20 Works

Energetic limits: Defining the bounds and trade-offs of successful energy management in a capital breeder

Courtney Shuert, Lewis Halsey, Patrick Pomeroy & Sean Twiss
1. Judicious management of energy can be invaluable for animal survival and reproductive success. Capital breeding mammals typically transfer energy to their young at extremely high rates while undergoing prolonged fasting, making lactation a tremendously energy demanding period. Effective management of the competing demands of the mother’s energy needs and those of her offspring is presumably fundamental to maximising lifetime reproductive success. 2. How does the mother maximise her chances of successfully rearing her pup,...

Data from: Global vegetation patterns of the past 140,000 years

Judy Allen, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Joy Singarayer, Paul Valdes & Brian Huntley
Aim Insight into global biome responses to climatic and other environmental changes is essential to address key questions about past and future impacts of such changes. By simulating global biome patterns 140 ka to present we aimed to address important questions about biome changes during this interval. Location Global. Taxon Plantae. Methods Using the LPJ-GUESS dynamic global vegetation model, we made 89 simulations driven using ice-core atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Earth’s obliquity, and outputs from a...

World, Earth, Planet: A Time and Place for Nihilation in Ecocriticism

Lynes Philippe

JuSt-Social COVID-19

Jennifer Badham
NetLogo model that allows scenarios concerning general social distancing, shielding of high-risk individuals, and informing contacts when symptomatic. Documentation includes a user manual with some simple scenarios, and technical information including calibration methods.

Data from: Seafloor microplastic hotspots controlled by deep-sea circulation

Ian Kane, Michael Clare, Elda Miramontes, Roy Wogelius, James Rothwell, Pierre Garreau & Florian Pohl
While microplastics are known to pervade the global seafloor, the processes that control their dispersal and concentration in the deep sea remain largely unknown. Here we show that thermohaline-driven currents, which build extensive seafloor sediment accumulations, can control the distribution of microplastics and create hotspots of up to 1.9 million pieces m^2. This is the highest reported value for any seafloor setting, globally. Previous studies propose that microplastics are transported to the seafloor by vertical...

Insights into short and long-term crop-foraging strategies in a chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) from GPS and accelerometer data

Ben Walton, Leah Findlay & Russell Hill
Crop-foraging by animals is a leading cause of human-wildlife ‘conflict’ globally, affecting farmers and resulting in the death of many animals in retaliation, including primates. Despite significant research into crop-foraging by primates, relatively little is understood about the behaviour and movements of primates in and around crop fields, largely due to the limitations of traditional observational methods. Crop-foraging by primates in large scale agriculture has also received little attention. We used GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers,...

Data and R-code from 'Mode of death and mortality risk factors in Amazon trees'. Nature communications. 2020

Adriane Esquivel Muelbert, Oliver L. Phillips, Roel J. W. Brienen, Sophie Fauset, Martin J. P. Sullivan, Timothy R. Baker, Kuo-Jung Chao, Ted R. Feldpausch, Emanuel Gloor, Niro Higuchi, Jeanne Houwing-Duistermaat, Jon Lloyd, Haiyan Liu, Yadvinder Malhi, Beatriz Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon Junior, Abel Monteagudo-Mendoza, Lourens Poorter, Marcos Silveira, Emilio Vilanova Torre, Esteban Alvarez Dávila, Jhon del Aguila Pasquel, Everton Almeida, Patricia Alvarez Loayza & Ana Andrade

Sex-specific impact of inbreeding on pathogen load in the striped dolphin

Georgios Gkafas, Menno De Jong, Athanasios Exadactylos, Juan Antonio Raga, Francisco Aznar & Rus Hoelzel
The impact of inbreeding on fitness has been widely studied and provides consequential inference about adaptive potential and the impact on survival for reduced and fragmented natural populations. Correlations between heterozygosity and fitness are common in the literature, but they rarely inform about the likely mechanisms. Here we investigate a pathology with clear impact on health in striped dolphin hosts (a nematode infection that compromises lung function). Dolphins varied with respect to their parasite burden...

Sex differences in longitudinal personality stability in chimpanzees

Bruce Rawlings, Emma Flynn, Hani Freeman, Lisa Reamer, Steven Schapiro, Susan Lambeth & Rachel Kendal
Personality factors analogous to the Big Five observed in humans are present in the great apes. However, few studies have examined the long-term stability of great ape personality, particularly using factor-based personality instruments. Here, we assessed overall group, and individual-level, stability of chimpanzee personality by collecting ratings for chimpanzees (N = 50) and comparing them to ratings collected approximately 10 years previously, using the same personality scale. The overall mean ratings of three of the...

Vector bionomics and vectorial capacity as emergent properties of mosquito behaviors and ecology

Sean Wu, Penny Hancock, Arnaud Le Menach, Tanya Russell, Thomas Burkot, , Derek Cummings, Kelly Compton, Daniel Citron, John Marshall, Biyonka Liang, Catherine Moyes, Qian Zhang, David Smith, Samson Kiware, Anne Wilson, Thomas Scott, John Henry, Steven Lindsay, Amit Verma & Hector Sanchez C.
Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed...

Data from: Habitat selection of Rusty blackbirds during stopover varies with scale and function

James R. Wright, Luke L. Powell, Stephen N. Matthews & Christopher M. Tonra
The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a widespread, uncommon migrant that has experienced heavy population declines over the last century. This species can spend over a quarter of their annual cycle on migration, so it is important to determine their habitat requirements during stopover events to inform effective conservation planning. Here, we assess their habitat selection at an important stopover site in northern Ohio during both fall and spring migration. Since stopover habitat selection is...

