296 Works

Data from: A millennium of climatic and floristic dynamics in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes

Alex Correa, Jaime Escobar, Broxton Bird, Dayenari Caballero-Rodríguez, Byron Steinman, Paula A. Rodríguez-Zorro & Jason Curtis
The transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 950-1250 CE) to the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1350 to 1800 CE) is the largest pre-industrial climate shift within the last two millennia, offering an opportunity to study how vegetation responds to rapid climate change. We analyzed a sedimentary record from the Colombian Andes to reconstruct regional vegetation dynamics during this time interval, identify the modern environmental distribution of taxa present in the fossil record, and provide...

Etnoarqueología para el combate a la pobreza: la estrategia ignorada por el estado Mexicano

Sandra L. López Varela
pp. 195-211 Alexander von Humboldt (1988 [1811]) describes in his Essai Politique sur le Royaume de la Nouvelle Espagne, the landscape of social inequality that existed in New Spain in terms of the distribution of wealth, civilization and soil cultivation during the reign of Charles IV. For more than two centuries, the Mexican government has tried unsuccessfully to revert social end economic inequality through economic growth and development policies. In the following pages, I discuss...

Revueltas internacionalista proletario, herido por México. Estampas alemanas

Edith Negrín
pp. 144-157. Germany was a constant presence in various stages of the life of Jose Revueltas, for various reasons. The first contact, unintended and ungrateful, was its assistance to the German School, in the capital of the country. The subsequent linkages, already in adult life, were intentional and vertebrated by political practice. The relationship of the activist with the European country was determined by its vision of the world, a complex and emotional ideological assembly...

Sex roles in birds: influence of climate, life histories and social environment

Tamas Székely, András Liker, Gavin H. Thomas, Jan Komdeur, Oliver Krügger & Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer
For detailed information concerning data collection please see Gonzalez-Voyer et al. Sex roles in birds: phylogenetic analyses of the influence of climate, life histories and social environment. Ecology Letters. Briefly, data on ecology, life histories and behaviour of birds were extracted from published literature. If several data were available for a given species, we included the ones that were extracted from breeding individuals or had larger sample sizes. The details regarding data processing are provided...

Systematic revision of the arboreal Neotropical ‘Thorellii’ clade of Centruroides Marx, 1890 bark scorpions (Buthidae c.l. Koch, 1837) with descriptions of six new species

Aaron Goodman, Lorenzo Prendini, Oscar Francke & Lauren Esposito
The arboreal Neotropical ‘thorellii’ clade of Centruroides Marx, 1890 bark scorpions (Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837) is revised, using a novel approach to species delimitation. A phylogenetic analysis, based on 112 morphological characters and 1078 aligned DNA nucleotides from the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene, provided the framework for placing singletons from geographically disparate localities (and often with suboptimal preservation) using COI minibarcodes, thereby enlarging the taxon sample for diagnosis and delimitation of...

Functional niche constraints on carnivore assemblages (mammalia: carnivora) in the Americas: What facilitates coexistence through space and time?

Andrés Arias-Alzate, Felber J. Arroyave, Oscar Y. Romero Goyeneche, Rafael Hurtado Heredia, José F. Gonzalez-Maya, Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales, A. Townsend Peterson & Enrique Martínez-Meyer
Aim: Mammalian carnivores are among the best studied groups in terms of evolutionary history. However, the effects of species interactions in shaping community assemblages remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that indirect interactions via ecological trait filtering play a key role in structuring carnivoran assemblages, mediate coexistence, and thus should show high functional diversity in space and time at continental scales. Location: Americas. Taxon: Mammalian carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora). Methods: We followed a macroecological perspective via ecological...

Data from: Solitary ecology as a phenomenon extending beyond insular systems: exaptive evolution in Anolis lizards

Julián A. Velasco, Steven Poe, Constantino González-Salazar & Oscar Flores-Villela
The mechanisms driving phenotypic evolution have been of interest to biologists since Darwin. Ecological release—wherein adaptive evolution occurs following relaxation of constraining selective pressures—and environmental filtering—wherein exaptive traits allow colonization of a new area—have been studied in several insular cases. Anolis lizards, which may exist in solitude or sympatry with multiple congeners, are an excellent system for evaluating whether ecological release and environmental filtering are associated with phenotypic shifts across phylogenetic and geographical scales. Insular...

Data from: Untangling the evolutionary history of a highly polymorphic species: introgressive hybridization and high genetic structure in the desert cichlid fish Herichthys minckleyi

Isabel S. Magalhaes, Claudia Patricia Ornelas-García, Mariana Leal-Cardin, Tania Ramírez & Marta Barluenga
Understanding the origin of biodiversity requires knowledge on the evolutionary processes that drive divergence and speciation, as well as on the processes constraining it. Intraspecific polymorphisms can provide insight into the mechanisms that generate and maintain phenotypic, behavioural and life history diversification, and can help us understand not only the processes that lead to speciation but also the processes that prevent local fixation of morphs. The ‘desert cichlid’ Herichtys minckleyi is a highly polymorphic species...

