245 Works

How biases in sperm storage relate to sperm use during oviposition in female yellow dung flies

Marco Demont, Paul Ward, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Stefan Lüpold, Oliver Martin & Luc Bussière
Precise mechanisms underlying sperm storage and utilization are largely unknown, and data directly linking stored sperm to paternity remain scarce. We used competitive microsatellite PCR to study the effects of female morphology, copula duration and oviposition on the proportion of stored sperm provided by the second of two copulating males (S2) in Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), the classic model for sperm competition studies. We genotyped all offspring from potentially mixed-paternity clutches to establish the relationship...

Data from: Sperm longevity and salinity – the overlooked importance of spawning environment for alternative reproductive tactics

Ola Svensson, Charlotta Kvarnemo & Leon Green
Studies on adaptive responses to sperm competition have focused on mating modes and mating roles. The main mating modes studied are external and internal fertilization and spermcasting. The focus of male mating roles assumes one advantageous ‘bourgeois’ role and another disadvantageous ‘parasitic’ role regarding the probability of fertilization. However, sperm longevity between teleost fishes spawning in hypoosmotic freshwater and species spawning in hyperosmotic saltwater differs markedly. We argue that this can have major impacts on...

Exercise training has morph-specific effects on telomere, body condition and growth dynamics in a color-polymorphic lizard

Christopher Friesen, Wilson Wilson, Nicky Rollings, Joanna Sudyka, Mathieu Giraudeau, Camilla Whittington & Mats Olsson
Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are correlated suites of sexually selected traits that are likely to impose differential physiological costs on different individuals. While moderate activity might be beneficial, animals living in the wild often work at the margins of their resources and performance limits. Individuals using ARTs may have divergent capacities for activity. When pushed beyond their respective capacities, they may experience condition loss, oxidative stress, and molecular damage that must be repaired with limited...

Data from: Incubation temperature and parental identity determine sex in the Australian agamid lizard Ctenophorus pictus

Alexander Hansson & Mats Olsson
Sex determination in Australian agamid lizards show a complex framework of different mechanisms, varying even among closely related taxa. It is clear that discrete classification of these species as either having genetic (GSD) or environmental sex determination (ESD) does not agree with empirical data. Although many species in this group show temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), recent evidence suggests additional genetic or epigenetic effects. A proposed model explaining the adaptive significance and evolution of TSD in...

Data from: A genomic footprint of hybrid zone movement in crested newts

Ben Wielstra, Terry Burke, Roger K. Butlin, Aziz Avcı, Nazan Üzüm, Emin Bozkurt, Kurtuluş Olgun & Jan W. Arntzen
Speciation typically involves a stage in which species can still exchange genetic material. Interspecific gene flow is facilitated by the hybrid zones that such species establish upon secondary contact. If one member of a hybridizing species pair displaces the other, their hybrid zone would move across the landscape. Although theory predicts that moving hybrid zones quickly stagnate, hybrid zones tracked over one or a few decades do not always follow such a limitation. This suggests...

Data from: Expression profiling of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes exposed to doxorubicin—integration and visualization of multi-omics data

Gustav Holmgren, Peter Sartipy, Christian X. Andersson, Anders Lindahl & Jane Synnergren
Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are highly efficient chemotherapeutic agents against a variety of cancers. However, anthracyclines are also among the most cardiotoxic therapeutic drugs presently on the market. Chemotherapeutic-induced cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of disease and mortality in cancer survivors. The exact mechanisms responsible for doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy are not completely known, but the fact that the cardiotoxicity is dose-dependent and that there is a variation in time-to-onset of toxicity, and gender- and...

Data from: Gene expression correlated with delay in shell formation in larval Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) exposed to experimental ocean acidification provides insights into shell formation mechanisms

Pierre De Wit, Evan Durland, Alexander Ventura & Chris J. Langdon
Despite recent work to characterize gene expression changes associated with larval development in oysters, the mechanism by which the larval shell is first formed is still largely unknown. In Crassostrea gigas, this shell forms within the first 24 hours post fertilization, and it has been demonstrated that changes in water chemistry can cause delays in shell formation, shell deformations and higher mortality rates. In this study, we use the delay in shell formation associated with...

Data from: The genetics of mate preferences in hybrids between two young and sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid species

Ola Svensson, Katie Woodhouse, Cock Van Oosterhout, Alan Smith, George F. Turner & Ole Seehausen
The genetic architecture of mate preferences is likely to affect significant evolutionary processes, including speciation and hybridization. Here, we investigate laboratory hybrids between a pair of sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fish species that appear to have recently evolved from a hybrid population between similar predecessor species. The species demonstrate strong assortative mating in the laboratory, associated with divergent male breeding coloration (red dorsum versus blue). We show in a common garden experiment, using DNA-based paternity...

