21 Works

Stabilized morphological evolution of spiders despite mosaic changes in foraging ecology

Jonas Wolff, Kaja Wierucka, Jonathan Coddington, Gustavo Hormiga, Michael Kelly, Marie Herberstein, Martín Ramírez & Gustavo Paterno
A prominent question in animal research is how the evolution of morphology and ecology interact in the generation of phenotypic diversity. Spiders are some of the most abundant arthropod predators in terrestrial ecosystems and exhibit a diversity of foraging styles. It remains unclear how spider body size and proportions relate to foraging style, and if the use of webs as prey capture devices correlates with changes in body characteristics. Here we present the most extensive...

Alzheimer’s disease: Ablating single master site abolishes tau hyperphosphorylation

Kristie Stefanoska, Arne Ittner, Mehul Gajwani, Amanda RP Tan, Holly Ahel, Prita Asih, Alexander Volkerling & Anne Poljak
Hyper-phosphorylation of the neuronal tau protein is a hallmark of neurodegenerative tauopathies like Alzheimer’s disease. A central unanswered question is why tau becomes progressively hyper-phosphorylated. Here, we show that tau phosphorylation is governed by interdependence - a mechanistic link between initial site-specific and subsequent multi-site phosphorylation. Systematic assessment of site interdependence identified distinct residues (Threonine-50, -69, -181) as master sites that determine propagation of phosphorylation at multiple epitopes. CRISPR point mutation and expression of human...

Data from: Environmental drivers of population-level variation in the migratory and diving ontogeny of an Arctic top predator

James Grecian, Garry Stenson, Martin Biuw, Lars Boehme, Lars Folkow, Pierre Goulet, Ian Jonsen, Aleksander Malde, Erling S. Nordøy, Aqqalu Rosing-Asvid & Sophie Smout
The development of migratory strategies that enable juveniles to survive to recruitment is critical for species that exploit seasonal niches. For animals that forage via breath-hold diving this requires a combination of both physiological and foraging skill development. Here, we assess how migratory and dive behaviour develop over the first months of life for a migratory Arctic top predator, the harp seal, tracked using animal-borne satellite relay data loggers. We reveal similarities in migratory movements...

Bait uptake by scavengers in tropical waterbodies

Richard Shine, Abhilasha Aiyer, Tina Bell, Ruchira Somaweera, Miles Bruny & Georgia Ward-Fear
In tropical Australia, conditioned taste aversion can buffer vulnerable native predators from the invasion of a toxic prey species (cane toads, Rhinella marina). Thus, we need to develop methods to deploy aversion-inducing baits in the field, in ways that maximize uptake by vulnerable species (but not other taxa). We constructed and field-tested baiting devices, in situ with wild animals. Apparatus were set next to waterbodies and baited concurrently at multiple locations (over water, water’s edge...

Colour polymorphism in the sea snake Emydocephalus annulatus

Richard Shine, Greg Brown & Claire Goiran
Evolutionary theory suggests that polymorphic traits can be maintained within a single population only under specific conditions, such as negative frequency-dependent selection or heterozygote advantage. Non-venomous turtle-headed sea snakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) living in shallow bays near Noumea in New Caledonia exhibit three colour morphs: black, black-and-white banded, and an intermediate (grey-banded) morph that darkens with age. We recorded morph frequencies during 18 consecutive years of surveys, and found that the numbers of recruits (neonates plus...

Additive genetic variation, but not temperature, influences warning signal expression in Amata nigriceps moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiinae)

Georgina Binns, Liisa Hämäläinen, Darrell Kemp, Hannah Rowland, Kate Umbers & Marie Herberstein
Many aposematic species show variation in their colour patterns even though selection by predators is expected to stabilise warning signals towards a common phenotype. Warning signal variability can be explained by trade-offs with other functions of colouration, such as thermoregulation, that may constrain warning signal expression by favouring darker individuals. Here, we investigated the effect of temperature on warning signal expression in aposematic Amata nigriceps moths that vary in their black and orange wing patterns....

