213 Works

Political rhetoric in Scandinavia

Jens E. Kjeldsen, Christian Kock & Orla Vigsø

Supplementary data to “Alternative reproductive tactics are associated with sperm performance in invasive round goby from two different salinity environments”

Leon Green, Jan Niemax, Jens‐Peter Herrmann, Axel Temming & Charlotta Kvarnemo
During male-male competition, evolution can favor alternative reproductive tactics. This often results in a dominant morph that holds a resource, such as a nest for egg laying, competes with a smaller sneaker morph that reproduces by stealing fertilizations. The salinity environment can influence male growth rates, e.g. via osmoregulatory costs, which in turn may influence the use of sneaker tactics for small males competing for mating opportunities. Salinity can also affect sperm directly; however, little...

Data from: Annual and perennial Medicago show signatures of parallel adaptation to climate and soil in highly conserved genes

José Luis Blanco-Pastor, Isabel María Liberal, Muhammet Sakiroglu, Yanling Wei, E. Charles Brummer, Rose L. Andrew & Bernard E. Pfeil
Human induced environmental change may require rapid adaptation of plant populations and crops, but the genomic basis of environmental adaptation remain poorly understood. We analyzed polymorphic loci from the perennial crop Medicago sativa (alfalfa or lucerne) and the annual legume model species M. truncatula to search for a common set of candidate genes that might contribute to adaptation to abiotic stress in both annual and perennial Medicago species. We identified a set of candidate genes...

Intra-specific variation in metal tolerance modulate competition between two marine diatoms

Björn Andersson
This project contains data for the manuscript Intra-specific variation in metal tolerance modulate competition between two marine diatoms. The experiments tests how different toxic concentrations of heavy metals modulates competition between an artificially assembled community of Baltic Sea diatoms (four clonal strains each of the two diatom species Skeletonema marinoi (SM) and Thalassiosira baltica (TB). Briefly we use toxic Dose Response curves (DRC) to model how inter and intra specific selection between strains is expected...

CarniFOSS: A database of the body mass of fossil carnivores

Søren Faurby
Motivation: Body mass is one of the most important determinants of animal ecology. Unlike other important traits it is also readily inferable from fossils and it is therefore one of the only traits that can be directly analyzed and compared between fossil and contemporary communities. Despite this, no comprehensive database of the body mass of larger clades of extinct species exists. Analysis of fossils has therefore been restricted to small clades or to smaller, potentially...

Ancestral sperm ecotypes reveal multiple invasions of a non-native fish in northern Europe

Leon Green, Apostolos Apostolou, Ellika Faust, Kajsa Palmqvist, Jane W. Behrens, Jonathan N. Havenhand, Erica H. Leder & Charlotta Kvarnemo
For externally fertilising organisms in the aquatic environment, the abiotic fertilisation medium can be a strong selecting force. Among bony fishes, sperm are adapted to function in a narrow salinity range. A notable exception is the family Gobiidae, where several species reproduce across a wide salinity range. The family also contains several wide-spread invasive species. To better understand how these fishes tolerate such varying conditions, we measured sperm performance in relation to salinity from a...

Temporally-balanced selection during development of larval Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) inherently preserves genetic diversity within offspring

Evan Durland, Pierre De Wit & Chris Langdon
Balancing selection is one of the mechanisms which has been proposed to explain the maintenance of genetic diversity in species across generations. For species with large populations and complex life histories, however, heterogeneous selection pressures may create a scenario in which the net effects of selection are balanced across developmental stages. With replicated cultures and a pooled sequencing approach, we show that genotype-dependent mortality in larvae of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is largely temporally...

Can Ownership Limit the Effectiveness of EU Consumer Contract Law Directives?

Wolfgang Faber & Claes Martinson
Does the acquisition of ownership form a strict barrier to the application of EU consumer contract law rules? In particular: does the acquisition of ownership prevent a national court from reviewing unfair terms in a mortgage agreement? The CJEU said so in its recent judgement C-598/15 Banco Santander, where a bank itself acquired a mortgaged apartment in a forced sale. We consider this a too formal way of reasoning. In order to make a constructive...

Pilgrimage and Ancestors: the importance of return

Jorgen Hellman
Drawing on ethnographic material from pilgrimages on West Java I argue that understandings of pilgrimage will benefit from including the return home in order to fully appreciate the meaning it holds for pilgrims. If we include into the study an extensive period after coming home, it facilitates situating the practice in a specific socio-cultural context and helps to understand how a pilgrimage partakes in these settings rather than being a ‘ “one off” transient and...