Data from: Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, T. Mitchell Aide, Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Eben N. Broadbent, Robin L. Chazdon, Dylan Craven, Jarcilene S. De Almeida-Cortez, George A. L. Cabral, Ben H. J. De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan M. Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mario M. Espírito-Santo, María C. Fandino, Ricardo G. César, Jefferson S. Hall, José Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni, Catarina C. Jakovac … & Danaë M. A. Rozendaal
Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle1. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use2, 3, 4. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major...

Data from: Microbiome symbionts and diet diversity incur costs on the immune system of insect larvae

Indrikis Krams, Sanita Kecko, Priit Jõers, Giedrius Trakimas, Didzis Elferts, Ronalds Krams, Severi Luoto, Markus J. Rantala, Inna Inashkina, Dita Gudrā, Dāvids Fridmanis, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Lelde Grantiņa-Ieviņa & Tatjana Krama
Communities of symbiotic microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in food digestion and protection against opportunistic microbes. Diet diversity increases the number of symbionts in the intestines, a benefit that is considered to impose no cost for the host organism. However, less is known about the possible immunological investments that hosts have to make in order to control the infections caused by symbiont populations that increase due to diet diversity. By...

Data from: Columnar cacti as sources of energy and protein for frugivorous bats in a semi-arid ecosystem

L. Gerardo Herrera M. & Teresa López R.
Columnar cacti constitute the dominant elements in the vegetation structure of arid and semi-arid New World ecosystems representing a plethora of food resources for vertebrate consumers. Previous stable isotope analysis in Central Mexico showed that columnar cacti are of low importance to build tissue for frugivorous bats. We used carbon stable isotope analysis of whole blood and breath samples collected from four species of frugivorous bats (Sturnira parvidens, Sturnira ludovici, Artibeus jamaicensis, and Artibeus intermedius)...

Data from: Related plant species respond similarly to chronic anthropogenic disturbance: implications for conservation decision-making

Alejandra Martínez-Blancas, Horacio Paz, Gerardo A. Salazar & Carlos Martorell
1. Many developing countries harbor inordinate numbers of species that face little-understood, gradual changes in their environment, such as chronic anthropogenic disturbance (CAD, a high frequency but low intensity form of disturbance). These countries also lack the resources to study each species, so conservation practices have had to be generalized assuming that complete taxonomic groups (e.g., cacti or cetaceans) may be managed in the same way. This could be justified if closely related species respond...

Data from: An experimental demonstration that house finches add cigarette butts in response to ectoparasites

Monserrat Suárez-Rodríguez & Constantino Macías Garcia
Urban species encounter resources that are uncommon in nature, such as materials found in city waste. Many studies have shown that these can be harmful to wildlife. In Mexico City, house finches bring cigarette butts to their nests, which reduces the amount of ectoparasites, but also induces genotoxic damage in chicks and parents. Yet, the reason for this behaviour is unknown. One possibility is that birds extract the cellulose fibres from discarded butts simply because...

Data from: A new species of horned lizard (genus Phrynosoma) from Guerrero, México, with an updated multilocus phylogeny

Adrián Nieto-Montes De Oca, Diego Arenas-Moreno, Elizabeth Beltrán-Sánchez & Adam D. Leaché
We describe a new species of Phrynosoma from central northeastern Guerrero, México; perform a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to estimate its phylogenetic relationships; and investigate the monophyly of Phrynosoma asio, P. braconnieri, and P. taurus. The new species can be distinguished from all of its congeners by the possession of a unique combination of morphological characteristics. The molecular genetic data include three fragments of the mitochondrial genome and six nuclear genes...

Environmental correlates of Leguminosae species richness in Mexico: quantifying the contributions of energy and environmental seasonality

Maribel Arenas-Navarro, Oswaldo Téllez-Valdés, Gabriel López-Segoviano, Miguel Murguía-Romero & Sebastián Tello
Explaining species richness patterns is a central issue in ecology, but a general explanation remain elusive. Environmental conditions have been proposed to be important drivers of these patterns, but we still need to better understand the relative contribution of environmental factors. Here we aim at testing two environmental hypotheses for richness gradients: energy availability and environmental seasonality using diversity patterns of the family Leguminosae across Mexico. We compiled a database of 502 species and 32,962...

Data from: Immune response declines with age in a wild lizard

Melissa Plasman, Estela Sandoval-Zapotitla & Roxana Torres
The immune system allows animals to survive the constant attacks of pathogens. Even though it is essential for survival and fitness, the performance of the immune system can decline with age -a process known as immunosenescence- which may be responsible for the increased mortality of older individuals. There are few studies regarding the effect of age on the immune system in reptiles, and no evidence of immunosenescence has yet been reported in lizards. In a...

Linking socioeconomic inequalities and type 2 diabetes through obesity and lifestyle factors among Mexican adults: a structural equations modeling approach

Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Delfino Vargas-Chanes, Sheyla Hernández, David Napier, Simón Barquera & Paloma Muñoz-Aguirre
Objective. To assess the association between type 2 dia­betes (DM2) and socioeconomic inequalities, mediated by the contribution of body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), and diet (diet-DII). Materials and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data of adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey of Mexico City. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as height and weight, dietary intake, leisure time activity and the presence of DM2 were measured. We fitted a structural...

