Data from: The loneliness of the long-distance toad: invasion history and social attraction in cane toads (Rhinella marina)Jodie Gruber, Martin J. Whiting, Gregory Brown & Richard Shine
Individuals at the leading edge of a biological invasion constantly encounter novel environments. These pioneers may benefit from increased social attraction, because low population densities reduce competition and risks of pathogen transfer, and increase benefits of information transfer. In standardised trials, cane toads (Rhinella marina) from invasion-front populations approached conspecifics more often, and spent more time close to them, than did conspecifics from high-density, long-colonised populations.
Data from: Honey bee (Apis mellifera) sociability and nestmate affiliation is dependent on the social environment experienced post-eclosionSusie E. Hewlett, Deborah M. Wareham & Andrew B. Barron
Underpinning the formation of a social group is the motivation of individuals to aggregate and interact with conspecifics, termed sociability. Here we developed an assay, inspired by vertebrate approaches to evaluate social behaviours, to simultaneously examine the development of honey bee (Apis mellifera) sociability and nestmate affiliation. Focal bees were placed in a testing chamber, which was separated from groups of nestmates and conspecific non-nestmates by single-layer mesh screens. Assessing how much time bees spent...
Data tables for detrital zircon age studies of Haast Schist in western Otago and Marlborough, New ZealandChris J Adams, Hamish J Campbell & William L Griffin
Supplementary Data Table 1 Otago and Marlborough schist, detrital zircon ages of schist protoliths U-Th-Pb isotopic ratios, measured and common-Pb corrected detrital zircon ages A) Western Otago: Samples 1-18 B) Marlborough: Samples 19-30 Supplementary Data Table 2 U-Pb zircon age data, southern New England Orogen granite suites: Samples 1-6
Hybridization in natural populations may be an adaptive response to shifting climatic regimes, but understanding this can be limited by temporal sampling effort and confident hybrid identification. On the Galapagos Islands, Darwin’s finches regularly hybridize, and the islands show extreme annual variation in rainfall, however the effect of annual rainfall on the frequency of finch hybridization is little known. Across a 19-year period on Floreana Island, we compare patterns of hybridization in sympatric Darwin’s tree...
This review characterizes the movement demands of professional rugby league match-play.
Data from: Crowded developmental environment promotes adult sex-specific nutrient consumption in a polyphagous flyJuliano Morimoto, Binh Nguyen, Hue Dinh, Ahn The Than, Phillip W. Taylor & Fleur Ponton
Background: The fitness of holometabolous insects depends largely on resources acquired at the larval stage. Larval density is an important factor modulating larval resource-acquisition, influencing adult survival, reproduction, and population maintenance. To date, however, our understanding of how larval crowding affects adult physiology and behaviour is limited, and little is known about how larval crowding affects adult non-reproductive ecological traits. Here, larval density in the rearing environment of the polyphagous fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (‘Queensland...
Data from: Interactions between ecological factors in the developmental environment modulate pupal and adult traits in a polyphagous flyBinh Nguyen, Fleur Ponton, Anh Than, Phillip W. Taylor, Toni Chapman & Juliano Morimoto
1. In holometabolous insects, adult fitness depends on the quantity and quality of resource acquired at the larval stage. Diverse ecological factors can influence larval resource acquisition, but little is known about how these factors in the larval environment interact to modulate larval development and adult traits. 2. Here, we addressed this gap by considering how key ecological factors of larval density, diet nutritional composition, and microbial growth interact to modulate pupal and adult traits...
Prey naiveté is a failure to recognise novel predators and thought to cause exaggerated impacts of alien predators on native wildlife. Yet there is equivocal evidence in the literature for native prey naiveté towards aliens. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis of Australian mammal responses to native and alien predators. Australia has the world’s worst record of extinction and declines of native mammals, largely due to two alien predators introduced some 150 years ago:...