Data from: Assignment of homoeologues to parental genomes in allopolyploids for species tree inference, with an example from Fumaria (Papaveraceae)

Yann J. K. Bertrand, Anne-Cathrine Scheen, Thomas Marcussen, Bernard E. Pfeil, Filipe De Sousa & Bengt Oxelman
There is a rising awareness that species trees are best inferred from multiple loci while taking into account processes affecting individual gene trees, such as substitution model error (failure of the model to account for the complexity of the data) and coalescent stochasticity (presence of incomplete lineage sorting). Although most studies have been carried out in the context of dichotomous species trees, these processes operate also in more complex evolutionary histories involving multiple hybridizations and...

Data from: Allele phasing greatly improves the phylogenetic utility of ultraconserved elements

Tobias Andermann, Alexandre M. Fernandes, Urban Olsson, Mats Töpel, Bernard Pfeil, Bengt Oxelman, Alexandre Aleixo, Brant C. Faircloth & Alexandre Antonelli
Advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques now allow relatively easy and affordable sequencing of large portions of the genome, even for non-model organisms. Many phylogenetic studies reduce costs by focusing their sequencing efforts on a selected set of targeted loci, commonly enriched using sequence capture. The advantage of this approach is that it recovers a consistent set of loci, each with high sequencing depth, which leads to more confidence in the assembly of target sequences. High...

Data from: Widespread hybridization within mound-building wood ants in Southern Finland results in cytonuclear mismatches and potential for sex-specific hybrid breakdown

Jack Beresford, Marianne Elias, Lucy Pluckrose, Liselotte Sundström, Roger K. Butlin, Pekka Pamilo & Jonna Kulmuni
Hybridization and gene flow between diverging lineages is increasingly recognized as a common evolutionary process and its consequences can vary from hybrid breakdown to adaptive introgression. We have previously found a population of wood ant hybrids between Formica aquilonia and F. polyctena that shows antagonistic effects of hybridization: females with introgressed alleles show hybrid vigour, whereas males with the same alleles show hybrid breakdown. Here we investigate whether hybridization is a general phenomenon in this...

Data from: Calcium transfer across the outer mantle epithelium in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

J. Kirsikka Sillanpää, Henrik Sundh & Kristina S. Sundell
Calcium transport is essential for bivalves to be able to build and maintain their shells. Ionized calcium (Ca2+) is taken up from the environment and eventually transported through the outer mantle epithelium (OME) to the shell growth area. However, the mechanisms behind this process are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to characterize the Ca2+ transfer performed by the OME of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, as well as to develop an...

Data from: Sperm duct gland contents increase sperm velocity in the sand goby

Leon Green & Charlotta Kvarnemo
Sperm performance is often tightly linked to male reproductive success. In many demersal gobiid fishes, the male attaches sperm embedded in a mucus produced by sperm duct glands, to the nest substrate before spawning takes place. Sperm are activated as the mucus and other embedded gland contents dissolve into the water. To test the importance of gland content on sperm function in Pomatoschistus minutus, a marine fish with external fertilization, we used a paired experimental...

Data from: Heterogeneous genomic differentiation in marine threespine sticklebacks: adaptation along an environmental gradient

Jacquelin DeFaveri, Per R. Jonsson & Juha Merilä
Evolutionary divergence among populations occupying ecologically distinct environments can occur even in the face of on-going gene flow. However, the genetic underpinnings, as well as the scale and magnitude at which this differentiation occurs in marine habitats are not well understood. We investigated the patterns and degree of genomic heterogeneity in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by assessing genetic variability in 20 nongenic and 20 genic (associated with genes important for freshwater adaptation) microsatellite loci in...

Data from: Interpreting the evolutionary regression: the interplay between observational and biological errors in phylogenetic comparative studies

Thomas F. Hansen & Krzysztof Bartoszek
Regressions of biological variables across species are rarely perfect. Usually there are residual deviations from the estimated model relationship, and such deviations commonly show a pattern of phylogenetic correlations indicating that they have biological causes. We discuss the origins and effects of phylogenetically correlated biological variation in regression studies. In particular, we discuss the interplay of biological deviations with deviations due to observational or measurement errors, which are also important in comparative studies based on...

Data from: Long-term acclimation to elevated pCO2 alters carbon metabolism and reduces growth in the Antarctic diatom Nitzschia lecointei

Anders Torstensson, Mikael Hedblom, My Mattsdotter Björk, Melissa Chierici & Angela Wulff
Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels are driving changes in the seawater carbonate system, resulting in higher pCO2 and reduced pH (ocean acidification). Many studies on marine organisms have focused on short-term physiological responses to increased pCO2, and few on slow-growing polar organisms with a relative low adaptation potential. In order to recognize the consequences of climate change in biological systems, acclimation and adaptation to new environments are crucial to address. In this study, physiological responses to...