Phylogenetic and ecomorphologic diversifications of spiriferinid brachiopods after the end-Permian extinction

Zhen Guo, Zhong-Qiang Chen & David Harper
The Order Spiriferinida spanning the latest Ordovician to Early Jurassic is a small group of brachiopods overshadowed by other taxa-rich clades during the Paleozoic. It diversified significantly after the end-Permian extinction and became one of the four major clades of Triassic brachiopods. However, the phylogeny and recovery dynamics of this clade during the Triassic still remain unknown. Here, we present a higher-level parsimony-based phylogenetic analysis of Mesozoic spiriferinids to reveal their evolutionary relationships. Ecologically related...

Data from: Latitudinal patterns of alien plant invasions

Qinfeng Guo, Brian Cade, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Holger Kreft, Jan Jan Pergl, Mark Van Kleunen, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter & Petr Pysek
Latitudinal patterns of biodiversity have long been a central topic in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, while most previous studies have focused on native species, little effort has been devoted to latitudinal patterns of plant invasions (with a few exceptions based on data from sparse locations). Using the most up-to-date worldwide native and alien plant distribution data from 801 regions (including islands), we compared invasion levels (i.e. alien richness/total richness) in the Northern and Southern...

Source pools and disharmony of the world’s island floras

Christian König, Patrick Weigelt, Amanda Taylor, Anke Stein, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pysek, Mark Van Kleunen, Marten Winter, Cyrille Chatelain, Jan Wieringa, Pavel Krestov & Holger Kreft
Island disharmony refers to the biased representation of higher taxa on islands compared to their mainland source regions and represents a central concept in island biology. Here, we develop a generalizable framework for approximating these source regions and conduct the first global assessment of island disharmony and its underlying drivers. We compiled vascular plant species lists for 178 oceanic islands and 735 mainland regions. Using mainland data only, we modelled species turnover as a function...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Comparing Glacial-Geological Evidence and Model Simulations of Ice Sheet Change since the Last Glacial Period in the Amundsen Sea Sector of Antarctica

J.S. Johnson, D. Pollard, P.L. Whitehouse, S.J. Roberts, D.H. Rood & J.M. Schaefer
Since the Last Glacial Maximum ~20,000 years ago, the Antarctic Ice Sheet has undergone extensive changes, resulting in a much smaller present-day configuration. Improving our understanding of basic physical processes that played important roles during that retreat is critical to providing more robust model projections of future retreat and sea-level rise. Here, a limited-area nested ice sheet model was applied to the last deglacial retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Amundsen Sea...

Data from: Multiple routes to interspecific territoriality in sister species of North American perching birds

Madeline C. Cowen, Jonathan Drury & Gregory Grether
Behavioral interference between species can influence a wide range of ecological and evolutionary processes. Here we test foundational hypotheses regarding the origins and maintenance of interspecific territoriality, and evaluate the role of interspecific territoriality and hybridization in shaping species distributions and transitions from parapatry to sympatry in sister species of North American perching birds (Passeriformes). We found that interspecific territoriality is pervasive among sympatric sister species pairs, and that interspecifically territorial species pairs have diverged...

Data from: Long-term change in the avifauna of undisturbed Amazonian rainforest: Ground-foraging birds disappear and the baseline shifts

Cameron Rutt, Philip Stouffer, Vitek Jirinec, Richard Bierregaard, Angélica Hernández-Palma, Erik Johnson, Stephen Midway, Luke Powell, Jared Wolfe & Thomas Lovejoy
How are rainforest birds faring in the Anthropocene? We use bird captures spanning >35 years from 55 sites within a vast area of intact Amazonian rainforest to reveal reduced abundance of terrestrial and near-ground insectivores in the absence of deforestation, edge effects, or other direct anthropogenic landscape change. Because undisturbed forest includes far fewer terrestrial and near-ground insectivores than it did historically, today’s fragments and second growth are more impoverished than shown by comparisons with...

Foraging in fear: spatial variation in range use, vigilance, and perceived risk in Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus)

Alec Ayers, Andrew Allan & Russell Hill
Spatial variation in predation risk can lead to behavioural modifications including increased vigilance and avoidance. Coined the landscape of fear, previous studies have suggested that an animal’s spatial perception of risk is the most critical landscape within their environment. Few studies have integrated the landscape of fear with spatial measures of risk and assessments of resource availability within a single analytical framework. We assessed whether long-term space use in chacma baboons was influenced by the...

Data from: Burning savanna for avian species richness and functional diversity

Teegan D.S. Docherty, Matthew G. Hethcoat, Lynne M. MacTavish, Dougal MacTavish, Stephen Dell, Philip A. Stephens & Stephen G. Willis
Prescribed fire is used throughout fire-prone landscapes to conserve biodiversity. Current best practice in managing savanna systems advocates methods based on the assumption that increased fire-mediated landscape heterogeneity (pyrodiversity) will promote biodiversity. However, considerable knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of how savanna wildlife responds to the composition and configuration of pyrodiverse landscapes. The effects of pyrodiversity on functional diversity has rarely been quantified and assessing this relationship at a landscape scale which is commensurate...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18
  • Software
    1
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • Durham University
    20
  • National Institute of Amazonian Research
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • University of Konstanz
    2
  • Michigan Technological University
    1
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    1
  • National Oceanography Centre
    1
  • Plymouth University
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Research Institute for Nature and Forest
    1