241 Works

Data from: Locality or habitat? Exploring predictors of biodiversity in Amazonia

Camila D. Ritter, Alexander Zizka, Christopher Barnes, R. Henrik Nilsson, Fabian Roger & Alexandre Antonelli
Amazonia is an environmentally heterogeneous and biologically megadiverse region, and its biodiversity varies considerably over space. However, existing knowledge on Amazonian biodiversity and its environmental determinants stems almost exclusively from studies of macroscopic above‐ground organisms, notably vertebrates and trees. In contrast, diversity patterns of most other organisms remain elusive, although some of them, for instance microorganisms, constitute the overwhelming majority of taxa in any given location, both in terms of diversity and abundance. Here, we...

Data from: Multiple chromosomal rearrangements in a hybrid zone between Littorina saxatilis ecotypes

Rui Faria, Pragya Chaube, Hernan E. Morales, Tomas Larsson, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Marina Rafajlovic, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Kerstin Johannesson, Anja M. Westram & Roger K. Butlin
Both classical and recent studies suggest that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are important in adaptation and speciation. However, biases in discovery and reporting of inversions make it difficult to assess their prevalence and biological importance. Here, we use an approach based on linkage disequilibrium among markers genotyped for samples collected across a transect between contrasting habitats to detect chromosomal rearrangements de novo. We report 17 polymorphic rearrangements in a single locality for the coastal marine snail,...

Data from: Larval development in the Pacific oyster and the impacts of ocean acidification: differential genetic effects in wild and domesticated stocks

Evan Durland, Pierre De Wit, Eli Meyer & Chris Langdon
The adaptive capacity of marine calcifiers to ocean acidification (OA) is a topic of great interest to evolutionary biologists and ecologists. Previous studies have provided evidence to suggest that larval resilience to high pCO­2 seawater for these species is a trait with a genetic basis and variability in natural populations. To date, however, it remains unclear how the selective effects of OA occur within the context of complex genetic interactions underpinning larval development in many...

Secondary contacts and genetic admixture shape colonisation by an amphiatlantic epibenthic invertebrate

Jamie Hudson, Kerstin Johannesson, Christopher McQuaid & Marc Rius
Research on the genetics of invasive species often focuses on patterns of genetic diversity and population structure within the introduced range. However, a growing body of literature is demonstrating the need to study the native range, and how native genotypes affect both ecological and evolutionary mechanisms within the introduced range. Here we used genotyping-by-sequencing to study both native and introduced ranges [based on 1,653 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] of the amphiatlantic marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis....

Data from: Museums and cradles of diversity are geographically coincident for narrowly distributed Neotropical snakes

Josué Anderson Rêgo Azevedo, Thaís Guedes, Cristiano Nogueira, Paulo Passos, Ricardo Sawaya, Ana Prudente, Fausto Barbo, Christine Strussmann, Francisco Franco, Vanesa Arzamendia, Alejandro Giraudo, Antônio Argôlo, Martin Jansen, Hussam Zaher, João Tonini, Soren Faurby & Alexandre Antonelli
Factors driving the spatial configuration of centres of endemism have long been a topic of broad interest and debate. Due to different eco-evolutionary processes, these highly biodiverse areas may harbour different amounts of ancient and recently diverged organisms (paleo- and neo-endemism, respectively). Patterns of endemism still need to be measured at distinct phylogenetic levels for most clades and, consequently, little is known about the distribution, the age and the causes of such patterns. Here we...

Data from: Animal models to understand the etiology and pathophysiology in polycystic ovary syndrome

Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Kirsty A Walters, Rebecca E Campbell, Anna Benrick, Paolo Giacobini, Daniel A Dumesic & David H Abbott
More than one out of ten women worldwide are diagnosed with the leading cause of female reproductive and metabolic dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite its high prevalence, PCOS and its accompanying morbidities are likely under-diagnosed, averaging >2 years and 3 physicians changes before women are diagnosed. Despite intensive research, the underlying cause(s) of PCOS have yet to be defined. In order to understand PCOS pathophysiology, its developmental origins, and how to predict and prevent...

A molecular phylogeny of historical and contemporary specimens of an under-studied micro-invertebrate group

Russell Orr, Maja Sannum, Sanne Boessenkool, Emanuela Di Martino, Dennis Gordon, Hannah Mello, Matthias Obst, Mali Ramsfjell, Abigail Smith & Lee-Hsiang Liow
Resolution of relationships at lower taxonomic levels is crucial for answering many evolutionary questions, and as such, sufficiently varied species representation is vital. This latter goal is not always achievable with relatively fresh samples. To alleviate the difficulties in procuring rarer taxa, we have seen increasing utilization of historical specimens in building molecular phylogenies using high throughput sequencing. This effort, however, has mainly focused on large-bodied or well-studied groups, with small-bodied and under-studied taxa under-prioritized....

