13 Works

Colony fitness increases in the honey bee at queen mating frequencies higher than genetic diversity asymptote

Keith S. Delaplane, J. Krispn Given, John Menz & Deborah A. Delaney
Abstract Across the eusocial Hymenoptera, a queen’s mating frequency is positively associated with her workers’ genetic diversity and colony’s fitness. Over 90% of a colony’s diversity potential is achieved by its mother’s tenth effective mating (me); however, many females mate at levels of me > 10, a zone we here call hyperpolyandry. We compared honey bee colony fitness at mating levels near and above this genetic diversity asymptote. We were interested in how hyperpolyandry affects...

The Impact of the EB-5 Program in the Hospitality Industry: Now and the Future

Francis A. Kwansa & Xiangmei Yang
The Employment-Based Fifth Preference program (EB-5) is one of five categories of employment- based visas that provide permanent residency to foreign nationals in the United States. In return, foreign nationals interested in the program are required to make investments of $1 million in busi- nesses and create a minimum of ten jobs in the United States. Since its creation in 1990, the EB-5 pro- gram has had a significant economic impact in the United States...

Living and fossil Ginkgo leaves

Luke Mander, Haibin Hang, Martin Bauer & Washington Mio
The data presented here are a collection of images of living and fossil Ginkgo leaves. Mature and fully expanded leaves were harvested from a reproductively immature Ginkgo biloba tree growing in partial shade as a specimen on the campus of The Open University, UK. The specimen was ascended using a ladder and seven branches growing towards the West at approximately halfway up the specimen were removed from the trunk using a saw. Every leaf growing...

Lack of synchronized breeding success in a seabird community: extreme events, niche separation, and environmental variability

Casey Youngflesh, Yun Li, Heather Lynch, Karine Delord, Christophe Barbraud, Rubao Ji & Stephanie Jenouvrier
Synchrony in ecological systems, the degree to which elements respond similarly over time or space, can inform our understanding of how ecosystems function and how they are responding to global change. While studies of ecological synchrony are often focused on within-species dynamics, synchrony among species may provide important insights into how dynamics of one species are indicative of conditions relevant to the larger community, with both basic and applied implications. Ecological theory suggests there may...

Winds aloft over three water bodies influence spring stopover distributions of migrating birds along the Gulf of Mexico coast

Hannah Clipp, Jeffrey Buler, Jaclyn Smolinsky, Kyle Horton, Andrew Farnsworth & Emily Cohen
Migrating birds contend with dynamic wind conditions that ultimately influence most aspects of their migration, from broad-scale movements to individual decisions about where to rest and refuel. We used weather surveillance radar data to measure spring stopover distributions of northward migrating birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast and found a strong influence of winds over non-adjacent water bodies, the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, along with the contiguous Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, we...

Improved household living standards can restore dry tropical forests

Ruth DeFries, Meghna Agarwala, Sandra Baquie, Pooja Choksi, Sarika Khanwilkar, Pinki Mondal, Harini Nagendra & Johannes Uperlainen.
Despite multiple approaches over the last several decades to harmonize conservation and development goals in the tropics, forest-depende­­­­­­nt households remain the poorest in the world. Durable housing and alternatives to fuelwood for cooking are critical needs to reduce multi-dimensional poverty. These improvements also potentially reduce pressure on forests and alleviate forest degradation. We test this possibility in dry tropical forests of the Central Indian Highlands where tribal and other marginalized populations rely on forests for...

Photo-activatable Ub-PCNA probes reveal new structural features of the S. cerevisiae Polη/PCNA complex

Siqi Shen, Gregory A. Davidson, Kun Yang & Zhihao Zhuang
The Y-family DNA polymerase η (Polη) is critical for the synthesis past damaged DNA nucleotides in yeast through translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). TLS is initiated by monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the subsequent recruitment of TLS polymerases. Although individual structures of the Polη catalytic core and PCNA have been solved, a high-resolution structure of the complex of Polη/PCNA or Polη/monoubiquitinated PCNA (Ub-PCNA) still remains elusive, partly due to the disordered Polη C-terminal...

