217 Works

Data from: High opsin diversity in a non-visual infaunal brittlestar

Jérôme Delroisse, Esther Ullrich-Lüter, Olga Ortega-Martinez, Sam Dupont, Maria-Ina Arnone, Jérôme Mallefet & Patrick Flammang
Background: In metazoans, opsins are photosensitive proteins involved in both vision and non-visual photoreception. Echinoderms have no well-defined eyes but several opsin genes were found in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) genome. Molecular data are lacking for other echinoderm classes although many species are known to be light sensitive.Results: In this study focused on the European brittle star Amphiura filiformis, we first highlighted a blue-green light sensitivity using a behavioural approach. We then identified...

Data from: Seasonal shifts along the oviparity-viviparity continuum in a cold-climate lizard population

Richard Shine, Erik Wapstra & Mats Olsson
Because squamate embryos require weeks of high temperature to complete development, cool climatic areas are dominated by viviparous taxa (in which gravid females can sun-bask to keep embryos warm) rather than oviparous taxa (which rely on warm soil to incubate their eggs). How, then, can some oviparous taxa reproduce successfully in cool climates – especially late in summer, when soil temperatures are falling? Near the northern limit of their distribution (in Sweden), sand lizards (Lacerta...

Data from: Demography and selection shape transcriptomic divergence in field crickets

Thomas Blankers, Sibelle Torres Vilaça, Isabelle Waurick, David A. Gray, R. Matthias Hennig, Camilla J. Mazzoni, Frieder Mayer & Emma L. Berdan
Gene flow, demography, and selection can result in similar patterns of genomic variation and disentangling their effects is key to understanding speciation. Here, we assess transcriptomic variation to unravel the evolutionary history of Gryllus rubens and G. texensis, cryptic field cricket species with highly divergent mating behavior. We infer their demographic history and screen their transcriptomes for footprints of selection in the context of the inferred demography. We find strong support for a long history...

Data from: Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama

Christine D. Bacon, Daniele Silvestro, Carlos Jaramillo, Brian Tilston Smith, Prosanta Chakrabarty & Alexandre Antonelli
The formation of the Isthmus of Panama, which linked North and South America, is key to understanding the biodiversity, oceanography, atmosphere, and climate in the region. Despite its importance across multiple disciplines, the timing of formation and emergence of the Isthmus and the biological patterns it created have been controversial. Here, we analyze molecular and fossil data, including terrestrial and marine organisms, to show that biotic migrations across the Isthmus of Panama began several million...

Data from: Marginal likelihood estimate comparisons to obtain optimal species delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae)

Zeynep Aydin, Thomas Marcussen, Alaattin Selcuk Ertekin & Bengt Oxelman
Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF), based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of...

Data from: Bees explain floral variation in a recent radiation of Linaria

José Luis Blanco-Pastor, Concepción Ornosa, Daniel Romero, Isabel Liberal, José M. Gómez & Pablo Vargas
The role of pollinators in floral divergence has long attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists. Although abundant studies have reported the effect of pollinators on flower shape variation and plant speciation, the influence of pollinators on plant species differentiation during rapid radiations and the specific consequences of shifts among similar pollinators are not well understood. Here, we evaluate the association between pollinators and floral morphology in a closely related and recently diversifying clade of Linaria...

Data from: Genetic architecture in a marine hybrid zone: comparing outlier detection and genomic clines analysis in the bivalve Macoma balthica

Pieternella C. Luttikhuizen, Jan Drent, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg, Henk W. Van Der Veer & Kerstin Johannesson
The role of natural selection in speciation has received increasing attention and support in recent years. Different types of approaches have been developed that can detect genomic regions influenced by selection. Here we address the question whether two highly different methods - Fst outlier analysis and admixture analysis - detect largely the same set of non-neutral genomic elements or, instead, complementary sets. We study genetic architecture in a natural secondary contact zone where extensive admixture...

Data from: Allele phasing is critical to revealing a shared allopolyploid origin of Medicago arborea and M. strasseri (Fabaceae)

Jonna Sofia Eriksson, Filipe De Sousa, Yann J.K. Bertrand, Alexandre Antonelli, Bengt Oxelman & Bernard E. Pfeil
Background: Whole genome duplication plays a central role in plant evolution. There are two main classes of polyploid formation: autopolyploids which arise within one species by doubling of similar homologous genomes; in contrast, allopolyploidy (hybrid polyploidy) arise via hybridization and subsequent doubling of nonhomologous (homoeologous) genomes. The distinction between polyploid origins can be made using gene phylogenies, if alleles from each genome can be correctly retrieved. We examined whether two closely related tetraploid Mediterranean shrubs...

Data from: Polygamy slows down population divergence in shorebirds

Josephine D'Urban Jackson, Natalie Dos Remedios, Kathryn H. Maher, Sama Zefania, Susan Haig, Sara Oyler-McCance, Donald Blomqvist, Terry Burke, Mike W. Bruford, Tamas Szekely, Clemens Küpper & Michael W. Bruford
Sexual selection may act as a promotor of speciation since divergent mate choice and competition for mates can rapidly lead to reproductive isolation. Alternatively, sexual selection may also retard speciation since polygamous individuals can access additional mates by increased breeding dispersal. High breeding dispersal should hence increase gene flow and reduce diversification in polygamous species. Here we test how polygamy predicts diversification in shorebirds using genetic differentiation and subspecies richness as proxies for population divergence....

