122 Works

Pragmatically Informative Color Generation by Grounding Contextual Modifiers

Zhengxuan Wu & Desmond C. Ong

Visual Archives of the Silk and Spice Routes

Marina Kaneti
This online platform allows visitors to explore and visualize both ancient and modern connectivity, and the stories facilitate analysis of various exhibition narratives, symbolic displays, and interpretations of shared/disparate visual heritage.

Data from: Attack risk for butterflies changes with eyespot number and size

Sebastian Ho, Sandra R. Schachat, William H. Piel & Antónia Monteiro
Butterfly eyespots are known to function in predator deflection and predator intimidation, but it is still unclear what factors cause eyespots to serve one function over the other. Both functions have been demonstrated in different species that varied in eyespot size, eyespot number and wing size, leaving the contribution of each of these factors to butterfly survival unclear. Here, we study how each of these factors contributes to eyespot function by using paper butterfly models,...

Data from: Collective cell migration without proliferation: density determines cell velocity and wave velocity

Sham Tlili, Estelle Gauquelin, Brigitte Li, Olivier Cardoso, Benoit Ladoux, Helene Delanoe-Ayari & Francois Graner
Collective cell migration contributes to embryogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. Cell monolayer migration experiments help understanding what determines the movement of cells far from the leading edge. Inhibiting cell proliferation limits cell density increase and prevents jamming; we observe long-duration migration and quantify space-time characteristics of the velocity profile over large length- and time-scales. Velocity waves propagate backwards and their frequency depends only on cell density at the moving front. Both cell average velocity...

Data from: Ecosystem interactions underlie the spread of avian influenza A viruses with pandemic potential

Justin Bahl, Truc T. Pham, Nichola J. Hill, Islam T. M. Hussein, Eric J. Ma, Bernard C. Easterday, Rebecca A. Halpin, Timothy B. Stockwell, David E. Wentworth, Ghazi Kayali, Scott Krauss, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Robert G. Webster, Richard J. Webby, Michael D. Swartz, Gavin J. D. Smith & Jonathan A. Runstadler
Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic...

Data from: Human activities and landscape features interact to closely define the distribution and dispersal of an urban commensal.

Qian Tang, Gabriel Weijie Low, Jia Ying Lim, Chyi Yin Gwee & Frank E. Rheindt
The rock pigeon, Columba livia, is a cosmopolitan human commensal, domesticated thousands of years ago. However, the human-mediated factors governing its distribution and dispersal are not well understood. In this study, we performed (1) hierarchical distance sampling on ~400 island-wide point transects, (2) a population genomic inquiry based on ~7000 SNPs from almost 150 individuals, and (3) landscape-genomic analyses on the basis of extensive ecological and social-economic databases to characterize the distribution and dispersal patterns...

Data from: The deep phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison, Daiqin Li, Melissa Bodner, Junxia Zhang, Xu Xin, Qinqing Liu, Fengxiang Liu & Wayne Maddison
In order to resolve better the deep relationships among salticid spiders, we compiled and analyzed a molecular dataset of 169 salticid taxa (and 7 outgroups) and 8 gene regions. This dataset adds many new taxa to previous analyses, especially among the non-salticoid salticids, as well as two new genes – wingless and myosin heavy chain. Both of these genes, and especially the better sampled wingless, confirm many of the relationships indicated by other genes. The...

Data from: Predatory dipteran larva contributes to nutrient sequestration in a carnivorous pitcher plant

Weng Ngai Lam, Robyn J.Y. Lim, Shi Hong Wong, Hugh Tiang Wah Tan & Robyn Jing Ying Lim
The fluids of Nepenthes pitcher plants are habitats to many specialised animals known as inquilines, which facilitate the conversion of prey protein into pitcher-absorbable nitrogen forms such as ammonium. Xenoplatyura beaveri (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) is a predatory dipteran inquiline that inhabits the pitchers of N. ampullaria. Larvae of X. beaveri construct sticky webs over the fluid surface of N. ampullaria to ensnare emerging adult dipteran inquilines. However, the interaction between X. beaveri and its host has...

Data from: Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent dwelling frogs

Sandra Goutte, Alain Dubois, Samuel David Howard, Rafael Marquez, Jodi J. Rowley, J. Maximilian Dehling, Philippe Grandcolas, Xiong Rongchuan, Frédéric Legendre & Jodi J. L. Rowley
While acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in...

Data from: Mate preference for a phenotypically plastic trait is learned, and may facilitate preference-phenotype matching

Erica L. Westerman, Napon Chirathivat, Elizabeth Schyling & Antónia Monteiro
Fixed, genetically determined, mate preferences for species whose adult phenotype varies with rearing environment may be maladaptive, as the phenotype that is most fit in the parental environment may be absent in the offspring environment. Mate preference in species with polyphenisms (environmentally dependent alternative phenotypes) should therefore either not focus on polyphenic traits, be polyphenic themselves, or learned each generation. Here we test these alternative hypotheses by first describing a female-limited seasonal polyphenism in a...

