336 Works

Data from: Identifying biases at different spatial and temporal scales of diversification: a case study in the Neotropical parrotlet genus Forpus

Brian Tilston Smith, Camila C. Ribas, Bret M. Whitney, Blanca E. Hernández-Baños & John Klicka
The temporal origins of the extraordinary biodiversity of the Neotropical region are highly debated. Recent empirical work has found support for alternative models on the tempo of speciation in Neotropical species further fuelling the debate. However, relationships within many Neotropical lineages are poorly understood and it is unclear how this uncertainty impacts inferences on the evolution of taxa in the region. We examined the robustness of diversification patterns in the avian genus Forpus by testing...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals extensive reticulate evolution in Xiphophorus fishes

Rongfeng Cui, Molly Schumer, Karla Kruesi, Ronald Brice Walter, Peter Andolfatto, Gil G. Rosenthal & Ronald Walter
Hybridization is increasingly being recognized as a widespread process, even between ecologically and behaviorally divergent animal species. Determining phylogenetic relationships in the presence of hybridization remains a major challenge for evolutionary biologists, but advances in sequencing technology and phylogenetic techniques are beginning to address these challenges. Here we reconstruct evolutionary relationships among swordtails and platyfishes (Xiphophorus: Poeciliidae), a group of species characterized by remarkable morphological diversity and behavioral barriers to interspecific mating. Past attempts to...

Data from: Landscape genetics of leaf-toed geckos in the tropical dry forest of northern Mexico

Christopher Blair, Victor H. Jiménez Arcos, Fausto R. Mendez De La Cruz & Robert W. Murphy
Habitat fragmentation due to both natural and anthropogenic forces continues to threaten the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. This is of particular concern in tropical regions that are experiencing elevated rates of habitat loss. Although less well-studied than tropical rain forests, tropical dry forests (TDF) contain an enormous diversity of species and continue to be threatened by anthropogenic activities including grazing and agriculture. However, little is known about the processes that shape genetic connectivity...

Data from: The evolution of signal-reward correlations in bee and hummingbird-pollinated species of Salvia

Santiago Benitez-Vieyra, Juan Fornoni, Jessica Pérez Alquicira, Karina Boege, César Augusto Domínguez, C. A. Dominguez & J. Perez-Alquicira
Within-individual variation in floral advertising and reward traits is a feature experienced by pollinators that visit different flowers of the same plant. Pollinators can use advertising traits to gather information about the quality and amount of rewards, leading to the evolution of signal–reward correlations. As long as plants differ in the reliability of their signals and pollinators base their foraging decisions on this information, natural selection should act on within-individual correlations between signals and rewards....

Data from: Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, François Guilhaumon, Olivier Missa, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Jürgen Schmidl, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jon R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H. C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan … & Maurice Leponce
Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6,144 arthropod species from 0.48 ha and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas...

Data from: Recent long-distance transgene flow conforms to historical patterns of gene flow in wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at its center of origin

Ana Wegier, Alma Piñeyro-Nelson, Jesús Alarcón, Amanda Gálvez-Mariscal, Elena R. Álvarez-Buylla & Daniel Piñero
Over 95% of the currently cultivated cotton was domesticated from Gossypium hirsutum, which originated and diversified in Mexico. Population dynamics and genetic studies of this species at its center of origin and diversification are lacking, although they are critical for cotton conservation and breeding. We investigated the actual and potential distribution of wild cotton populations, as well as the contribution of historical and recent gene flow in shaping cotton genetic diversity and structure. We evaluated...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal, feeding behaviour, and brain volume in Neotropical bats

Danny Rojas, Carlos A. Mancina, José J. Flores-Martínez & Luis Navarro
Comparative correlational studies of brain size and ecological traits (e.g. feeding habits and habitat complexity) have increased our knowledge about the selective pressures on brain evolution. Studies conducted in bats as a model system assume that shared evolutionary history has a maximum effect on the traits. However, this effect has not been quantified. In addition, the effect of levels of diet specialization on brain size remains unclear. We examined the role of diet on the...

Data from: A metacalibrated time-tree documents the early rise of flowering plant phylogenetic diversity

Susana Magallón, Sandra Gómez-Acevedo, Luna L. Sánchez-Reyes & Tania Hernández-Hernández
The establishment of modern terrestrial life is indissociable from angiosperm evolution. While available molecular clock estimates of angiosperm age range from the Paleozoic to the Late Cretaceous, the fossil record is consistent with angiosperm diversification in the Early Cretaceous. The time-frame of angiosperm evolution is here estimated using a sample representing 87% of families and sequences of five plastid and nuclear markers, implementing penalized likelihood and Bayesian relaxed clocks. A literature-based review of the palaeontological...