Datasets for: Genome wide analysis reveals genetic divergence between Goldsinny wrasse populations

Eeva Jansson, Francois Besnier, Ketil Malde, Carl André, Geir Dahle & Kevin A. Glover
Background: Marine fish populations are often characterized by high levels of gene flow and correspondingly low genetic divergence. This presents a challenge to define management units. Goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) is a heavily exploited species due to its importance as a cleaner-fish in commercial salmonid aquaculture. However, at the present, the population genetic structure of this species is still largely unresolved. Here, full-genome sequencing was used to produce the first genomic reference for this species,...

The code used to simulate range expansion in \"The effect of the recombination rate between adaptive loci on the capacity of a population to expand its range\"

Martin Eriksson & Marina Rafajlović
Previous theoretical work on range expansions over heterogeneous environments showed that there is a critical environmental gradient where range expansion stops. For populations with freely recombining loci underlying the trait under selection (hereafter adaptive loci), the critical gradient in one-dimensional habitats depends on the fitness cost of dispersal, and the strength of selection relative to genetic drift. Here, we extend the previous work in two directions and ask: What is the role of the recombination...

Data from: High spatiotemporal variability of methane concentrations challenges estimates of emissions across vegetated coastal ecosystems

Florian Roth, Xiaol Sun, Marc Geibel, John Prytcherch, Volker Brüchert, Stefano Bonaglia, Elias Broman, Francisco Nascimento, Christoph Humborg & Alf Norkko
Coastal methane (CH4) emissions dominate the global ocean CH4 budget and can offset the “blue carbon” storage capacity of vegetated coastal ecosystems. However, current estimates lack systematic, high-resolution, and long-term data from these intrinsically heterogeneous environments, making coastal budgets sensitive to statistical assumptions and uncertainties. Using continuous CH4 concentrations, δ13C-CH4 values, and CH4 sea-air fluxes across four seasons in three globally pervasive coastal habitats, we show that the CH4 distribution is spatially patchy over meter-scales...

Biological traits of seabirds predict extinction risk and vulnerability to anthropogenic threats

Cerren Richards, Robert Cooke & Amanda Bates
Aim Seabirds are heavily threatened by anthropogenic activities and their conservation status is deteriorating rapidly. Yet, these pressures are unlikely to uniformly impact all species. It remains an open question if seabirds with similar ecological roles are responding similarly to human pressures. Here we aim to: 1) test whether threatened vs non-threatened seabirds are separated in trait space; 2) quantify the similarity of species’ roles (redundancy) per IUCN Red List Category; and 3) identify traits...

Data from: Sperm performance limits the reproduction of an invasive fish in novel salinities

Leon Green, Jan Niemax, Jens-Peter Herrmann, Axel Temming, Jane W. Behrens, Jonathan N. Havenhand, Erica Leder & Charlotta Kvarnemo
Aim: The few fish species able to reproduce across wide osmotic ranges either plastically acclimate sperm performance to, or are locally adapted to, different salinities. The invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is spreading in Eurasia and the Americas, into both fresh and brackish water. We aim to understand if reproduction in different salinities is affected an ability to acclimate. Location: Brackish and freshwater systems of northern Europe and the Baltic Sea. Methods: We cross-exposed round...

Direct observation of hyperpolarization breaking through the spin diffusion barrier

Quentin Stern, Samuel F. Cousin, Frederic Mentink-Vigier, Arthur C. Pinon, Stuart J. Elliott, Olivier Cala & Sami Jannin
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a widely used tool for overcoming the low intrinsic sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Its practical applicability is typically bounded, however, by the so-called ‘spin diffusion barrier’, which relates to the poor efficiency of polarization transfer from highly polarized nuclei close to paramagnetic centers to bulk nuclei. A quantitative assessment of this barrier has been hindered so far by the lack of general methods for studying nuclear-polarization...

Home range use in the West Australian seahorse Hippocampus subelongatus is influenced by sex and partner’s home range but not by body size or paired status

Charlotta Kvarnemo, Susanne E. Andersson, Jonas Elisson, Glenn I. Moore & Adam G. Jones
These data and scripts form the basis for Kvarnemo C, Andersson SE, Elisson J, Moore GI and Jones AG (2021). Home range use in the West Australian seahorse Hippocampus subelongatus is influenced by sex and partner's home range but not by body size or paired status. Journal of Ethology 39: 235–248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10164-021-00698-y. The abstract below is from this paper: Genetic monogamy is the rule for many species of seahorse, including the West Australian seahorse Hippocampus...

Mapping Africa’s biodiversity: more of the same is just not good enough

Harith Farooq, Josué Azevedo, Amadeu Soares, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Species distribution data are fundamental to the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes. Yet, such data are strongly affected by sampling biases, mostly related to site accessibility. The understanding of these biases is therefore crucial in systematics, biogeography and conservation. Here we present a novel approach for quantifying sampling effort and its impact on biodiversity knowledge, focusing on Africa. In contrast to previous studies assessing sampling completeness (percentage of species recorded in relation to predicted),...