Data from: Roads to isolation: similar genomic history patterns in two species of freshwater crabs with contrasting environmental tolerances and range sizes

Ywee Chieh Tay, Daniel Jia Jun Ng, Jun Bin Loo, Danwei Huang, Yixiong Cai, Darren Chong Jinn Yeo & Rudolf Meier
Freshwater species often show high levels of endemism and risk of extinction owing to their limited dispersal abilities. This is exemplified by the stenotopic freshwater crab, Johora singaporensis which is one of the world's 100 most threatened species, and currently inhabits less than 0.01 km2 of five low order hill streams within the highly urbanized island city‐state of Singapore. We compared populations of J. singaporensis with that of the non‐threatened, widespread, abundant, and eurytopic freshwater...

The evolution of autotomy in leaf-footed bugs

Zachary Emberts, Colette M St. Mary, Cody Coyotee Howard, Michael Forthman, Philip W. Bateman, Ummat Somjee, Wei Song Hwang, Daiqin Li, Rebecca T Kimball & Christine W Miller
Sacrificing body parts is one of many behaviors that animals use to escape predation. This trait, termed autotomy, is classically associated with lizards. However, several other taxa also autotomize, and this trait has independently evolved multiple times throughout Animalia. Despite having multiple origins and being an iconic anti-predatory trait, much remains unknown about the evolution of autotomy. Here, we combine morphological, behavioral, and genomic data to investigate the evolution of autotomy within leaf-footed bugs and...

A large-scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human-modified Amazonian forests

Joseph Hawes, Ima Vieira, Luiz Magnago, Erika Berenguer, Joice Ferreira, Luiz Aragão, Amanda Cardoso, Alexander Lees, Gareth Lennox, Joseph Tobias, Anthony Waldron & Jos Barlow
1. Quantifying the impact of habitat disturbance on ecosystem function is critical for understanding and predicting the future of tropical forests. Many studies have examined post-disturbance changes in animal traits related to mutualistic interactions with plants, but the effect of disturbance on plant traits in diverse forests has received much less attention. 2. Focusing on two study regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, we used a trait-based approach to examine how seed dispersal functionality within...

Data from: Predation favours Bicyclus anynana butterflies with fewer forewing eyespots

Ian ZW Chan, Zhe Ching Ngan, Lin Naing, Yueying Lee & Antónia Monteiro
There are fewer eyespots on the forewings versus hindwings of nymphalids but the reasons for this uneven distribution remain unclear. One possibility is, in many butterflies, the hindwing covers part of the ventral forewing at rest and there are fewer forewing sectors to display eyespots (covered eyespots are not continuously-visible and are less likely to be under positive selection). A second explanation is that having fewer forewing eyespots confers a selective advantage against predators. We...

Data from: Occupant satisfaction with the indoor environment in seven commercial buildings in Singapore

Toby Cheung, Stefano Schiavon, Lindsay Graham & Kwok Wai Tham
We surveyed seven Green Mark certified air-conditioned commercial buildings (666 responses) in Singapore about their satisfaction with the indoor environment. We used a 7-point scale to evaluate subjects' satisfaction with 18 Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) parameters. We also asked follow up questions on the reason(s) of dissatisfaction. We found that occupants were most satisfied with dress code (85 % satisfaction), electrical light (84 %) and cleanliness (81 %), while they were most dissatisfied with sound...

Intraspecific mating system evolution and its effect on complex male secondary sexual traits: does male-male competition increase selection on size or shape?

Julian Baur, Jeannine Roy, Martin A. Schäfer, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Patrick T. Rohner
Sexual selection is generally held responsible for the exceptional diversity in secondary sexual traits in animals. Mating system evolution is therefore expected to profoundly affect the covariation between secondary sexual traits and mating success. While there is such evidence at the interspecific level, data within species remain scarce. We here investigate sexual selection acting on the exaggerated male fore femur and the male wing in the common and widespread dung flies Sepsis punctum and S....

Morphological traits mediate fish occurrences in oil palm-impacted tropical streams

Kenny Chua, Felix Lim, Amirrudin Ahmad, Heok Hui Tan & Darren Yeo
Land-use change is a leading driver of biodiversity loss, especially in tropical fresh waters where the conversion of natural forest to monoculture plantations impacts freshwater fish assemblages. The environmental pathways underpinning shifts in fish assemblages, however, are poorly understood, but could potentially be inferred from trait-environment relationships. We addressed this knowledge gap using eco-morphological traits to explain fish occurrences in oil palm-impacted streams of the Endau drainage in Peninsular Malaysia. We also investigated how traits...