Data from: Calling in the heat: the zebra finch ‘incubation call’ depends on heat but not reproductive stageCallum S. McDiarmid, Marc Naguib & Simon C. Griffith
Environmental conditions during early development can profoundly impact an organism’s phenotype, potentially resulting in future adaptations. Offspring can often obtain environmental information directly, but in some cases rely on parental cues or signals. It was recently suggested that at high ambient temperatures zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) parents use acoustic signals (‘incubation calls’ or hereon ‘v-calls’) to adaptively alter offspring development for hot conditions. However, this conclusion requires a thorough understanding of the timing and production...
Data from: Climate warming and plant biomechanical defences: silicon addition contributes to herbivore suppression in a pasture grassScott N. Johnson, James M. W. Ryalls, Craig V. M. Barton, Mark G. Tjoelker, Ian J. Wright & Ben D. Moore
1. Plants, notably the Poacae, often accumulate large amounts of silicon (Si) from the soil. Si has multiple functional roles, particularly for alleviating abiotic and biotic stresses (e.g. defence against herbivores). Recent evidence suggests that environmental change, including temperature changes, can diminish Si accumulation which could affect functions such as herbivore defence. 2. Using a field warming experiment, we grew a pasture grass (Phalaris aquatica) that was either supplemented or untreated with Si (+Si and...
Morphological features that impair a predator’s ability to consume a prey item may benefit individual prey; but what of features that prolong prey-handling but do not enhance prey survival? For example, a Striped Eel Catfish (Plotosus lineatus) will be fatally envenomated if struck by its specialist predator, the Greater Sea Snake (Hydrophis major). Nonetheless, the catfish typically erects long, toxic pectoral and dorsal spines that increase prey-handling times for the snake by around eightfold. Because...
Phylogenomics, biogeography and taxonomic revision of New Guinean pythons (Pythonidae, Leiopython) harvested for international tradeDamien Esquerre, Daniel J. D. Natusch, Jessica A. Lyons, Amir Hamidy, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily M. Lemmon, Awal Riyanto, J. Scott Keogh & Stephen Donnellan
The large and enigmatic New Guinean pythons in the genus Leiopython are harvested from the wild to supply the international trade in pets. Six species are currently recognized (albertisii, biakensis, fredparkeri, huonensis, meridionalis, montanus) but the taxonomy of this group has been controversial. We combined analysis of 421 nuclear loci and complete mitochondrial genomes with morphological data to construct a detailed phylogeny of this group, understand their biogeographic patterns and establish the systematic diversity of...
Skin resistance to water gain and loss has changed in cane toads (Rhinella marina) during their Australian invasionGregory P. Brown, Georgia Kosmala, Richard Shine & Keith Christian
The water-permeable skin of amphibians renders them highly sensitive to climatic conditions, and interspecific correlations between environmental moisture levels and rates of water exchange across the skin suggest that natural selection adapts hydroregulatory mechanisms to local challenges. How quickly can such mechanisms shift when a species encounters novel moisture regimes? Cutaneous resistance to water loss and gain in wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) from Brazil, USA (Hawai’i) and Australia exhibited strong geographic variation. Cutaneous resistance...
Extreme differences between the sexes are usually explained by intense sexual selection on male weapons or ornaments. Sexually antagonistic genes, with a positive effect on male traits but a negative effect on female fitness, create a negative inter-sexual correlation for fitness (sexual conflict). However, such antagonism might not be apparent if sexually selected male traits are condition-dependent, and condition elevates female fitness. Here we reveal a surprising positive genetic correlation between male weaponry and female...
Mimicry in motion and morphology: do information limitation, trade-offs or compensation relax selection for mimetic accuracy?Donald McLean & Marie Herberstein
Many animals mimic dangerous or undesirable prey as a defence from predators. We would expect predators to reliably and exclusively avoid animals that closely resemble dangerous prey, yet imperfect mimics are common. There have been many hypotheses suggested to explain imperfect mimicry, but comparative tests across multiple mimicry systems are needed to determine which are applicable, and which—if any—represent general principles of imperfect mimicry. We tested four hypotheses on Australian ant mimics and found support...
