241 Works

Global biogeography and diversification of a group of brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) driven by clade-specific evolutionary processes

Christophe Vieira, Frederique Steen, Sofie D'hondt, Quinten Bafort, Cindy Fernandez-García, Brian Wysor, Lennert Tyberghein, Ana Tronholm, Lydiane Mattio, Claude Payri, Gary Saunders, Frederik Leliaert, Heroen Verbruggen & Olivier De Clerck
Aim: Historical processes that shaped current diversity patterns of seaweeds remain poorly understood. Using Dictyotales, a globally distributed order of brown seaweeds as a model, we test if historical biogeographical and diversification patterns are comparable across clades. Dictyotales contain some 22 genera, three of which, Dictyota, Lobophora and Padina, are exceptionally diverse. Specifically we test if the evolutionary processes in these clades that shaped their latitudinal diversity patterns are in line with the tropical conservatism,...

Large oaks Quercus robur have increased at Tumhem's oak meadow

Hans Alexandersson
We have described a significant increase in the number of large oaks Quercus robur in the Tunhem oak meadow during 23 years. We define large oak as having a circumference at chest height larger than 250 centimeters. The number of large oaks have increased by 29 percent from our first survey in 1996 to our second survey in 2019. Most of the recruitment of larger oaks are in the smaller size-classes from 250 to 400...

Compartmentalization of cerebrospinal fluid inflammation across the spectrum of HIV infection

Richard Price, Magnus Gisslen, Sheila Keating, Serena Spudich, Victor Arechiga, Sophie Stephenson, Henrik Zetterberg, Clara Di Germanio, Kaj Blennow, Lars Hagberg, Philip Norris, Julia Peterson, Barbara Shacklett & Constantin Yiannoutsos
Objective: To characterize the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in HIV-1 infection applying a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to grouped subjects representing a broad spectrum of systemic HIV-1 immune suppression, CNS injury and viral control. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of archived CSF and blood samples, assessing concentrations of 10 functionally diverse soluble inflammatory biomarkers by immunoassays in 143 HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 8 groups: untreated primary HIV-1 infection...

Molecular phylogenetics of the palm tribe Lepidocaryeae (Calamoideae: Arecaceae) and description of a new species of Mauritiella

Maria Fernanda Torres Jimenez
English: The palm tribe Lepidocaryeae (Arecaceae) comprises seven genera and 51 currently accepted species that are distributed in lowland tropical forests and savannas across Africa and the Americas. Subtribal relationships within Lepidocaryeae have been a persistent challenge, limiting our understanding of its systematics, morphology, and biogeography. Several aspects make the tribe an ideal system to study plant evolution and diversity: it is well-represented in the fossil record as a prolific pollen producer, its continental diversity...

Data from: “A cleaner break”: genetic divergence between geographic groups and sympatric phenotypes revealed in ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta)

Gaute Seljestad, Maria Quintela, Ellika Faust, Kim Halvorsen, Francois Besnier, Eeva Jansson, Geir Dahle, Halvor Knutsen, Carl Andre, Arild Folkvord & Kevin Glover
Capture and long-distance translocation of cleaner fish to control lice infestations on marine salmonid farms has the potential to influence wild populations via overexploitation in source regions, and introgression in recipient regions. Knowledge of population genetic structure is therefore required. We studied the genetics of ballan wrasse, a phenotypically diverse and extensively used cleaner fish, from 18 locations in Norway and Sweden, and from Galicia, Spain. We detected two very distinct genetic groups in Scandinavia,...

Data from: Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds

Ferran Sayol, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Tim M. Blackburn, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Human-driven extinctions can affect our understanding of evolution, through the nonrandom loss of certain types of species. Here, we explore how knowledge of a major evolutionary transition—the evolution of flightlessness in birds—is biased by anthropogenic extinctions. Adding data on 581 known anthropogenic extinctions to the extant avifauna increases the number of species by 5%, but quadruples the number of flightless species. The evolution of flightlessness in birds is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in more than...

CA10 regulates neurexin heparan sulfate addition via a direct binding in the secretory pathway

Laia Montoliu Gaya, Daniel Tietze, Debora Kaminski, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Alesia A Tietze & Fredrik Sterky
Neurexins are presynaptic adhesion molecules that shape the molecular composition of synapses. Diversification of neurexins in numerous isoforms is believed to confer synapse-specific properties by engaging with distinct ligands. For example, a subset of neurexin molecules carry a heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan that controls ligand binding, but how this posttranslational modification is controlled is not known. Here, we observe that CA10, a ligand to neurexin in the secretory pathway, regulates neurexin-HS formation. CA10 is exclusively...

Novel immunoassay detecting p-Tau Thr217 distinguishes Alzheimer’s Disease from other dementias

Jozef Hanes, Andrej Kovac, Hlin Kvartsberg, Eva Kontsekova, Lubica Fialova, Stanislav Katina, Branislav Kovacech, Eva Stevens, Jakub Hort, Martin Vyhnalek, Lynn Boonkamp, Michal Novak, Henrik Zetterberg, Oskar Hansson, Philip Scheltens, Kaj Blennow, Charlotte E. Teunissen & Norbert Zilka
Objective To investigate whether p-tau T217 assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can distinguishes Alzheimer’s disease from other dementias and healthy controls. Methods We developed and validated a novel Simoa immunoassay to detect p-tau T217 in CSF. There was a total of 190 participants from three cohorts with AD (n = 77) and other neurodegenerative diseases (n = 69) as well as healthy subjects (n = 44). Results The p-tau T217 assay (cut-off 242 pg/ml) identified...