Lineage-specific variation in the evolutionary stability of coral photosymbiosis.

Jordan Gault, Bastian Bentlage, Danwei Huang & Alexander Kerr
Over half of reef-building corals (Scleractinia) participate in a nutritional symbiosis, known as photosymbiosis, with photosynthetic dinoflagellates that ranges from obligate to facultative dependence. Fitting hidden-rates models allowing among-lineage variation in the rate of trait evolution to supertree and molecular phylogenies of Scleractinia, we reconstruct the history of photosymbiosis within Scleractinia and characterize its evolutionary stability. We find that most lineages of scleractinians are extraordinarily stable for the trait, evincing no instances of loss, but...

Track choice and socio-economic origin: measuring and explaining academic inhibition (Policy Brief, n°23)

Nina Guyon & Elise Huillery
Les élèves d’origine sociale modeste aspirent à des filières académiques moins sélectives que leurs pairs de même niveau scolaire mais d’origine sociale favorisée. Plusieurs raisons sont mises à jour : premièrement, les élèves d’origine modeste sous-estiment leurs capacités scolaires actuelles par rapport aux élèves d’origine favorisée ; ensuite, ils anticipent une forte différence dans leurs chances de succès dans le futur ; en outre, ils ont tendance à se conformer à leurs pairs. Par ailleurs,...

From crypsis to masquerade: ontogeny changes the colour defences of a crab spider hiding as bird droppings

Long Yu, Xin Xu, Fan Li, Wei Zhou, Hua Zeng, Eunice Tan, Shichang Zhang & Daiqin Li
Selection imposed by visually-hunting predators has driven the evolution of colour-based antipredator defence strategies such as crypsis, masquerade, mimicry and aposematism. Individuals of many animals are generally considered to rely on a single type of defence strategy, but individuals of some species use multiple colour-based defences. Many animals switch between colour-based defences against visually-hunting predators during ontogeny. However, why this occurs remains poorly understood. The crab spider Phrynarachne ceylonica is an often-cited example of a...

Perceptions of Singapore's Built Heritage and Landmarks

Chia Shih Paveena Seah, Natalie Pang, Kwang Lin Wong &
The Study on the Perceptions of Singapore’s Built Heritage and Landmarks seeks to understand public opinion towards built heritage in Singapore, drawing on an opinion poll of 53 heritage sites. Given that scholarly and policy-centred discussions of heritage value and conservation are usually centred on the perspectives of experts, this report focuses on how average Singaporeans perceive the meaning, purpose and value of built heritage, and how these perceptions influence the sense of national identity....

FAULTLINES IN SINGAPORE: PUBLIC OPINION ON THEIR REALITIES, MANAGEMENT AND CONSEQUENCES

MATHEWS MATHEW

Data from: Convergence of multiple markers and analysis methods defines the genetic distinctiveness of cryptic pitvipers

, Roger S. Thorpe, Simon Creer, Delphine Lallias, Louise Dawnay, Bryan L. Stuart, Anita Malhotra, &
Using multiple markers and multiple analytical approaches is critical for establishing species boundaries reliably, especially so in the case of cryptic species. Despite development of new and powerful analytical methods, most studies continue to adopt a few, with the choice often being subjective. One such example is routine analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data using population genetic models despite disparity between method assumptions and data properties. The application of newly developed methods for...

Data from: The effect of repeated, lethal sampling on wild bee abundance and diversity

Zachariah J. Gezon, Eli S. Wyman, John S. Ascher, David W. Inouye & Rebecca E. Irwin
1. Bee pollinators provide a critical ecosystem service to wild and agricultural plants but are reported to be declining world-wide due to anthropogenic change. Long-term data on bee abundance and diversity are scarce, and the need for additional quantitative sampling using repeatable methods has been emphasized. Recently, monitoring programmes have begun using a standardized method that employs a combination of pan traps and sweep netting, resulting in lethal sampling of bees. This standardized method can...

Data from: Species-habitat relationships and ecological correlates of butterfly abundance in a transformed tropical landscape

Anuj Jain, Felix K. S. Lim & Edward L. Webb
Tropical butterfly conservation strategies often focus on total and/or common species richness to assess the conservation value of a patch or habitat. However, such a strategy overlooks the unique dynamics of rare species. We evaluated the species-habitat relationships of 209 common, intermediate, and rare butterfly species (including morphospecies) across four habitat types (mature, degraded, or fragmented forest, and urban parks) and two patch sizes (<400 ha, ≥400 ha) in Singapore. Common species richness was consistent...

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