20 Works

Visual Archives of the Silk and Spice Routes

Marina Kaneti
This online platform allows visitors to explore and visualize both ancient and modern connectivity, and the stories facilitate analysis of various exhibition narratives, symbolic displays, and interpretations of shared/disparate visual heritage.

The evolution of autotomy in leaf-footed bugs

Zachary Emberts, Colette M St. Mary, Cody Coyotee Howard, Michael Forthman, Philip W. Bateman, Ummat Somjee, Wei Song Hwang, Daiqin Li, Rebecca T Kimball & Christine W Miller
Sacrificing body parts is one of many behaviors that animals use to escape predation. This trait, termed autotomy, is classically associated with lizards. However, several other taxa also autotomize, and this trait has independently evolved multiple times throughout Animalia. Despite having multiple origins and being an iconic anti-predatory trait, much remains unknown about the evolution of autotomy. Here, we combine morphological, behavioral, and genomic data to investigate the evolution of autotomy within leaf-footed bugs and...

A large-scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human-modified Amazonian forests

Joseph Hawes, Ima Vieira, Luiz Magnago, Erika Berenguer, Joice Ferreira, Luiz Aragão, Amanda Cardoso, Alexander Lees, Gareth Lennox, Joseph Tobias, Anthony Waldron & Jos Barlow
1. Quantifying the impact of habitat disturbance on ecosystem function is critical for understanding and predicting the future of tropical forests. Many studies have examined post-disturbance changes in animal traits related to mutualistic interactions with plants, but the effect of disturbance on plant traits in diverse forests has received much less attention. 2. Focusing on two study regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, we used a trait-based approach to examine how seed dispersal functionality within...

Data from: Occupant satisfaction with the indoor environment in seven commercial buildings in Singapore

Toby Cheung, Stefano Schiavon, Lindsay Graham & Kwok Wai Tham
We surveyed seven Green Mark certified air-conditioned commercial buildings (666 responses) in Singapore about their satisfaction with the indoor environment. We used a 7-point scale to evaluate subjects' satisfaction with 18 Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) parameters. We also asked follow up questions on the reason(s) of dissatisfaction. We found that occupants were most satisfied with dress code (85 % satisfaction), electrical light (84 %) and cleanliness (81 %), while they were most dissatisfied with sound...

Predictor complexity and feature selection affect Maxent model transferability: evidence from global freshwater invasive species

Bi Wei Low, Yiwen Zeng, Heok Hui Tan & Darren C. J. Yeo
This dataset contains the following: Occurrence datasets of five global freshwater invasive species (African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus, Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus, red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii, and Australian redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus) Background points for presence-only ecological niche modelling (e.g., Maxent) Example R script (with annotations inline) to conduct model tuning and transferability assessments using Maxent

Wolbachia infection in wild mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): Implications for transmission modes and host-endosymbiont associations in Singapore

Huicong Ding, Huiqing Yeo & Nalini Puniamoorthy
Background: Wolbachia are intracellular bacterial endosymbionts found in most insect lineages. In mosquitoes, the influence of these endosymbionts on host reproduction and arboviral transmission has spurred numerous studies aimed at using Wolbachia infection as a vector control technique. However, there are several knowledge gaps in the literature and little is known about natural Wolbachia infection across species, their transmission modes, or associations between various Wolbachia lineages and their hosts. This study aims to address these...

The interplay of color and bioacoustic traits in the differentiation of a Southeast Asian songbird complex

Chyi Yin Gwee, Qiao Le Lee, Simon Mahood, Le Manh Hung, Robert Tizard, Krairat Eiamampai, Philip Round & Frank Rheindt
Morphological traits have served generations of biologists as a taxonomic indicator, and have been the main basis for defining and classifying species diversity for centuries. A quantitative integration of behavioural characters, such as vocalizations, in studies on biotic differentiation has arisen more recently, and the relative importance of these different traits in the diversification process remains poorly understood. To provide a framework within which to interpret the evolutionary interplay between morphological and behavioral traits, we...