Data from: Effects of mating order and male size on embryo survival in a pipefish

Ines Braga Goncalves, Kenyon B. Mobley, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Gry Sagebakken, Adam G. Jones & Charlotta Kvarnemo
In species that provide parental care, individuals should invest adaptively in their offspring in relation to the pre- and post-zygotic care provided by their partners. In the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle L., females transfer large, nutrient-rich eggs into the male brood pouch during mating. The male broods and nourishes the embryos for several weeks before independent juveniles emerge at parturition. Given a choice, females clearly prefer large partners. Yet, females provide protein-richer eggs when the...

Data from: Sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) phenology in a warming world

Gabriella Ljungström, Erik Wapstra & Mats Olsson
Background: Present-day climate change has altered the phenology (the timing of periodic life cycle events) of many plant and animal populations worldwide. Some of these changes have been adaptive, leading to an increase in population fitness, whereas others have been associated with fitness decline. Representing short-term responses to an altered weather regime, hitherto observed changes are largely explained by phenotypic plasticity. However, to track climatically induced shifts in optimal phenotype as climate change proceeds, evolutionary...

Data from: Divergence within and among seaweed siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea

Angelica Ardehed, Daniel Johansson, Lisa Sundqvist, Ellen Schagerström, Zuzanna Zagrodzka, Nikolaj A. Kovaltchouk, Lena Bergström, Lena Kautsky, Marina Rafajlovic, Ricardo T. Pereyra & Kerstin Johannesson
Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals...

Data from: Interpreting the genomic landscape of speciation: a road map for finding barriers to gene flow

Mark Ravinet, Rui Faria, Roger K. Butlin, Juan Galindo, Nicolas Bierne, Marina Rafajlović, Mohamed A. F. Noor, Bernhard Mehlig & Anja M. Westram
Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation amongst populations, is continuous, complex, and involves multiple, interacting barriers. Until it is complete, the effects of this process vary along the genome and can lead to a heterogeneous genomic landscape with peaks and troughs of differentiation and divergence. When gene flow occurs during speciation, barriers restricting migration locally in the genome lead to patterns of heterogeneity. However, genomic heterogeneity can also be produced or modified by variation in...

Data from: A universal mechanism generating clusters of differentiated loci during divergence-with-migration

Marina Rafajlović, Anna Emanuelsson, Kerstin Johannesson, Roger K. Butlin & Bernhard Mehlig
Genome-wide patterns of genetic divergence reveal mechanisms of adaptation under gene flow. Empirical data show that divergence is mostly concentrated in narrow genomic regions. This pattern may arise because differentiated loci protect nearby mutations from gene flow, but recent theory suggests this mechanism is insufficient to explain the emergence of concentrated differentiation during biologically realistic timescales. Critically, earlier theory neglects an inevitable consequence of genetic drift: stochastic loss of local genomic divergence. Here, we demonstrate...

Data from: Foraging mode of spiders affects risk of predation by birds

Bengt Gunnarsson & Kerstin Wiklander
Avian insectivores are top predators of arboreal arthropods in different forest ecosystems. The selective effects of bird predation in relation to foraging behaviour in canopy-living spiders were studied in a 2-year field experiment using exclosures in a spruce forest in southern Sweden. Three different hunting strategies – free-hunting, two-dimensional web, three-dimensional web – were included in the analysis. Comparisons of bird predation rate (ratio ln (abundance net-enclosed branch/abundance control)) showed considerable variation between spider groups....

Data from: Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales

Halvor Knutsen, Per Erik Jorde, Jeffrey A. Hutchings, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær, Kris-Emil Mose Jørgensen, Carl Andre, Marte Sodeland, Jon Albretsen, Esben M. Olsen & Peter Grønkjaer
Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification, and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in coastal areas. We analyzed genetic origin of...

Data from: PROTAX-fungi: a web-based tool for probabilistic taxonomic placement of fungal ITS sequences

Kessy Abarenkov, Panu Somervuo, R. Henrik Nilsson, Paul M. Kirk, Tea Huotari, Nerea Abrego & Otso Ovaskainen
• Incompleteness of reference sequence databases and unresolved taxonomic relationships complicates taxonomic placement of fungal sequences. We developed PROTAX-fungi, a general tool for taxonomic placement of fungal ITS sequences, and implemented it into the PlutoF platform of the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi. • PROTAX-fungi outperformed the SINTAX and RDB classifiers in terms of increased accuracy and decreased calibration error when applied to data on mock communities representing species groups with poor sequence...

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