Data from: Post‐glacial establishment of locally adapted fish populations over a steep salinity gradient

Erica H. Leder, Carl André, Alan Le Moan, Mats Töpel, Anders Blomberg, Jonathan N. Havenhand, Kai Lindström, Filip A. M. Volckaert, Charlotta Kvarnemo, Kerstin Johannesson & Ola Svensson
Studies of colonization of new habitats that appear from rapidly changing environments are interesting and highly relevant to our understanding of divergence and speciation. Here, we analyse phenotypic and genetic variation involved in the successful establishment of a marine fish (sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus) over a steep salinity drop from 35 PSU in the North Sea (NE Atlantic) to two PSU in the inner parts of the post-glacial Baltic Sea. We first show that populations...

Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 shows frequent cross-country transmission and local population expansions

Marc Bennedbæk, Anna Zhukova, Man-Hung Eric Tang, Jaclyn Bennet, Paula Munderi, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Magnus Gisslen, Michael Worobey, Jens D Lundgren & Rasmus L Marvig
Understanding of pandemics depends on characterization of pathogen collections from well-defined and demographically diverse cohorts. Since its emergence in Congo almost a century ago, HIV-1 has geographically spread and genetically diversified into distinct viral subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to reconstruct the ancestry of the virus to inform on the origin and distribution of subtypes. We sequenced two 3.6 kb amplicons of HIV-1 genomes from 3,197 participants in a clinical trial with consistent and...

Natal dispersal does not entail survival costs but is linked to breeding dispersal in a migratory shorebird, the southern dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii

Veli-Matti Pakanen, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Kari Koivula, Blandine Doligez, Lars-Åke Flodin, Angela Pauliny, Nelli Rönkä & Donald Blomqvist
The costs and benefits of dispersal are often assessed by comparing fitness between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals. Importantly, individuals that disperse between their natal and first breeding site may subsequently be more likely to disperse between breeding sites compared to those that remained philopatric to their natal site. Such within-individual consistency in dispersal behaviour can bias local survival estimation, and thus the survival comparison between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals, if breeding dispersal leads to permanent...

Data from: Interpreting the evolutionary regression: the interplay between observational and biological errors in phylogenetic comparative studies

Thomas F. Hansen & Krzysztof Bartoszek
Regressions of biological variables across species are rarely perfect. Usually there are residual deviations from the estimated model relationship, and such deviations commonly show a pattern of phylogenetic correlations indicating that they have biological causes. We discuss the origins and effects of phylogenetically correlated biological variation in regression studies. In particular, we discuss the interplay of biological deviations with deviations due to observational or measurement errors, which are also important in comparative studies based on...

Data from: Molecular data and ploidal levels indicate several putative allopolyploidization events in the genus Potentilla (Rosaceae)

Mats Töpel, Magnus Lundberg, Torsten Eriksson & Bente Eriksen
Several naturally occurring hybrids in Potentilla (Rosaceae) have been reported, but no molecular evidence has so far been available to test these hypotheses of hybridization. We have compared a nuclear and a chloroplast gene tree to identify topological incongruences that may indicate hybridization events in the genus. Furthermore, the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the proposed segregated genera Argentina, Ivesia and Horkelia have been tested. The systematic signal from the two morphological characters, style- and...

Data from: Inferring species networks from gene trees in high-polyploid North American and Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae)

Thomas Marcussen, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Jiří Danihelka, Harvey E. Ballard, Kim Blaxland, Anne K. Brysting & Bengt Oxelman
The phylogenies of allopolyploids take the shape of networks and cannot be adequately represented as bifurcating trees. Especially for high-polyploids (i.e., organisms with more than six sets of nuclear chromosomes), the signatures of gene homoeolog loss, deep coalescence and polyploidy may become confounded, with the result that gene trees may be congruent with more than one species network. Herein, we obtained the most parsimonious species network by objective comparison of competing scenarios involving polyploidization and...

Data from: Heterozygosity-fitness correlations of conserved microsatellite markers in Kentish plovers Charadrius alexandrinus

Clemens Küpper, Jakob Augustin, Deborah A. Dawson, Terry Burke, András Kosztolányi & Tamás Székely
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) are frequently used to examine the relationship between genetic diversity and fitness. Most studies have reported positive HFCs, although there is a strong bias towards investigating HFCs in genetically impoverished populations. We investigated HFCs in a large genetically diverse breeding population of Kentish plovers Charadrius alexandrinus in Southern Turkey. This small shorebird exhibits highly variable mating and care systems and it is becoming an ecological model species to understand breeding system evolution....

Data from: Assessing the complex architecture of polygenic traits in diverged yeast populations

Francisco A Cubillos, Eleonora Billi, Enikö Zörgö, Leopold Parts, Patrick Fargier, Stig Omholt, Anders Blomberg, Jonas Warringer, Edward J Louis & Gianni Liti
Phenotypic variation arising from populations adapting to different niches has a complex underlying genetic architecture. A major challenge in modern biology is to identify the causative variants driving phenotypic variation. Recently the baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as a powerful model for dissecting complex traits. However, past studies using a laboratory strain were unable to reveal the complete architecture of polygenic traits. Here, we present a linkage study using 576 recombinant strains obtained from...

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