Data from: SpeciesGeoCoder: fast categorization of species occurrences for analyses of biodiversity, biogeography, ecology and evolution

Mats Töpel, Alexander Zizka, Fernada Calió, Ruud Scharn, Daniele Silvestro & Alexandre Antonelli
Understanding the patterns and processes underlying the uneven distribution of biodiversity across space constitutes a major scientific challenge in systematic biology and biogeography, which largely relies on effectively mapping and making sense of rapidly increasing species occurrence data. There is thus an urgent need for making the process of coding species into spatial units faster, automated, transparent, and reproducible. Here we present SpeciesGeoCoder, an open-source software package written in Python and R, that allows for...

Data from: Ecological speciation in sympatric palms: 2. pre- and post-zygotic isolation

H. Hipperson, L.T. Dunning, W.J. Baker, R.K. Butlin, I. Hutton, A.S.T. Papadopulos, C.M. Smadja, T.C. Wilson, C. Devaux, Vincent Savolainen, R. K. Butlin, T. C. Wilson, W. J. Baker & A. S. T. Papadopulos
We evaluated reproductive isolation in two species of palms (Howea) that have evolved sympatrically on Lord Howe Island (LHI, Australia). We estimated the strength of some pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms in maintaining current species boundaries. We found that flowering time displacement between species is consistent across in and ex situ common gardens and is thus partly genetically determined. On LHI, pre-zygotic isolation due solely to flowering displacement was 97% for H. belmoreana and 80% for...

Data from: Early arrival and climatically-linked geographic expansion of New World monkeys from tiny African ancestors

Daniele Silvestro, Marcelo F. Tejedor, Martha L. Serrano-Serrano, Oriane Loiseau, Victor Rossier, Jonathan Rolland, Alexander Zizka, Sebastian Höhna, Alexandre Antonelli & Nicolas Salamin
New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are one of the most diverse groups of primates, occupying today a wide range of ecosystems in the American tropics and exhibiting large variations in ecology, morphology, and behavior. Although the relationships among the almost 200 living species are relatively well understood, we lack robust estimates of the timing of origin, ancestral morphology, and geographic range evolution of the clade. Here we integrate paleontological and molecular evidence to assess the evolutionary...

Data from: Long term effects of superoxide and DNA repair on lizard telomeres

Mats Olsson, Christopher R. Friesen, Nicky Rollings, Joanna Sudyka, Willow Lindsay, Camilla M. Whittington & Mark Wilson
Telomeres are the non-coding protein-nucleotide ‘caps’ at chromosome ends that contribute to chromosomal stability by protecting the coding parts of the linear DNA from shortening at cell division, and from erosion by reactive molecules. Recently, there has been some controversy between molecular and cell biologists, on the one hand, and evolutionary ecologists on the other, regarding whether reactive molecules erode telomeres during oxidative stress. Many studies of biochemistry and medicine have verified these relationships in...

Data from: Is telomere length associated with mate choice in a songbird with a high rate of extra-pair paternity?

Arild Johnsen, Angela Pauliny, Jan T. Lifjeld & Donald Blomqvist
Telomere length is related to aging in many eukaryotes and the rate of telomere attrition has been suggested to reflect individual genetic quality. Telomere length could thus have implications for mate choice. We investigated telomere length variation in bluethroat Luscinia svecica families with mixed paternity, including social parents, extra-pair fathers and nestlings, testing whether telomere length is associated with social and/or extra-pair mate choice through assortative mating or selection of mates with relatively long telomeres....

Data from: Two-current choice flumes for testing avoidance and preference in aquatic animals

Fredrik Jutfelt, Josefin Sundin, Graham D. Raby, Anna-Sara Krång & Timothy D. Clark
Aquatic chemical ecology is an important and growing field of research that involves understanding how organisms perceive and respond to chemical cues in their environment. Research assessing the preference or avoidance of a water source containing specific chemical cues has increased in popularity in recent years, and a variety of methods have been described in the scientific literature. Two-current choice flumes have seen the greatest increase in popularity, perhaps because of their potential to address...

Data from: Localization of QTL for diapause and other photoperiodically regulated life-history traits important in adaptation to seasonally varying environments

Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Paris Veltsos, Jon Slate, Emma Gregson, Hannele Kauranen, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin & Anneli Hoikkala
Seasonally changing environments at high latitudes present great challenges for the reproduction and survival of insects, and photoperiodic cues play an important role in helping them to synchronize their life cycle with prevalent and forthcoming conditions. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the photoperiodic regulation of four life history traits, female reproductive diapause, cold tolerance, egg-to-eclosion development time and juvenile body weight in Drosophila montana strains from different latitudes in Canada and...

Data from: Metapopulation vicariance, age of island taxa and dispersal: a case study using the pacific plant genus Planchonella (Sapotaceae)

Ulf Swenson, J. Christopher Havran, Jérôme Munzinger, Stephen Mcloughlin & Stephan Nylinder
Oceanic islands originate from volcanism or tectonic activity without connections to continental landmasses, are colonized by organisms, and eventually vanish due to erosion and subsidence. Colonization of oceanic islands occurs through long-distance dispersals or metapopulation vicariance, the latter resulting in lineages being older than the islands they inhabit. If metapopulation vicariance is valid, island ages cannot be reliably used to provide maximum age constraints for molecular dating. We explore the relationships between the ages of...