A satellite-based mobile warning system to reduce interactions with an endangered species

Matthew Breece, Matthew Oliver, Dewayne Fox, Edward Hale, Danielle Haulsee, Matthew Shatley, Steven Bograd, Elliott Hazen & Heather Welch
Earth observing satellites are a major research tool for spatially explicit ecosystem nowcasting and forecasting. However, there are practical challenges when integrating satellite data into usable real-time products for stakeholders. The need of forecast immediacy and accuracy means that forecast systems must account for missing data and data latency while delivering a timely, accurate and actionable product to stakeholders. This is especially true for species that have legal protection. Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus (Atlantic Sturgeon) were...

Multiple cropping alone does not improve year-round food security among smallholders in rural India

Pinki Mondal, Ruth DeFries, Jessica Clark, Nicole Flowerhill, , Aurélie Harou, Shauna Downs & Jessica Fanzo
Achieving and maintaining food and nutrition security is an important Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), especially in countries with largely vulnerable population with high occurrence of hunger and malnutrition. By studying a small-scale agricultural system in India, we aim to understand the current state of dietary diversity and food insecurity among the farmer communities. The study landscape has witnessed a steady rise in multiple cropping along with irrigation over the last two decades. Whether this multiple...

Adaptation without specialization early in a host shift: fecundity data

Rafael Rodriguez, Thomas Wood, Frank Stearns, Robert Snyder, Kelley Tilmon, Michael Cast, Randy Hunt & Reginald Cocroft
Students of speciation debate the role of performance trade-offs across different environments early in speciation. We tested for early performance trade-offs with a host shift experiment using a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae). In this clade of plant-feeding insects, different species live on different host plants and exhibit strong behavioral and physiological host specialization. After five generations, the experimental host shifts resulted either in no adaptation or in adaptation...

A habitat-based approach to determining the effects of drought on aridland bird communities

Samuel Roberts, David Thoma, Dusty Perkins, Elizabeth Tymkiw, Zachary Ladin & Gregory Shriver
Aridland breeding bird communities of the United States are among the most vulnerable to drought, with many species showing significant population declines associated with decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature. Individual breeding bird species have varied responses to drought which suggests complex responses to changes in water availability. Here, we evaluated the influence of water deficit, an integrative metric of drought stress, on breeding bird communities within three distinct aridland habitat types: riparian, pinyon-juniper, and sagebrush...

Acoustic and fluorescence data from: A marine zooplankton community vertically structured by light across diel to interannual timescales

Laura Hobbs, Neil Banas, Jonathan Cohen, Finlo Cottier, Jørgen Berge & Øystein Varpe
The predation risk of many aquatic taxa is dominated by visually searching predators, commonly a function of ambient light. Several studies propose that changes in visual predation will become a major climate-change impact on polar marine ecosystems. The high Arctic experiences extreme seasonality in the light environment, from 24-h light to 24-h darkness, and therefore provides a natural laboratory for studying light and predation risk over diel to seasonal timescales. Here, we show that zooplankton...

Quantitative assessment of agricultural sustainability reveals divergent priorities among nations

Guolin Yao, Xin Zhang, Srishti Vishwakarma, Carole Dalin, Adam Komarek, David Kanter, Kyle Davis, Kimberly Pfeifer, Jing Zhao, Tan Zou, Paolo D'Odorico, Christian Folberth, Fernando Galeana Rodriguez, Jessica Fanzo, Lorenzo Rosa, William Dennison, Mark Musumba, Amy Heyman & Eric Davidson
Agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of sustainable agriculture and capacities to measure it remain elusive. Independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability are needed to gauge progress, encourage accountability, and inform policy. Here, we developed a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) to quantify national performance indicators in agriculture and to investigate the tradeoffs and synergies based on historical data for most countries of the world....

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