Data from: Water use by Swedish boreal forests in a changing climate

Thomas B. Hasper, Göran Wallin, Shubhangi Lamba, Marianne Hall, Fernando Jaramillo, Hjalmar Laudon, Sune Linder, Jane L. Medhurst, Mats Räntfors, Bjarni D. Sigurdsson & Johan Uddling
The rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have the potential to substantially affect the terrestrial water and energy balance by altering the stomatal conductance and transpiration of trees. Many models assume decreases in stomatal conductance and plant water use under rising [CO2], which has been used as a plausible explanation for the positive global trend in river run-off over the past century. Plant water use is, however, also affected by changes...

Data from: From gene trees to a dated allopolyploid network: insights from the angiosperm genus Viola (Violaceae)

Thomas Marcussen, Lise Heier, Anne K. Brysting, Bengt Oxelman & Kjetill S. Jakobsen
Allopolyploidisation acounts for a significant fraction of speciation events in many eukaryotic lineages. However, existing phylogenetic and dating methods require tree-like topologies and are unable to handle the network-like phylogenetic relationships of lineages containing allopolyploids. No explicit framework has so far been established for evaluating competing network topologies, and few attempts have been made to date phylogenetic networks. We used a four-step approach to generate a dated polyploid species network for the cosmopolitan angiosperm genus...

Data from: Frugivory-related traits promote speciation of tropical palms

Renske E. Onstein, William J. Baker, Thomas L. P. Couvreur, Søren Faurby, Jens-Christian Svenning & W. Daniel Kissling
Animal-mediated seed dispersal by frugivorous birds and mammals is central to the ecology and functioning of ecosystems, but whether and how frugivory-related traits have affected plant speciation remains little explored. Fruit size is directly linked to plant dispersal capacity and therefore influences gene flow and genetic divergence of plant populations. Using a global species-level phylogeny with comprehensive data on fruit sizes and plant species distributions, we test whether fruit size has affected speciation rates of...

Data from: Phylogeny, classification, and fruit evolution of the species-rich Neotropical bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae)

Laura P. Lagomarsino, Alexandre Antonelli, Nathan Muchhala, Allan Timmermann, Sarah Mathews & Charles C. Davis
Premise of the study: The species-rich Neotropical genera Centropogon, Burmeistera, and Siphocampylus represent more than half of the ∼1200 species in the subfamily Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae). They exhibit remarkable morphological variation in floral morphology and habit. Limited taxon sampling and phylogenetic resolution, however, obscures our understanding of relationships between and within these genera and underscores our uncertainty of the systematic value of fruit type as a major diagnostic character. Methods: We inferred a phylogeny from five...

Data from: Epilepsy duration and seizure outcome in epilepsy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Johan Bjellvi, Ingrid Olsson, Kristina Malmgren & Karin Wilbe Ramsay
Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of earlier or later resective epilepsy surgery on seizure outcome. Methods: We searched the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for studies investigating the association of epilepsy duration and seizure freedom after resective surgery. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility and assessed relevant studies for risk of bias. We combined data in meta-analyses using a random effects model. We assessed the certainty...

Data from: Learning from the past to prepare for the future: felids face continued threat from declining prey richness

Christopher James Sandom, Soren Faurby, Jens C. Svenning, Dawn Burnham, Amy Dickman, Amy Hinks, Ewan A. Macdonald, Bill Ripple, Jake Williams, David Macdonald, W. J. Ripple, J.-C. Svenning, A. E. Hinks & D. W. Macdonald
Many contemporary species of large-felids (>15 kg) feed upon prey that are endangered, raising concern that prey population declines (defaunation) will further threaten felids. We assess the threat that defaunation presents by investigating a late Quaternary (LQ), ‘present-natural’ counterfactual scenario. Our present-natural counterfactual is based on predicted ranges of mammals today in the absence of any impacts of modern humans (Homo sapiens) through time. Data from our present-natural counterfactual are used to understand firstly how...

Data from: ITS1 versus ITS2 as DNA metabarcodes for fungi

Rakel Blaalid, Surendra Kumar, R. Henrik Nilsson, Kessy Abarenkov, Paul M. Kirk & Håvard Kauserud
The nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer ITS region is widely used as a DNA metabarcoding marker to characterize the diversity and composition of fungal communities. In amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity, one of the spacers ITS1 or ITS2 of the ITS region is normally used. In this methodological study we evaluate the usability of ITS1 vs. ITS2 as a DNA metabarcoding marker for fungi. We analyse three data sets: two comprising ITS1 and ITS2...