Micro-stepping Extended Focus reduces photobleaching and preserves structured illumination super-resolution features

Xian Hu, Salma Jalal, Michael Sheetz, Oddmund Bakke & Felix Margadant
Despite progress made in confocal microscopy, even fast systems still have insufficient temporal resolution for detailed live cell volume imaging, such as tracking rapid movement of membrane vesicles in three-dimensional space. Depending on the shortfall, this may result in undersampling and/or motion artifacts that ultimately limit the quality of the imaging data. By sacrificing the detailed information in the Z-direction, we propose a new imaging modality that involves capturing fast “projections” from the field of...

Phylogenomics of white-eyes, a ‘great speciator,’ reveals Indonesian archipelago as the center of lineage diversity

Chyi Yin Gwee, Kritika Garg, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Keren Sadanandan, Dewi Prawiradilaga, Martin Irestedt, Fu-Min Lei, Luke Bloch, Jessica Lee, Mohammad Irham, Tri Haryoko, Malcolm Soh, Kelvin Peh, Karen Rowe, Teuku Ferasyi, Shaoyuan Wu, Guinevere Wogan, Rauri Bowie & Frank Rheindt
Archipelagoes serve as important ‘natural laboratories’ which facilitate the study of island radiations and contribute to the understanding of evolutionary processes. The white-eye genus Zosterops is a classical example of a ‘great speciator’, comprising c. 100 species from across the Old World, most of them insular. We achieved an extensive geographic DNA sampling of Zosterops by using historical specimens and recently collected samples. Using over 700 genome-wide loci in conjunction with coalescent species tree methods...

Gene flow creates a mirage of cryptic species in a Southeast Asian spotted stream frog complex

Kin Onn Chan, Carl Hutter, Perry Lee Wood, Lee Grismer, Indraneil Das & Rafe Brown
Most new cryptic species are described using conventional tree- and distance-based species delimitation methods (SDMs), which rely on phylogenetic arrangements and measures of genetic divergence. However, although numerous factors such as population structure and gene flow are known to confound phylogenetic and species delimitation inferences, the influence of these processes on species estimation is not frequently evaluated. Using large amounts of exons, introns, and ultraconserved elements obtained using the FrogCap sequence-capture protocol, we compared conventional...

Longer is not always better: optimizing barcode length for large-scale species discovery and identification

Darren Yeo, Rudolf Meier & Amrita Srivathsan
New techniques for the species-level sorting of millions of specimens are needed in order to accelerate species discovery, determine how many species live on earth, and develop efficient biomonitoring techniques. These sorting methods should be reliable, scalable and cost-effective, as well as being largely insensitive to low-quality genomic DNA, given that this is usually all that can be obtained from museum specimens. Mini-barcodes seem to satisfy these criteria, but it is unclear how well they...

Data from: Dung beetle-megafauna trophic networks in Singapore’s fragmented forests

Xin Rui Ong, Eleanor M. Slade & Matthew L. M. Lim
We investigated trophic networks between dung beetles and megafauna species in five forest fragments in Singapore varying in size and isolation. We found that Singapore’s dung beetle communities were attracted to extant and extinct dung types from different dietary groups. All forest fragment networks were similar, and displayed high generalism and high nestedness.

Detritus decorations as the extended phenotype deflect avian predator attack increasing fitness in an orb‐web spider

Nina Ma, Long Yu, Deyong Gong, Zeyuan Hua, Hua Zeng, Luyao Chen, Aijia Mao, Zhizhao Chen, Ruxing Cai, Yubing Ma, Zengtao Zhang, DQ Li, Jing Luo & Shichang Zhang
A number of strategies that divert attacks of visually guided predators, such as birds, have evolved multiple times in animals. Detritus web decorations built by certain orb-web spider species are thought to deflect avian predator attacks away from spiders and towards their web decorations. Still, empirical evidence for this function and its adaptive significance is lacking. The orb-web spider, Cyclosa monticola, adorns its web using a linear detritus decoration consisting of moults, egg sacs, prey...

Genetic structures across a biogeographical barrier reflect dispersal potential of four Southeast Asian mangrove plant species

Alison Wee, Annika Noreen, Junya Ono, Koji Takayama, Prakash Kumar, Hugh Tan, Mohd Saleh, Tadashi Kajita, Edward Webb, Alison K. S. Wee, Annika M. E. Noreen, Prakash P. Kumar, Hugh T. W. Tan, Mohd N. Saleh & Edward L. Webb
Aim Biogeographic barriers restrict the movement of individuals, resulting in population divergence, genetic differentiation, endemism and speciation. Yet, some barriers demonstrate unequal effect across species depending on species dispersal, which manifests in varying genetic structure. We test the hypotheses that the genetic structure of four coastal mangrove species would reflect differences in dispersal potential across the Malay Peninsula, a major biogeographic barrier in the Indo-West Pacific region. Location Twelve sites from the east and west...