Data from: There is no such thing as a free cigarette: lining nests with discarded butts brings short-term benefits, but causes toxic damage

Monserrat Suárez-Rodríguez & Constantino Macías Garcia
Adaptation to human-modified environments such as cities is poised to be a major component of natural history in the foreseeable future. Birds have been shown to adapt their vocalizations, use of nesting places and activity rhythms to the urban environments, and we have previously reported that some species, including the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), use cellulose from smoked cigarette butts as lining material and thus reduce the number of ectoparasites in their nests, probably because...

Data from: Independent origins of resistance or susceptibility of parasitic wasps to a defensive symbiont

Mariana Mateos, Lauryn Winter, Caitlyn Winter, Victor M. Higareda-Alvear, Esperanza Martinez-Romero & Jialei Xie
Insect microbe associations are diverse, widespread, and influential. Among the fitness effects of microbes on their hosts, defense against natural enemies is increasingly recognized as ubiquitous, particularly among those associations involving heritable, yet facultative, bacteria. Protective mutualisms generate complex ecological and co-evolutionary dynamics that are only beginning to be elucidated. These depend in part on the degree to which symbiont-mediated protection exhibits specificity to one or more members of the natural enemy community. Recent findings...

Data from: Maize diversity associated to social origin and environmental variation in southern Mexico

Quetzalcoatl Orozco-Ramirez, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra, Amalio Santacruz-Varela & Stephen Brush
While prevailing theories of crop evolution suggest that crop diversity and cultural diversity should be linked, empirical evidence for such a link remains inconclusive. In particular, few studies have investigated such patterns on a local scale. Here, we address this issue by examining the determinants of maize diversity in a local region of high cultural and biological richness in Southern Mexico. We collected maize samples from villages at low and middle elevations in two adjacent...

Data from: Patterns and predictors of β-diversity in the fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest: a multiscale analysis of forest specialist and generalist birds

José Carlos Morante-Filho, Victor Arroyo-Rodríguez & Deborah Faria
1. Biodiversity maintenance in human-altered landscapes (HALs) depends on the species turnover among localities, but the patterns and determinants of β-diversity in HALs are poorly known. In fact, declines, increases, and neutral shifts in β-diversity have all been documented, depending on the landscape, ecological group and spatial scale of analysis. 2. We shed some light on this controversy by assessing the patterns and predictors of bird β-diversity across multiple spatial scales considering forest specialist and...

Data from: Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids

David A. Puts, Alexander K. Hill, Drew H. Bailey, Robert S. Walker, Drew Rendall, John R. Wheatley, Lisa L. M. Welling, Khytam Dawood, Rodrigo A. Cárdenas, Robert P. Burriss, Nina G. Jablonski, Mark D. Shriver, Daniel J. Weiss, Adriano R. Lameira, Coren L. Apicella, Michael J. Owren, Claudia Barelli, Mary E. Glenn & Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez
In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism...

Data from: Genetic and morphological evidence of a geographically widespread hybrid zone between two crocodile species, Crocodylus acutus and Crocodylus moreletii

Gualberto Pacheco-Sierra, Zachariah Gompert, Jerónimo Domínguez-Laso & Ella Vázquez-Domínguez
Hybrid zones represent natural laboratories to study gene flow, divergence and the nature of species boundaries between closely related taxa. We evaluated the level and extent of hybridization between Crocodylus moreletii and C. acutus using genetic and morphological data on 300 crocodiles from 65 localities. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic study that includes the entire historic range and sympatric zone of the two species. Contrary to expectations, Bayesian admixture proportions and maximum...

Data from: No evidence that genetic compatibility drives extra-pair behavior in female blue-footed boobies

Lynna Marie Kiere, Alejandra G. Ramos & Hugh Drummond
The function of female birds' extra-pair (EP) behavior has remained an unresolved question in ornithology and behavioral ecology for > 30 yr. The genetic compatibility hypothesis (GCH) proposes that females benefit by acquiring biological sires that yield more heterozygous, and therefore fitter, offspring than their social mates. We used ten polymorphic microsatellite loci to test GCH predictions and its assumption that fitness increases with heterozygosity in blue-footed boobies Sula nebouxii, a long-lived tropical seabird. Our...

Data from: The activity of dung beetles increases foliar nutrient concentration in tropical seedlings

Carolina Santos-Heredia, Ellen Andresen, Ek Del-Val, Diego A. Zárate, Maribel Nava Mendoza & Víctor J. Jaramillo
Dung beetles are extensively used as a focal taxon in tropical forests. Yet, information for most of their ecological functions comes from other systems. We present results from a field experiment in a tropical rainforest showing that dung beetle activity increases foliar phosphorus concentration in seedlings of the tree Brosimum lactescens. Our results open new lines of research to assess the multiple effects that dung beetles may have on rainforest plants.

Data from: Oxidative stress during courtship affects male and female reproductive effort differentially in a wild bird with biparental care

Bibiana Montoya, Mahara Valverde, Emilio Rojas & Roxana Torres
Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the physiological mechanisms modulating reproductive effort, including investment in mate choice. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress influences breeding decisions by acting as a cost of or constraint on reproduction in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster), a long-lived seabird with prolonged biparental care. We found that during courtship, levels of lipid peroxidation (LP) of males and females were positively associated with gular skin color, a trait presumably...