Data from: Bayesian estimation of speciation and extinction from incomplete fossil occurrence data

Daniele Silvestro, Jan Schnitzler, Lee Hsiang Liow, Alexandre Antonelli & Nicolas Salamin
The temporal dynamics of species diversity are shaped by variations in the rates of speciation and extinction, and there is a long history of inferring these rates using first and last appearances of taxa in the fossil record. Understanding diversity dynamics critically depends on unbiased estimates of the unobserved times of speciation and extinction for all lineages, but the inference of these parameters is challenging due to the complex nature of the available data. Here,...

Data from: Pipefish embryo oxygenation, survival and development: egg size, male size and temperature effects

Malin Nygård, Charlotta Kvarnemo, Ingrid Ahnesjö & Ines Braga Goncalves
In animals with uniparental care, the quality of care provided by one sex can deeply impact the reproductive success of both sexes. Studying variation in parental care quality within a species and which factors may affect it can therefore shed important light on patterns of mate choice and other reproductive decisions observed in nature. Using Syngnathus typhle, a pipefish species with extensive uniparental male care, with embryos developing inside a brood pouch during a lengthy...

Data from: A risk stratification tool for prehospital triage of patients exposed to a whiplash trauma

Artur Tenenbaum, Lena Nordeman, Katharina S. Sunnerhagen & Ronny K. Gunnarsson
Objective: Our aim was to develop a risk stratification model to predict the presence of a potentially more sinister injury in patients exposed to a whiplash trauma. Methods: The study base comprised of 3,115 residents who first sought healthcare contact within one week after being exposed to a whiplash trauma between 1999-2008, from within a defined geographical area, Skaraborg County in south-western Sweden. Information about gender, age, time elapsed prior to seeking care, type of...

Data from: Abnormal CSF amyloid-β42 and tau levels in hip fracture patients without dementia

Esther S. Oh, Kaj Blennow, George E. Bigelow, Sharon K. Inouye, Edward R. Marcantonio, Karin J. Neufeld, Paul B. Rosenberg, Juan C. Troncoso, Nae-Yuh Wang, Henrik Zetterberg, Frederick Sieber, Constantine G. Lyketsos & Frederick E. Sieber
Background: There is strong association of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology with gait disorder and falls in older adults without dementia. The goal of the study was to examine the prevalence and severity of AD pathology in older adults without dementia who fall and sustain hip fracture. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from 168 hip fracture patients. CSF Aβ42/40 ratio, p-tau, and t-tau measures were dichotomized into normal vs. abnormal, and categorized according to the...

Data from: Long telomeres are associated with clonality in wild populations of the fissiparous starfish Coscinasterias tenuispina

Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Rocío Pérez-Portela, Bethanie C. Almroth, Sofie Degerman, Creu Palacín & Helen Nilsson Sköld
TelTelomeres usually shorten during an organism’s lifespan and have thus been used as an aging and health marker. When telomeres become sufficiently short, senescence is induced. The most common method of restoring telomere length is via telomerase reverse transcriptase activity, highly expressed during embryogenesis. However, although asexual reproduction from adult tissues has an important role in the life cycles of certain species, its effect on the aging and fitness of wild populations, as well as...

Data from: Hypoxia increases the risk of egg predation in a nest-guarding fish

Karin H. Olsson, Charlotta Kvarnemo, Maria Norevik Andrén & Therese Larsson
For fish with parental care, a nest should meet both the oxygenation needs of the eggs and help protect them against predators. While a small nest opening facilitates the latter, it impedes the former and vice versa. We investigated how the presence of potential egg predators in the form of shore crabs Carcinus maenas affects nest building, egg fanning, defensive displays and filial cannibalism of egg-guarding male sand gobies Pomatoschistus minutus under two levels of...

Modelled annual average percentage yield loss due to ozone damage for four global staple crops, 2010-2012 version 2

K. Sharps, G. Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
Modelled average percentage yield loss due to ground-level ozone pollution (per 1 degree by 1 degree grid cell) are presented for the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) for the period 2010-2012. Data are on a global scale, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) crop production data for the year 2000. Modelled...

Yield Constraint Score (YCS) for the effect of five crop stresses on global production of four staple food crops

K. Sharps, G. Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
A Yield Constraint Score (YCS; scale of 1-5) was developed for the effect of five key crop stresses (ozone, pests and diseases, soil nutrients, heat stress and aridity) on the production of the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Data are on a global scale at 1° by 1° resolution, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO)...

DDoS: From Activist Event to Perpetual Crisis

Theo Röhle
This paper focuses on recent changes in the way Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are technically administered in order to reassess their role as an activist tactic. By contextualising current forms of attacks within the history of hacktivism, it is possible to discern a shift from DDoS as short-lived event to an enduring phenomenon. The paper discusses the implications of this temporal shift, in terms of a growing reliance on DDoS protection providers and...

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