1,141 Works

Data from: Interactions between ecological factors in the developmental environment modulate pupal and adult traits in a polyphagous fly

Binh Nguyen, Fleur Ponton, Anh Than, Phillip W. Taylor, Toni Chapman & Juliano Morimoto
1. In holometabolous insects, adult fitness depends on the quantity and quality of resource acquired at the larval stage. Diverse ecological factors can influence larval resource acquisition, but little is known about how these factors in the larval environment interact to modulate larval development and adult traits. 2. Here, we addressed this gap by considering how key ecological factors of larval density, diet nutritional composition, and microbial growth interact to modulate pupal and adult traits...

FAIMS Project Preprints

Brian Ballsun-Stanton & Shawn Ross

Data from: Direct and trans-generational effects of male and female gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster

Juliano Morimoto, Stephen J. Simpson & Fleur Ponton
There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum (AP) or Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP-infected males had longer mating duration and induced...

Data from: The loneliness of the long-distance toad: invasion history and social attraction in cane toads (Rhinella marina)

Jodie Gruber, Martin J. Whiting, Gregory Brown & Richard Shine
Individuals at the leading edge of a biological invasion constantly encounter novel environments. These pioneers may benefit from increased social attraction, because low population densities reduce competition and risks of pathogen transfer, and increase benefits of information transfer. In standardised trials, cane toads (Rhinella marina) from invasion-front populations approached conspecifics more often, and spent more time close to them, than did conspecifics from high-density, long-colonised populations.

Data tables for detrital zircon age studies of Haast Schist in western Otago and Marlborough, New Zealand

Chris J Adams, Hamish J Campbell & William L Griffin
Supplementary Data Table 1 Otago and Marlborough schist, detrital zircon ages of schist protoliths U-Th-Pb isotopic ratios, measured and common-Pb corrected detrital zircon ages A) Western Otago: Samples 1-18 B) Marlborough: Samples 19-30 Supplementary Data Table 2 U-Pb zircon age data, southern New England Orogen granite suites: Samples 1-6

Data from: Honey bee (Apis mellifera) sociability and nestmate affiliation is dependent on the social environment experienced post-eclosion

Susie E. Hewlett, Deborah M. Wareham & Andrew B. Barron
Underpinning the formation of a social group is the motivation of individuals to aggregate and interact with conspecifics, termed sociability. Here we developed an assay, inspired by vertebrate approaches to evaluate social behaviours, to simultaneously examine the development of honey bee (Apis mellifera) sociability and nestmate affiliation. Focal bees were placed in a testing chamber, which was separated from groups of nestmates and conspecific non-nestmates by single-layer mesh screens. Assessing how much time bees spent...

Skin morphology in cane toads

Richard Shine, Gregory Brown & Georgia Kosmala
The structure of the skin may evolve rapidly during a biological invasion, for two reasons. First, novel abiotic challenges such as hydric conditions may modify selection on traits (such as skin thickness) that determine rates of evaporative water loss. Second, invaders might benefit from enhanced rates of dispersal, with locomotion possibly facilitated by thinner (and hence more flexible) skin. We quantified thickness of layers of the skin in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from the native...

Skin resistance to water gain and loss has changed in cane toads (Rhinella marina) during their Australian invasion

Gregory P. Brown, Georgia Kosmala, Richard Shine & Keith Christian
The water-permeable skin of amphibians renders them highly sensitive to climatic conditions, and interspecific correlations between environmental moisture levels and rates of water exchange across the skin suggest that natural selection adapts hydroregulatory mechanisms to local challenges. How quickly can such mechanisms shift when a species encounters novel moisture regimes? Cutaneous resistance to water loss and gain in wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) from Brazil, USA (Hawai’i) and Australia exhibited strong geographic variation. Cutaneous resistance...

Phylogenomics, biogeography and taxonomic revision of New Guinean pythons (Pythonidae, Leiopython) harvested for international trade

Damien Esquerre, Daniel J. D. Natusch, Jessica A. Lyons, Amir Hamidy, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily M. Lemmon, Awal Riyanto, J. Scott Keogh & Stephen Donnellan
The large and enigmatic New Guinean pythons in the genus Leiopython are harvested from the wild to supply the international trade in pets. Six species are currently recognized (albertisii, biakensis, fredparkeri, huonensis, meridionalis, montanus) but the taxonomy of this group has been controversial. We combined analysis of 421 nuclear loci and complete mitochondrial genomes with morphological data to construct a detailed phylogeny of this group, understand their biogeographic patterns and establish the systematic diversity of...