It takes time to heal a broken heart: Ventricular plasticity improves heart performance after myocardial infarction in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

Lucas A. Zena, Andreas Ekström, Albin Gräns, Catharina Olsson, Michael Axelsson, Henrik Sundh & Erik Sandblom
Coronary arteriosclerosis is a common feature of both wild and farmed salmonid fishes and may be linked to stress-induced cardiac pathologies. Yet, the plasticity and capacity for long-term myocardial restructuring and recovery following a restriction in coronary blood supply is unknown. Here, we analyzed the consequences of acute (3 days) and chronic (from 33 to 62 days) coronary occlusion (i.e., coronary artery ligation) on cardiac morphological characteristics and in vivo function in juvenile rainbow trout,...

Political rhetoric in Scandinavia

Jens E. Kjeldsen, Christian Kock & Orla Vigsø

UGU-data till projektet: Elevers motivation, välbefinnande och prestationer från mellanstadiet till gymnasiet

Can Ownership Limit the Effectiveness of EU Consumer Contract Law Directives?

Wolfgang Faber & Claes Martinson
Does the acquisition of ownership form a strict barrier to the application of EU consumer contract law rules? In particular: does the acquisition of ownership prevent a national court from reviewing unfair terms in a mortgage agreement? The CJEU said so in its recent judgement C-598/15 Banco Santander, where a bank itself acquired a mortgaged apartment in a forced sale. We consider this a too formal way of reasoning. In order to make a constructive...

Pilgrimage and Ancestors: the importance of return

Jorgen Hellman
Drawing on ethnographic material from pilgrimages on West Java I argue that understandings of pilgrimage will benefit from including the return home in order to fully appreciate the meaning it holds for pilgrims. If we include into the study an extensive period after coming home, it facilitates situating the practice in a specific socio-cultural context and helps to understand how a pilgrimage partakes in these settings rather than being a ‘ “one off” transient and...

Data from: Widespread hybridization within mound-building wood ants in Southern Finland results in cytonuclear mismatches and potential for sex-specific hybrid breakdown

Jack Beresford, Marianne Elias, Lucy Pluckrose, Liselotte Sundström, Roger K. Butlin, Pekka Pamilo & Jonna Kulmuni
Hybridization and gene flow between diverging lineages is increasingly recognized as a common evolutionary process and its consequences can vary from hybrid breakdown to adaptive introgression. We have previously found a population of wood ant hybrids between Formica aquilonia and F. polyctena that shows antagonistic effects of hybridization: females with introgressed alleles show hybrid vigour, whereas males with the same alleles show hybrid breakdown. Here we investigate whether hybridization is a general phenomenon in this...

Data from: Interpreting the evolutionary regression: the interplay between observational and biological errors in phylogenetic comparative studies

Thomas F. Hansen & Krzysztof Bartoszek
Regressions of biological variables across species are rarely perfect. Usually there are residual deviations from the estimated model relationship, and such deviations commonly show a pattern of phylogenetic correlations indicating that they have biological causes. We discuss the origins and effects of phylogenetically correlated biological variation in regression studies. In particular, we discuss the interplay of biological deviations with deviations due to observational or measurement errors, which are also important in comparative studies based on...

Data from: Heterogeneous genomic differentiation in marine threespine sticklebacks: adaptation along an environmental gradient

Jacquelin DeFaveri, Per R. Jonsson & Juha Merilä
Evolutionary divergence among populations occupying ecologically distinct environments can occur even in the face of on-going gene flow. However, the genetic underpinnings, as well as the scale and magnitude at which this differentiation occurs in marine habitats are not well understood. We investigated the patterns and degree of genomic heterogeneity in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by assessing genetic variability in 20 nongenic and 20 genic (associated with genes important for freshwater adaptation) microsatellite loci in...

Expectation-Driven Term Structure of Equity and Bond Yields

Ming Zeng & Guihai Zhao
Recent findings on the term structure of equity and bond yields pose serious challenges to existing models of equilibrium asset pricing. This paper presents a new equilibrium model of subjective expectations to explain the joint historical dynamics of equity and bond yields (and their yield spreads). The movements of equity and bond yields are driven mainly by subjective expectations of dividend and gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Yields on short-term dividend claims are more volatile...

Prenatal androgen exposure and transgenerational susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome

Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Sanjiv Risal, Yu Pei, Haojiang Lu, Maria Manti, Romina Fornes, Han-Pin Pui, Zhiyi Zhao, Julie Massart, Claes Ohlsson, Eva Lindgren, Nicolas Crisosto, Manuel Maliqueo, Barbara Echiburú, Amanda Ladrón De Guevara, Teresa Sir-Petermann, Henrik Larsson, Mina A. Rosenqvist, Carolyn E. Cesta, Anna Benrick & Qiaolin Deng
The effects of how obesity and elevated androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affect their offspring are unclear. We found that daughters of PCOS mothers are more likely to be diagnosed with PCOS in a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort and a clinical case-control study from Chile. Further, female mice (F0) with PCOS-like traits induced by late gestation injection of dihydrotestosterone, with and without obesity, produced female F1–F3 offspring with a PCOS-like reproductive...

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