Data from: Evaluating the foraging performance of individual honey bees in different environments with automated field RFID systems

Theotime Colin, Ryan J Warren, Stephen R Quarrell, Geoff R Allen & Andrew B Barron
Measuring the individual foraging performances of pollinators is crucial to guide environmental policies that aim at enhancing pollinator health and pollination services. Automated systems have been developed to track the activity of individual honey bees, but their deployment is extremely challenging. This has limited the assessment of individual foraging performances in full-strength bee colonies in the field. Most studies available to date have been constrained to use downsized bee colonies located in urban and suburban...

Toxin cues affect cannibalism responses of cane toad tadpoles

Michael Crossland, Richard Shine & Jayna DeVore
In many species cannibalism is uncommon and involves non-selective consumption of conspecifics as well as heterospecifics. However, within their invasive Australian range cane toad larvae (Rhinella marina) specifically target and voraciously consume the eggs and hatchlings of conspecifics, often extirpating entire clutches. In contrast, toad larvae rarely consume the eggs and hatchlings of native frogs. Here, we use laboratory studies to demonstrate that this selective consumption is triggered by species-specific chemical cues: maternally-invested bufadienolide toxins...

Estimating biodiversity using symbolic meta analysis

Huan Lin, Julian Caley & Scott Sisson
Global species richness is a key biodiversity metric. Concerns continue to grow over its decline due to overexploitation and habitat destruction by humans. Despite recent efforts to estimate global species richness, the resulting estimates have been highly uncertain and often logically inconsistent. Estimates lower down either the taxonomic or geographic hierarchies are often larger than those above. Further, these estimates have been typically represented in a wide variety of forms, including intervals (a, b), point...

Social information use about novel aposematic prey depends on the intensity of the observed cue

Clelia Mulá, Rose Thorogood & Liisa Hämäläinen
Animals gather social information by observing the behavior of others, but how the intensity of observed cues influences decision-making is rarely investigated. This is crucial for understanding how social information influences ecological and evolutionary dynamics. For example, observing a predator’s distaste of unpalatable prey can reduce predation by naïve birds, and help explain the evolution and maintenance of aposematic warning signals. However, previous studies have only used demonstrators that responded vigorously, showing intense beak-wiping after...

The Effect of Number Type on Naturalness Perception

Yi Li
This project investigates how the type of number (i.e., round vs. sharp) influences individual's naturalness perception of objects.

The Effect of Attention on the Motion Silencing Effect in Dynamic Orientation Discrimination

Tabea-Maria Haase, Anina Rich, Iain Gilchrist & Chris Kent
Suchow and Alvarez (2011a) demonstrated that a stimulus undergoing a feature change in either size, hue, shape or brightness would appear to change more slowly once the display started to rotate. The stimulus, often an annulus made up out of small circles that would exhibit the feature change, would even appear to stop changing at high rotation speeds (Suchow & Alvarez, 2011a). Though previous studies have investigated to what extent grouping (Peirce, 2013), crowding, global...

A Turning Points analysis of Cross-Border Merger and Acquisition Negotiations

Yadvinder S. Rana, Daniel Druckman & Jesus Canduela
Despite the recent increase in Cross-Border Merger and Acquisition (CBMA) activity, research has repeatedly determined that over 70 percent of CBMAs fail to deliver the promised results, with evidence pointing to ineffective negotiation process management as one of the crucial factors explaining CBMA failure. We perform a turning points analysis of nine negotiations between automobile manufacturers. The findings indicate that negotiation outcomes are significantly influenced by substantive and strategic elements internal to the negotiation process....

Wild zebra finches are attracted towards acoustic cues from conspecific social groups

Corinna Adrian, Simon Griffith, Marc Naguib & Wiebke Schuett
Social information gathered by observing others often supplements personal information collected from direct interactions with the physical environment during decision making. Social information use may be particularly beneficial in harsh environments or if resources are distributed patchily, ephemeral and unpredictable, and hence difficult to locate. We experimentally tested the use of acoustic cues in wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as they flew around their arid habitat as a way of locating conspecifics on the ground,...