Data from: Hybridization fluctuates with rainfall in Darwin's tree finches

Rachael Dudaniec
Hybridization in natural populations may be an adaptive response to shifting climatic regimes, but understanding this can be limited by temporal sampling effort and confident hybrid identification. On the Galapagos Islands, Darwin’s finches regularly hybridize, and the islands show extreme annual variation in rainfall, however the effect of annual rainfall on the frequency of finch hybridization is little known. Across a 19-year period on Floreana Island, we compare patterns of hybridization in sympatric Darwin’s tree...

Swim with the tide: tactics to maximise prey detection by a specialist predator, the greater sea snake (Hydrophis major)

Vinay Udyawer, Claire Goiran, Olivier Chateau & Richard Shine
The fitness of a predator depends upon its ability to locate and capture prey; and thus, increasing dietary specialization should favor the evolution of species-specific foraging tactics tuned to taxon-specific habitats and cues. Within marine environments, prey detectability (e.g., via visual or chemical cues) is affected by environmental conditions (e.g., water clarity and tidal flow), such that specialist predators would be expected to synchronize their foraging activity with cyclic variation in such conditions. In the...

Children across cultures respond emotionally to the acoustic environment

Weiyi Ma, Peng Zhou & William Thompson
Among human and non-human animals, the ability to respond rapidly to biologically significant events in the environment is essential for survival and development. Research has confirmed that human adult listeners respond emotionally to environmental sounds just as they understand the emotional connotations of speech prosody and music. However, it is unknown whether young children also respond emotionally to environmental sounds. Here, we report that changes in pitch, rate (i.e., playback speed), and intensity (i.e., amplitude)...

Valuing Cooperation and Constructive Controversy: A Tribute to David W. Johnson

Dean Tjosvold, Daniel Druckman, Roger Johnson, Karl Smith & Cary Roseth

Microgeographic adaptation corresponds with elevational distributions of congeneric montane grasshoppers

Sonu Yadav, Adam Stow & Rachael Dudaniec
Local adaptation can occur at small spatial scales relative to the dispersal capacity of species. Alpine ecosystems have sharp environmental clines that offer an opportunity to investigate the effects of fine scale shifts in species’ niche breadth on adaptive genetic processes. Here we examine two grasshopper species endemic to the Australian Alps (Kosciuscola spp.) that differ in elevational niche breadth; one broader, K. usitatus (1400-2200m), and one narrower, K. tristis (1600-2000m). We examine signatures of...

Stimulating verb and sentence processing with TMS: A systematic review

Effy Ntemou, Roel Jonkers, Frank Burchert, Cheyenne Svaldi & Adrià Rofes
The present systematic review aims to provide an overview of the contributions of TMS in the investigation of verb and sentence processing, as well as to determine whether items with different lexico-semantic or morphosyntactic features are differentially affected by TMS.

Data from: Economics, life history and international trade data for seven turtle species in Malaysia and Indonesian farms

Dalia A. Conde, Simon Kaae Andersen, Johanna Staerk, Elham Kalhor, Daniel J. D. Natusch, Rita Da Silva & Pfau Beate
We collected data on the wildlife trade of seven turtle and tortoise species endemic to Indonesia and Malaysia (Amyda cartilaginea, Batagur borneoensis, Cuora amboinensis, Carettochelys insculpta, Heosemys annandalii, Heosemys grandis, and Heosemys spinosa). We collated data for: the operations and economics of three breeding farms and one ranching facility; species life-history traits; and species international legal trade and confiscation data. We collected data for the facilities (one in Malaysia and three in Indonesia) using field...

Diet shift in a non-anadromous salmon: the effect of length on increased piscivorous feeding and trophic position.

Daniel Johnson & Drew Allen
Trophic ecology via isotope analysis is a functional way to predict the position of a consumer within the ecosystem it inhabits (Post, 2002). For this study, I aim to define trophic position changes and fish predation or piscivorous feeding in relation to size increase in a population of non-anadromous kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), in the Jo-Jo Lake of south-west Alaska. Previous studies have shown these fish to exhibit planktivorous feeding, with some exceptions (Nelson JS,...