Data from: What explains rare and conspicuous colours in a snail? A test of time-series data against models of drift, migration or selection

Kerstin Johannesson & Roger K. Butlin
It is intriguing that conspicuous colour morphs of a prey species may be maintained at low frequencies alongside cryptic morphs. Negative frequency-dependent selection by predators using search images (‘apostatic selection’) is often suggested without rejecting alternative explanations. Using a maximum likelihood approach we fitted predictions from models of genetic drift, migration, constant selection, heterozygote advantage or negative frequency-dependent selection to time-series data of colour frequencies in isolated populations of a marine snail (Littorina saxatilis), re-established...

Data from: Cephalic phase of insulin secretion in response to a meal is unrelated to family history of Type 2 diabetes

Bjorn Eliasson, Araz Rawshani, Mette Axelsen, Ann Hammarstedt & Ulf Smith
The pre-absorptive cephalic phase of insulin secretion is elicited during the first ten min of a meal and before glucose levels rise. Its importance for insulin release during the post-absorptive phase has been well documented in animals but its presence or importance in man has become increasingly controversial. We here examined the presence of an early cephalic phase of insulin release in 31 well matched individuals without (n=15) or with (n=16) a known family history...

Data from: Cleaner fish escape salmon farms and hybridize with local wrasse populations

Ellika Faust, Kim T Halvorsen, Per Andersen, Halvor Knutsen & André Carl
The genetic impact of farmed fish escaping aquaculture is a highly debated issue. However, non-target species, such as cleaner fish used to remove sea lice from farmed fish, are rarely considered. Here we report that wild corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), which are transported long distances to be used as cleaner fish in salmon farms, escape and hybridize with local populations. Recently, increasing numbers of corkwing wrasse have been reported in Flatanger in Norway, north of...

Data from: Genomic characterization of the evolutionary potential of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis facing ocean acidification

Daniel E. Runcie, Narimane Dorey, David A. Garfield, Meike Stumpp, Sam Dupont & Gregory A. Wray
Ocean acidification (OA) is increasing due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions and poses a threat to marine species and communities worldwide. To better project the effects of acidification on organisms’ health and persistence, an understanding is needed of the 1) mechanisms underlying developmental and physiological tolerance and 2) potential populations have for rapid evolutionary adaptation. This is especially challenging in nonmodel species where targeted assays of metabolism and stress physiology may not be available or economical...

Data from: Serotonin depletion-induced maladaptive aggression requires the presence of androgens

Erik Studer, Jakob Näslund, Erik Andersson, Staffan Nilsson, Lars Westberg & Elias Eriksson
The sex hormone testosterone and the neurotransmitter serotonin exert opposite effects on several aspects of behavior including territorial aggression. It is however not settled if testosterone exerts its pro-aggressive effects by reducing serotonin transmission and/or if the anti-aggressive effect of serotonin requires the presence of the androgen. Using the resident intruder test, we now show that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg x 3 days) increases the total time of attack as...

Data from: Investigating a possible role for the bacterial signal molecules N-acylhomoserine lactones in Balanus improvisus cyprid settlement

Karen Tait & Jon Havenhand
Increased settlement on bacterial biofilms has been demonstrated for a number of marine invertebrate larvae, but the nature of the cue(s) responsible is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the bay barnacle Balanus improvisus utilises the bacterial signal molecules N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as a cue for the selection of sites for permanent attachment. Single species biofilms of the AHL-producing bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas hydrophila and Sulfitobacter sp. BR1 were attractive to settling cypris...

Data from: Population-dependent effects of ocean acidification

Hannah L. Wood, Kristina Sundell, Bethanie Carney Almroth, Helen Sköld & Susanne P. Eriksson
Understanding the response of marine fauna to this change is critical for understanding the effects of OA. Population level variation in OA tolerance is highly relevant and important in the determination of ecosystem resilience and persistence, but has received little focus to date. In this study, whether OA has the same biological consequences in high salinity-acclimated population vs a low-salinity acclimated population of the same species was investigated in the marine isopod Idotea balthica. The...

Data from: Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea

Ricardo T. Pereyra, Cecilia Huenchuñir, Daniel Johansson, Helena Forslund, Lena Kautsky, Per R. Jonsson & Kerstin Johannesson
Parallel evolution has been invoked as a forceful mechanism of ecotype and species formation in many animal taxa. However, parallelism may be difficult to separate from recently monophyletically diverged species that are likely to show complex genetic relationships as a result of considerable shared ancestral variation and secondary hybridization in local areas. Thus, species’ degrees of reproductive isolation, barriers to dispersal and in particular, limited capacities for long-distance dispersal, will affect demographic structures underlying mechanisms...

Data from: Effects of male telomeres on probability of paternity in sand lizards

Angela Pauliny, Emily Miller, Nicky Rollings, Erik Wapstra, Donald Blomqvist, Christopher Friesen, Mats Olsson & Chris R. Friesen
Standardized swim-up trials are used in IVF clinics to select particularly motile spermatozoa in order to increase the probability of a successful fertilization. Such trials demonstrate that sperm with longer telomeres have higher motility and lower levels of DNA damage. Regardless of whether sperm motility, and successful swim-up to fertilization sites, is a direct or correlational effect of telomere length or DNA damage, covariation between telomere length and sperm performance predicts a relationship between telomere...

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