Rates of dispersal of cane toads during their global invasion

Richard Shine, Ross Alford, Ryan Blennerhasset, Gregory Brown, Jayna DeVore, Simon Ducatez, Patrick Finnerty, Matthew Greenlees, Shannon Kaiser, Samantha McCann, Lachlan Pettit, Ligia Pizzatto, Lin Schwarzkopf, Georgia Ward-Fear & Benjamin Phillips
Invasions often accelerate through time, as dispersal-enhancing traits accumulate at the expanding range edge. How does the dispersal behaviour of individual organisms shift to increase rates of population spread? We collate data from 44 radio-tracking studies (in total, of 650 animals) of cane toads (Rhinella marina) to quantify distances moved per day, and the frequency of displacement in their native range (French Guiana) and two invaded areas (Hawai’i and Australia). Here we show that toads...

Raw data for: Captivating color: evidence for optimal stimulus design in a polymorphic prey lure

Darrell Kemp
Many species – humans included – employ color as an instrument of deception. One intriguing example of this resides in the conspicuous abstract color patterns displayed on the bodies of female orb weaving spiders. These displays increase prey interception rates and thereby function at least as visual lures. Their chromatic properties however vary extensively, both across and within species, with discrete forms often co-existing in the manner of a stable polymorphism. Variation is principally expressed...

Divergence in life-history traits among three populations of the sea snake Emydocephalus anulatus

Richard Shine, Gregory Brown & Claire Goiran
Life-history traits such as rates of growth, survival and reproduction can vary though time within a single population, or through space among populations, due to abiotically-driven changes in resource availability. In terrestrial reptiles, parameters such as temperature and rainfall generate variation in life-histories – but other parameters likely are more important in marine systems. We studied three populations of sea snakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) in adjacent bays in the IndoPacific archipelago of New Caledonia. The extreme...

Belowground ecosystem engineers enhance biodiversity and function in a polluted ecosystem

Ana Bugnot, Paul Gribben, Wayne O'Connor, Katherine Erickson, Ross Coleman & Katherine Dafforn
Many important ecosystem functions are underpinned by belowground biodiversity and processes. Marine sediments, one of the most abundant habitats on earth, are essential to the mineralisation of organic matter. However, they are increasingly polluted by urban activities leading to the loss of biodiversity and the functions they provide. While traditional sediment remediation strategies are focussed on microbial and engineering solutions, we propose that the reintroduction of belowground ecosystem engineers (bioturbators) is important to rehabilitate polluted...

Data from: Spatial variation in the biotic and abiotic filters of oyster recruitment: Implications for restoration

Juan Ramon Esquivel-Muelbert, Brendan Lanham, Francisco Martinez-Baena, Katherine Dafforn, Paul Gribben & Melanie Bishop
Attempts to restore marine ecosystems are increasing, but the success of projects remains variable. For marine invertebrates, the establishment of self-sustaining populations requires a larval supply as well as conditions that permit recruitment. Abiotic and biotic conditions that determine recruitment can vary across environmental gradients and have opposing or reinforcing effects. We assessed how predation and tidal inundation influence recruitment of the reef-forming oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, at 15 sites, 5 estuaries and 8 degrees of...

Insect pollinators in different habitats of Shivapuri‐Nagarjun National Park, Nepal

Urmila Dyola, Chitra Baniya, Pushpa Acharya, Pradip Subedi, Anjeela Pandey & Kumar Sapkota
Insect pollinators are important means for a stable ecosystem. The habitat types play a crucial role in the community composition, abundance, diversity, and species richness of the pollinators. The present study in Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park explored the species richness and abundances of insect pollinators in four different habitats and different environmental variables in determining the community composition of the pollinators. Data were collected from 1500 m–2700 m using colour pan traps and hand sweeping methods....

Working Together: Bridging the Researcher-Practitioner Gap

William A Donohue & Daniel Druckman
In this article we share our professional experiences in bridging the gap between research and practice. These experiences are discussed from the standpoint of the roles of analyst-consultant and mediator-conciliator. Five research-practice areas are viewed through the lens of the former role: alliance dynamics, issue re-framing, sources of conflict, procedural justice, and turning points. Three areas are discussed from the latter perspective: goals and motivations, cognitive and motivational biases, and relationship development.Each theme is organized...

Registration Year

  • 2022

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Journal Article
  • Text


  • Macquarie University
  • University of Sydney
  • UNSW Sydney
  • George Mason University
  • University of New Caledonia
  • Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum
  • Rollins College
  • University of Sussex
  • University of Newcastle Australia
  • Universität Hamburg