Brain size and life history variables in birds

Dante Jiménez-Ortega, Niclas Kolm, Simone Immler, Alexei A. Maklakov & Alejandro González-Voyer
The database contains information on brain size, body mass, life-history traits and development mode for a total of 620 bird species. The taxonomy follows Jetz et. al. (2012). For life-history the database includes information for the following six variables: clutch size, egg size, incubation period, fledging age, maximum longevity; as well as development mode (altricial, semialtricial, precocial and semiprecocial). Additionally, in most cases there is information about the origin or the sampled specimen (captivity vs...

Data from: Molecular and morphological evidence reveals a new species of Antiphytum (Echiochiloideae, Boraginaceae) from Guerrero, Mexico

Nidia Mendoza-Díaz, Helga Ochoterena, Michael J. Moore & Hilda Flores-Olvera
Molecular and morphological evidence supports a new species in the genus Antiphytum from the Sierra Madre del Sur, in the state of Guerrero, Mexico, here described as A. brevicalyx. This species is unique in the genus by possessing a calyx shorter than the corolla tube at anthesis; it is similar to A. floribundum in inflorescence arrangement, but differs from that species in lacking a basal leaf rosette and having appendages on the corolla throat. According...

Data from: Too salty for you? Changes of diet in the laughing gull nestlings during the growing period

Erick González-Medina, José Alfredo Castillo-Guerrero, José A. Masero & Guillermo Fernández
In many seabird and waterbird species, salinity can impose physiological stress on recently hatched chicks because they have a limited capacity to excrete salt loads. In response, parents can select low-salt food for their nestlings in the first stage of their growth. We determined the growth-related variation in the diet of laughing gull Leucophaeus atricilla nestlings by using stable isotope analysis of feathers. Isotopic measurement of hatchling down reflects the mother's diet before laying eggs....

Data from: Background matching, disruptive coloration and differential use of microhabitats in two neotropical grasshoppers with sexual dichromatism

Víctor Hugo Ramírez-Delgado & Raúl Cueva Del Castillo
Cryptic coloration is an adaptative defensive mechanism against predators. Color patterns can become cryptic through background coloration-matching and disruptive coloration. Disruptive coloration may evolve in visually heterogeneous microhabitats, whereas background matching could be favored in chromatically homogeneous microhabitats. In this work, we used digital photography to explore the potential use of disruptive coloration and background matching in males and females of two grasshopper species of the Sphenarium genus in different habitats. We found chromatic differences...

Data from: High genetic diversity and stable Pleistocene distributional ranges in the widespread Mexican red oak Quercus castanea Née (1801) (Fagaceae)

Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez, Hernando Rodríguez-Correa, Antonio González-Rodríguez & Ken Oyama
The Mexican highlands are areas of high biological complexity where taxa of Nearctic and Neotropical origin and different population histories are found. To gain a more detailed view of the evolution of the biota in these regions, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of historical tectonic and climate events on species. Here, we analyzed the phylogeographic structure, historical demographic processes, and the contemporary period, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Last Interglacial (LIG) ecological niche...

Good alimentation can overcome the negative effects of climate change on growth in reptiles

Pilar Rueda-Zozaya, Melissa Plasman & Victor Hugo Reynoso
Climate change may lead to higher nest temperatures, which may increase embryo development rate, but reduce hatchling size and growth. Larger body size permits better performance, making growth an important fitness trait. In ectotherms, growth is affected by temperature and food quality. To segregate the effects of incubation temperature vs. alimentation on the growth of the Mexican black spiny tailed iguana Ctenosaura pectinata, we incubated eggs at 29 and 32ºC, and hatchlings were kept at...

Data from: Tree recruitment failure in old-growth forest patches across human-modified rainforests

Ricard Arasa-Gisbert, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Carmen Galán-Acedo, Jorge A. Meave & Miguel Martínez-Ramos
1. Land-use change threatens biodiversity in tropical landscapes, but its impact on forest regeneration remains poorly known. In fact, the landscape-scale patterns driving the diversity of regenerating plants within forest fragments have been rarely explored, and we are uncertain whether such drivers vary across regions with different land-use change patterns. 2. We assessed the effect of landscape composition (forest cover and matrix openness) and configuration (forest patch density) on species diversity of sapling assemblages (trees...

Volcanism and paleoclimate change drive diversification of world’s largest whip spider (Amblypygi)

Frederic Dominique Schramm, Alejandro Valdez-Mondragón & Lorenzo Prendini
The tropics contain many of the most biodiverse regions on Earth but the processes responsible for generating this diversity remain poorly understood. This study investigated the drivers of diversification in arthropods with stenotopic ecological requirements and limited dispersal capability using as model the monotypic whip spider (Amblypygi) genus Acanthophrynus, widespread in the tropical deciduous forests of Mexico. We hypothesized that for these organisms, the tropical deciduous forests serve as a conduit for dispersal, with their...

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