximum carboxylation rate estimation with chlorophyll content as a proxy of rubisco content

Xuehe Lu, Weimin Ju, Jing Li, Holly Croft, Jing M. Chen, Yiqi Luo, Hua Yu & Haijing Hu
The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is a key parameter in determining the plant photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area. However, most terrestrial biosphere models currently treat Vcmax as constants changing only with plant functional types, leading to large uncertainties in modelled carbon fluxes. Vcmax is tightly linked with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we investigated the relationship between leaf chlorophyll content and Rubisco (Chl-Rub) within a winter wheat paddock. With chlorophyll as a proxy of Rubisco,...

Spectra induce polarization data of bacteria in soil

Yalin Song, Xiaoqing Shi, André Revil & Xueyuan Kang
Real-time monitoring of microbial activity in porous media is still facing critical challenges because conventional analytical procedures are intrusive. Induced polarization (IP) has shown promises as a non-intrusive monitoring approach of such process. However, there is still a lack of quantitative analysis of soil column experiments to show how IP-based parameters can be related to the density of bacteria. The evolution of bacteria density and induced polarization is here performed in a soil-packed column experiment...

Data from: Stronger cooling effects of transpiration and morphology of the plants from a hot dry habitat than from a hot wet habitat

Hua Lin, Yajun Chen, Houlei Zhang, Pei-Li Fu, Ze-Xin Fan, Peili Fu & Zexin Fan
1. Leaf temperature exerts an important impact on the microenvironment and physiological processes of leaves. Plants from different habitats have different strategies to regulate leaf temperature. The relative importance of morphology and transpiration for leaf temperature regulation in the hot habitat is still unclear. 2. We investigated 22 leaf morphological traits, transpiration, and thermal properties of 38 canopy species of seedlings in a greenhouse, including 18 dominant species from a hot wet habitat (HW) and...

Data from: Grazing-induced shifts in community functional composition and soil nutrient availability in Tibetan alpine meadows

Kechang Niu, Jin-Sheng He & Martin J. Lechowicz
The functional structure of plant communities can be altered by grazing through two main mechanisms: species turnover (i.e. changes in species occurrence and relative abundance) and intraspecific trait variability (ITV), which is driven by phenotypic responses of individual plants and shifts in the relative abundance of genotypic variants within species. Studies of grassland ecosystem function under grazing often focus on community changes induced by species turnover, which ignores the effects of ITV on biomass productivity,...

Data from: Soil drainage facilitates earthworm invasion and subsequent carbon loss from peatland soil

Xinwei Wu, Rui Cao, Xue Wei, Xinqiang Xi, Peili Shi, Nico Eisenhauer & Shucun Sun
1. Human activities have been a significant driver of environmental changes with tremendous consequences for carbon dynamics. Peatlands are critical ecosystems because they store ~30% of the global soil organic carbon pool and are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic changes. The Zoige peatland on the eastern Tibet Plateau, as the largest alpine peatland in the world, accounts for 1‰ of global peat soil organic carbon storage. However, this peatland has experienced dramatic climate change including increased...

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