Data from: Precipitation mediates the effect of human disturbance on the Brazilian Caatinga vegetation

Kátia F. Rito, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Rubens T. De Queiroz, Inara R. Leal & Marcelo Tabarelli
Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) are one of the most threatened forests worldwide. These species-rich forests not only cope with several acute (e.g. forest loss) and chronic (e.g. overgrazing and firewood extraction) human disturbances, but also with climate change (e.g. longer and more severe droughts); yet, the isolated and combined effects of climate and acute and chronic human disturbances on SDTF vegetation are poorly known. Given the environmental filter imposed by drought in SDTFs, the...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Connecting genomic patterns of local adaptation and niche suitability in teosintes

Jonas Aguirre-Liguori, Maud Tenaillon, Alejandra Vázquez-Lobo, Brandon Gaut, Juan Jaramillo-Correa, Salvador Montes-Hernandez, Valeria Souza, L. E. Eguiarte, J. P. Jaramillo-Correa & M. I. Tenaillon
The central-abundance hypothesis predicts that local adaptation is a function of the distance to the center of a species’ geographic range. To test this hypothesis, we gathered genomic diversity data from 49 populations, 646 individuals and 33,464 SNPs of two wild relatives of maize, the teosintes Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Zea. mays. ssp. mexicana. We examined the association between the distance to their climatic and geographic centroids and the enrichment of SNPs bearing signals...

Data from: Habitat fragmentation and the prevalence of parasites (Diptera, Streblidae) on three Phyllostomid bat species

Beatriz Bolívar-Cimé, Alan Cuxim-Koyoc, Enrique Reyes-Novelo, Juan B. Morales-Malacara, Javier Laborde & Rafael Flores-Peredo
Ectoparasitism in bats seems to be influenced strongly by the type of roost preferred by the hosts, and group size; however, the effect of habitat loss and fragmentation on the prevalence of ectoparasites in bats has scarcely been studied. In northeastern Yucatan, Mexico, we estimated the prevalence of infestation by Streblidae flies in three phyllostomid bat species with different roost preferences (caves, trees, or both) in two types of landscape matrices (tropical semi-deciduous forest and...

Data from: Taxonomic and functional ant diversity along a secondary successional gradient in a tropical forest

Maya Rocha-Ortega, Xavier Arnan, José Domingos Ribeiro-Neto, Inara R. Leal, Mario E. Favila & Miguel Martínez-Ramos
The taxonomic diversity (TD) of tropical flora and fauna tends to increase during secondary succession. This increase may be accompanied by changes in functional diversity (FD), although the relationship between TD and FD is not well understood. To explore this relationship, we examined the correlations between the TD and FD of ants and forest age in secondary forests at the α- and β-diversity levels using single- and multi-trait-based approaches. Our objectives were to understand ant...

Data from: Long-term in situ persistence of biodiversity in tropical sky-islands revealed by landscape genomics

Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Alexander T. Xue, Alejandra Moreno-Letelier, Tove H. Jørgensen, Nadir Alvarez, Daniel Piñero, Brent C. Emerson & Tove H. Jorgensen
Tropical mountains are areas of high species richness and endemism. Two historical phenomena may have contributed to this: (1) fragmentation and isolation of habitats may have promoted the genetic differentiation of populations and increased the possibility of allopatric divergence and speciation, and; (2) the mountain areas may have allowed long-term population persistence during global climate fluctuations. These two phenomena have been studied using either species occurrence data or estimating species divergence times. However, only few...

Data from: Effect of distance to edge and edge interaction on seedling regeneration and biotic damage in tropical rainforest fragments: a long‐term experiment

Julieta Benítez-Malvido, Amparo Lazaro & Isolde D. K. Ferraz
In forest fragments, edge effects can influence forest regeneration, but little is known about how edge effects influence seedling performance and the interaction between seedlings and their natural enemies over time. In central Amazonia, we recorded survival and growth (in height and leaf number) and damage by insect herbivores and leaf‐fungal pathogens of Chrysophyllum pomiferum (Sapotaceae) seedlings that were exposed to different numbers of edges and to different distances from the forest edge. Grown seedlings...

Data from: Thirty clues to the exceptional diversification of flowering plants

Susana Magallón, Luna L. Sánchez-Reyes & Sandra L. Gómez-Acevedo
Background and Aims: As angiosperms became one of the megadiverse groups of macroscopic eukaryotes, they forged modern ecosystems and promoted the evolution of extant terrestrial biota. Unequal distribution of species among lineages suggests that diversification, the process which ultimately determines species-richness, acted differentially through angiosperm evolution. Methods: We investigate how angiosperms became megadiverse by identifying the phylogenetic and temporal placement of exceptional radiations, by combining the most densely fossil-calibrated molecular clock phylogeny with a Bayesian...

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