Deletion of actin-associated tropomyosin Tpm3 leads to reduced cell complexity in cultured hippocampal neurons - new insight into the role of the C-terminal region of Tpm3.1

Tamara Tomanic
Files in the storage are related to the project concerning the investigation of Tpm3 gene products and the exploration C-terminus of Tpm3.1 isoform. They are separated into folders that contain .xlsx files with individual data points behind the Main Figures 1-3, 5-7 and 9, as well as Supplemental Figures 1-4 and 6 in the manuscript no. cells-1130025. Where applicable, PG314 corresponds to Tpm3.1FL construct (FL stands for full-length), PG471 to Tpm3.1delta2AA and PG472 to Tpm3.1delta6AA....

A rapid perceptual test of the other-race effect

Daniel Guilbert
This study explores the other-race effect in face recognition, using a paradigm in which two faces are presented very rapidly one after another, and participants decide whether they belong to the same person or two different people.

Data from: The legacy of Eastern Mediterranean mountain uplifts – rapid disparity of phylogenetic niche conservatism and divergence in mountain vipers

Mohsen Ahmadi, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Mohammad Kaboli, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Mansoureh Malekian, Roozbeh Behrooz, Philippe Geniez, John Alroy & Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Aim The orogeny of the eastern Mediterranean region has substantially affected ecological speciation patterns, particularly of mountain-dwelling species. Mountain vipers of the genus Montivipera are among the paramount examples of Mediterranean neo-endemism, with restricted ranges in the mountains of Anatolia, the Levant, Caucasus, Alborz, and Zagros. Here we explore the phylogenetic and ecological diversification of Montivipera to reconstruct its ecological niche evolution and biogeographic history. Location Eastern Mediterranean mountain ecosystems Methods Using 177 sequences of...

Insect pollinators in different habitats of Shivapuri‐Nagarjun National Park, Nepal

Urmila Dyola, Chitra Baniya, Pushpa Acharya, Pradip Subedi, Anjeela Pandey & Kumar Sapkota
Insect pollinators are important means for a stable ecosystem. The habitat types play a crucial role in the community composition, abundance, diversity, and species richness of the pollinators. The present study in Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park explored the species richness and abundances of insect pollinators in four different habitats and different environmental variables in determining the community composition of the pollinators. Data were collected from 1500 m–2700 m using colour pan traps and hand sweeping methods....

Antipredator tactics: a kin-selection benefit for defensive spines in coral catfish?

Richard Shine, Vinay Udyawer & Claire Goiran
Morphological features that impair a predator’s ability to consume a prey item may benefit individual prey; but what of features that prolong prey-handling but do not enhance prey survival? For example, a Striped Eel Catfish (Plotosus lineatus) will be fatally envenomated if struck by its specialist predator, the Greater Sea Snake (Hydrophis major). Nonetheless, the catfish typically erects long, toxic pectoral and dorsal spines that increase prey-handling times for the snake by around eightfold. Because...

Mimicry in motion and morphology: do information limitation, trade-offs or compensation relax selection for mimetic accuracy?

Donald McLean & Marie Herberstein
Many animals mimic dangerous or undesirable prey as a defence from predators. We would expect predators to reliably and exclusively avoid animals that closely resemble dangerous prey, yet imperfect mimics are common. There have been many hypotheses suggested to explain imperfect mimicry, but comparative tests across multiple mimicry systems are needed to determine which are applicable, and which—if any—represent general principles of imperfect mimicry. We tested four hypotheses on Australian ant mimics and found support...

Selection for male weapons boosts female fecundity, eliminating sexual conflict in the bulb mite

Bruno Buzatto & Huon Clark
Extreme differences between the sexes are usually explained by intense sexual selection on male weapons or ornaments. Sexually antagonistic genes, with a positive effect on male traits but a negative effect on female fitness, create a negative inter-sexual correlation for fitness (sexual conflict). However, such antagonism might not be apparent if sexually selected male traits are condition-dependent, and condition elevates female fitness. Here we reveal a surprising positive genetic correlation between male weaponry and female...

Larval and metamorph traits of cane toads

Richard Shine, Uditha Wijethunga, Matthew Greenlees & Melanie Elphick
As an invasive organism spreads into a novel environment, it may encounter strong selective pressures to adapt to abiotic challenges. We examined the effect of water temperature during larval life on rates of survival and growth of the early life-history stages of cane toads (Rhinella marina) from two geographic regions (tropical vs. temperate) in the species’ invaded range in eastern Australia. If local adaptation at the southern (cool-climate) invasion front has extended the cold-tolerance of...

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