Data from: Impacts of habitat on butterfly dispersal in tropical forests, parks and grassland patches embedded in an urban landscape

Anuj Jain, Simon Kee Mun Chan, Petr Vlasanek & Edward Layman Webb
Dispersal distances of 17 species of butterflies in tropical Singapore were significantly greater in forest than in urban habitat. Butterflies in urban plots frequently moved within suitable habitat (park/grassland) patches but rarely crossed non-habitat patches suggesting potential isolation and a need for urban corridors.

Data from: Leaf litter decomposition in tropical freshwater swamp forests is slower in swamp than non-swamp conditions

Weng Ngai Lam, Jun Jie Lian, Pin Jia Chan, Ying Ying Ting, Rie Chong, Nur Estya Rahman, Lorraine Tan, Qian Yi Ho, Sorain Ramchunder, Kelvin Peh, Yixiong Cai & Kwek Yan Chong
Decomposition is a key ecosystem function, and the rate of decomposition in forests affects their carbon storage potentials. Processes and factors determining leaf litter decomposition rates in dry-land and temperate forests are well understood, but these are generally poorly studied in tropical wetland forests, especially freshwater swamp forests (FSF). The home-field advantage (HFA) hypothesis predicts that soil microbes specialize in decomposing leaf litter produced by the tree species in their immediate vicinity. However, empirical support...

What’s in a band? The function of the colour and banding pattern of the Banded Swallowtail

Eunice Tan, Bodo Wilts, Brent Tan & Antonia Monteiro
Butterflies have evolved a diversity of colour patterns, but the ecological functions for most of these patterns are still poorly understood. The Banded Swallowtail butterfly, Papilio demolion demolion, is a mostly black butterfly with a greenish-blue band that traverses the wings. The function of this wing pattern remains unknown. Here, we examined the morphology of black and green-blue coloured scales, and how the colour and banding pattern affects predation risk in the wild. The protective...

Data from: Quaternary land bridges have not been universal conduits of gene flow

Emilie Cros, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Kritika M. Garg, Nathaniel Ng, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, David P. Edwards & Frank E. Rheindt
Quaternary climate oscillations are a well-known driver of animal diversification, but their effects are most well studied in areas where glaciations lead to habitat fragmentation. In large areas of the planet, however, glaciations have had the opposite effect, but here their impacts are much less well understood. This is especially true in Southeast Asia, where cyclical changes in land distribution have generated enormous land expansions during glacial periods. In this study, we selected a panel...

Target-capture phylogenomics provide insights on gene and species tree discordances in Old World Treefrogs (Anura: Rhacophoridae)

Kin Onn Chan, Carl Hutter, Perry Wood, Lee Grismer & Rafe Brown
Genome-scale data have greatly facilitated the resolution of recalcitrant nodes that Sanger-based datasets have been unable to resolve. However, phylogenomic studies continue to utilize traditional methods such as bootstrapping to estimate branch support; and high bootstrap values are still interpreted as providing strong support for the correct topology. Furthermore, relatively little attention is given to assessing discordances between gene and species trees, and the underlying processes that produce phylogenetic conflict. We generated novel genomic datasets...

Device-related urinary tract infections – Foreword bythe section editors

Peter Tenke & Paul Ananth Tambyah
The use of urological devices, especially urinary catheters, forms the basis of the daily praxis in urological departments, and also is widespread in most hospitals and long term care facilities. Using a foreign body that bypasses the normal host defences always increases the risk of infectious complications. Approximately 40% of healthcare-associated infections originate from the urinary tract, and most patients with nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) have permanent urethral catheterisation or other urinary foreign bodies....

Registration Year

  • 2020
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18
  • Interactive Resource
    1
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • National University of Singapore
    20
  • University of Kansas
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • University of Southampton
    2
  • Nanyang Technological University
    2
  • Auburn University
    2
  • La Sierra University
    2
  • Anglia Ruskin University
    1
  • Universidade da Amazônia
    1
  • Federal University of Southern Bahia
    1