The present systematic review aims to provide an overview of the contributions of TMS in the investigation of verb and sentence processing, as well as to determine whether items with different lexico-semantic or morphosyntactic features are differentially affected by TMS.
Among human and non-human animals, the ability to respond rapidly to biologically significant events in the environment is essential for survival and development. Research has confirmed that human adult listeners respond emotionally to environmental sounds just as they understand the emotional connotations of speech prosody and music. However, it is unknown whether young children also respond emotionally to environmental sounds. Here, we report that changes in pitch, rate (i.e., playback speed), and intensity (i.e., amplitude)...
The structure of the skin may evolve rapidly during a biological invasion, for two reasons. First, novel abiotic challenges such as hydric conditions may modify selection on traits (such as skin thickness) that determine rates of evaporative water loss. Second, invaders might benefit from enhanced rates of dispersal, with locomotion possibly facilitated by thinner (and hence more flexible) skin. We quantified thickness of layers of the skin in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from the native...
Swim with the tide: tactics to maximise prey detection by a specialist predator, the greater sea snake (Hydrophis major)Vinay Udyawer, Claire Goiran, Olivier Chateau & Richard Shine
The fitness of a predator depends upon its ability to locate and capture prey; and thus, increasing dietary specialization should favor the evolution of species-specific foraging tactics tuned to taxon-specific habitats and cues. Within marine environments, prey detectability (e.g., via visual or chemical cues) is affected by environmental conditions (e.g., water clarity and tidal flow), such that specialist predators would be expected to synchronize their foraging activity with cyclic variation in such conditions. In the...
Data from: Economics, life history and international trade data for seven turtle species in Malaysia and Indonesian farmsDalia A. Conde, Simon Kaae Andersen, Johanna Staerk, Elham Kalhor, Daniel J. D. Natusch, Rita Da Silva & Pfau Beate
We collected data on the wildlife trade of seven turtle and tortoise species endemic to Indonesia and Malaysia (Amyda cartilaginea, Batagur borneoensis, Cuora amboinensis, Carettochelys insculpta, Heosemys annandalii, Heosemys grandis, and Heosemys spinosa). We collated data for: the operations and economics of three breeding farms and one ranching facility; species life-history traits; and species international legal trade and confiscation data. We collected data for the facilities (one in Malaysia and three in Indonesia) using field...
Microgeographic adaptation corresponds with elevational distributions of congeneric montane grasshoppersSonu Yadav, Adam Stow & Rachael Dudaniec
Local adaptation can occur at small spatial scales relative to the dispersal capacity of species. Alpine ecosystems have sharp environmental clines that offer an opportunity to investigate the effects of fine scale shifts in species’ niche breadth on adaptive genetic processes. Here we examine two grasshopper species endemic to the Australian Alps (Kosciuscola spp.) that differ in elevational niche breadth; one broader, K. usitatus (1400-2200m), and one narrower, K. tristis (1600-2000m). We examine signatures of...
Diet shift in a non-anadromous salmon: the effect of length on increased piscivorous feeding and trophic position.Daniel Johnson & Drew Allen
Trophic ecology via isotope analysis is a functional way to predict the position of a consumer within the ecosystem it inhabits (Post, 2002). For this study, I aim to define trophic position changes and fish predation or piscivorous feeding in relation to size increase in a population of non-anadromous kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), in the Jo-Jo Lake of south-west Alaska. Previous studies have shown these fish to exhibit planktivorous feeding, with some exceptions (Nelson JS,...
This study explores the other-race effect in face recognition, using a paradigm in which two faces are presented very rapidly one after another, and participants decide whether they belong to the same person or two different people.
Sun Yat-sen University168
University of Michigan–Ann Arbor156
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College144
Huazhong University of Science and Technology124
Army Medical University124
Chinese Academy of Sciences107
West China Hospital of Sichuan University104