Butterfly eyespots are known to function in predator deflection and predator intimidation, but it is still unclear what factors cause eyespots to serve one function over the other. Both functions have been demonstrated in different species that varied in eyespot size, eyespot number and wing size, leaving the contribution of each of these factors to butterfly survival unclear. Here, we study how each of these factors contributes to eyespot function by using paper butterfly models,...
1. Bee pollinators provide a critical ecosystem service to wild and agricultural plants but are reported to be declining world-wide due to anthropogenic change. Long-term data on bee abundance and diversity are scarce, and the need for additional quantitative sampling using repeatable methods has been emphasized. Recently, monitoring programmes have begun using a standardized method that employs a combination of pan traps and sweep netting, resulting in lethal sampling of bees. This standardized method can...
Living fossils are lineages that have retained plesiomorphic traits through long time periods. It is expected that such lineages have both originated and diversified long ago. Such expectations have recently been challenged in some textbook examples of living fossils, notably in extant cycads and coelacanths. Using a phylogenetic approach, we tested the patterns of the origin and diversification of liphistiid spiders, a clade of spiders considered to be living fossils due to their retention of...
The genetic distance between biological sequences is a fundamental quantity in molecular evolution. It pertains to questions of rates of evolution, existence of a molecular clock, and phylogenetic inference. Under the class of continuous-time substitution models, the distance is commonly defined as the expected number of substitutions at any site in the sequence. We eschew the almost ubiquitous assumptions of evolution under stationarity and time-reversible conditions and extend the concept of the expected number of...
Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world’s most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral...
Data from: Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han ChineseRichard P. Ebstein, Mikhail V. Monakhov, Yunfeng Lu, Yushi Jiang, Poh San Lai & Soo Hong Chew
Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal–conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771...
Data from: Transcriptome-wide differential gene expression in Bicyclus anynana butterflies: female vision-related genes are more plasticAide Macias-Muñoz, Gilbert Smith, Antónia Monteiro & Adriana D. Briscoe
cave-adapted species down-regulate the expression of vision genes or even lose their eyes and associated eye genes entirely. Alternatively, organisms that live in fluctuating environments, with different requirements for vision at different times, may evolve phenotypic plasticity for expression of vision genes. Here we use a global transcriptomic and candidate gene approach to compare gene expression in the heads of a polyphenic butterfly. Bicyclus anynana have two seasonal forms that display sexual dimorphism and plasticity...
Data from: Evolution of the assassin’s arms: insights from a phylogeny of combined transcriptomic and ribosomal DNA data (Heteroptera: Reduvioidea)Junxia Zhang, Eric R. L. Gordon, Michael Forthman, Wei Song Hwang, Kim Walden, Daniel R. Swanson, Kevin P. Johnson, Rudolf Meier & Christiane Weirauch
Assassin bugs (Reduvioidea) are one of the most diverse (>7,000 spp.) lineages of predatory animals and have evolved an astounding diversity of raptorial leg modifications for handling prey. The evolution of these modifications is not well understood due to the lack of a robust phylogeny, especially at deeper nodes. We here utilize refined data from transcriptomes (370 loci) to stabilize the backbone phylogeny of Reduvioidea, revealing the position of major clades (e.g., the Chagas disease...
A complex interplay of viral, host and ecological factors shape the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from...
The human brain, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is functionally and anatomically reorganized in order to adapt to neuronal challenges in aging. This study employed structural MRI, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), and examined the functional and structural reorganization of the PFC in aging using a Chinese sample of 173 subjects aged from 21 years and above. We found age-related increases in the structural connectivity between the PFC and posterior...
Data from: Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sitesSusan G. Letcher, Jesse R. Lasky, Robin L. Chazdon, Natalia Norden, S. Joseph Wright, Jorge A. Meave, Eduardo A. Pérez-García, Rodrigo Muñoz, Eunice Romero-Pérez, Ana Andrade, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Tony V. Bentos, Radika Bhaskar, Frans Bongers, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Ricardo G. César, Deborah A. Clark, David B. Clark, Dylan Craven, Alexander DeFrancesco, Juan M. Dupuy, Bryan Finegan … & G. Bruce Williamson
1. Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late successional stages in wet forest. 2....
National University of Singapore11
Nanyang Technological University3
Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado1
Federal University of São Carlos1
University of Malaya1
Department of Plant Biology1
Canterbury Health Laboratories1
Del Rosario University1