37 Works

Mortality data from the Baja California peninsula of Mexico

Ryan Schacht
A consistent finding from contemporary Western societies is that women outlive men. However, what is unclear is whether sex differences in survival are constant across varying socio-ecological conditions. We test the universality of the female survival advantage with mortality data from a 19th century population in the Baja California peninsula of Mexico. When examined simply, we find evidence for a male-biased survival advantage. However, results from Cox regression clearly show the importance of age intervals...

Male survival advantage on the Baja California Penninsula

Ryan Schacht
A consistent finding from contemporary Western societies is that women outlive men. However, what is unclear is whether sex differences in survival are constant across varying socio-ecological conditions. We test the universality of the female survival advantage with mortality data from a 19th century population in the Baja California peninsula of Mexico. When examined simply, we find evidence for a male-biased survival advantage. However, results from Cox regression clearly show the importance of age intervals...

Data from: Monopolar detection thresholds predict spatial selectivity of neural excitation in cochlear implants: implications for speech recognition

Ning Zhou
The objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the potential of using monopolar psychophysical detection thresholds for estimating spatial selectivity of neural excitation with cochlear implants and to (2) examine the effect of site removal on speech recognition based on the threshold measure. Detection thresholds were measured in Cochlear Nucleus® device users using monopolar stimulation for pulse trains that were of (a) low rate and long duration, (b) high rate and short duration, and...

Asymmetrical effects of temperature on stage-structured predator-prey interactions

Andrew Davidson, Elizabeth Hamman, Michael McCoy & James Vonesh
Warming can impact consumer-resource interactions through multiple mechanisms. For example, warming can both alter the rate at which predators consume prey and the rate prey develop through vulnerable life stages. Thus, the overall effect of warming on consumer-resource interactions will depend upon the strength and asymmetry of warming effects on predator and prey performance. Here, we quantified the temperature dependence of both 1) density-dependent predation rates for two dragonfly nymph predators on a shared mosquito...

Data from: Sex ratio effects on reproductive strategies in humans

Ryan Schacht & Monique Borgerhoff Mulder
Characterizations of coy females and ardent males are rooted in models of sexual selection that are increasingly outdated. Evolutionary feedbacks can strongly influence the sex roles and subsequent patterns of sex differentiated investment in mating effort, with a key component being the adult sex ratio (ASR). Using data from eight Makushi communities of southern Guyana, characterized by varying ASRs contingent on migration, we show that even within a single ethnic group, male mating effort varies...

Data from: Reproductive isolation related to mimetic divergence in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator

Evan Twomey, Jacob S. Vestergaard & Kyle Summers
In a mimetic radiation—when a single species evolves to resemble different model species—mimicry can drive within-species morphological diversification, and, potentially, speciation. While mimetic radiations have occurred in a variety of taxa, their role in speciation remains poorly understood. We study the Peruvian poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a mimetic radiation into four distinct morphs. Using a combination of colour–pattern analysis, landscape genetics and mate-choice experiments, we show that a mimetic shift...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of the genetic clines of invasive European green crab (Carcinus maenas) in eastern North America

Sarah J. Lehnert, Claudio DiBacco, Nicholas W. Jeffery, April M.H. Blakeslee, Jonatan Isaksson, Joe Roman, Brendan F. Wringe, Ryan R.E. Stanley, Kyle Matheson, Cynthia H. McKenzie, Lorraine C. Hamilton, Ian R. Bradbury, Ryan R. E. Stanley & April M. H. Blakeslee
Two genetically distinct lineages of European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) were independently introduced to eastern North America, the first in the early 19th century and the second in the late 20th century. These lineages first came into secondary contact in southeastern Nova Scotia, Canada (NS), where they hybridized, producing latitudinal genetic clines. Previous studies have documented a persistent southward shift in the clines of different marker types, consistent with existing dispersal and recruitment pathways. We...

Data from: The evolutionary enigma of mixed mating systems in plants: occurrence, theoretical explanations, and empirical evidence

Carol Goodwillie, Susan Kalisz & Christopher G. Eckert
Mixed mating, in which hermaphrodite plant species reproduce by both self- and cross-fertilization, presents a challenging problem for evolutionary biologists. Theory suggests that inbreeding depression, the main selective factor opposing the evolution of selfing, can be purged with self-fertilization, a process that is expected to yield pure strategies of either outcrossing or selfing. Here we present updated evidence suggesting that mixed mating systems are frequent in seed plants. We outline the floral and pollination mechanisms...

Data from: Millipede taxonomy after 250 years: classification and taxonomic practices in a mega-diverse yet understudied arthropod group

Michael S. Brewer, Petra Sierwald & Jason E. Bond
BACKGROUND: The arthropod class Diplopoda is a mega-diverse group comprising >12,000 described millipede species. The history of taxonomic research within the group is tumultuous and, consequently, has yielded a questionable higher-level classification. Few higher-taxa are defined using synapomorphies, and the practice of single taxon descriptions lacking a revisionary framework has produced many monotypic taxa. Additionally, taxonomic and geographic biases render global species diversity estimations unreliable. We test whether the ordinal taxa of the Diplopoda are...

Sorority and Fraternity Attitudes Towards Initiation and Hazing

Keith Tingley, Loni Crumb, Shelly Hoover-Plonk, Wes Hill & Crystal R. Chambers

Data from: Correlated evolution of mating system and floral display traits in flowering plants and its implications for the distribution of mating system variation

Carol Goodwillie, Risa D. Sargent, Susan Kalisz, Richard H. Ree, David A. Moeller, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Christopher G. Eckert, Alice A. Winn, Elizabeth Elle, Monica A. Geber & Mark O. Johnston
Reduced allocation to structures for pollinator attraction is predicted in selfing species. We explored the association between outcrossing and floral display in a broad sample of angiosperms. We used the demonstrated relationship to test for bias against selfing species in the outcrossing rate distribution, the shape of which has relevance for the stability of mixed mating. Relationships between outcrossing rate, flower size, flower number and floral display, measured as the product of flower size and...

Data from: A multilocus perspective on phylogenetic relationships in the Namib darkling beetle genus Onymacris (Tenebrionidae)

Trip Lamb & Jason E. Bond
Tenebrionid beetles, common constituent faunae of arid ecosystems worldwide, are particularly abundant in Africa’s Namib and Kalahari deserts. Within this region, flightless, diurnal members of the tribe Adesmiini are among the more intensively studied of all desert beetles, especially with regard to ecology. Much of this research centers on Onymacris, a psammophilous genus largely endemic to the Namib. Here we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis conducted for Onymacris, emphasizing relationships among other adesmiines. Our...

Data from: Male choice in the stream-anadromous stickleback complex

Jeffrey S. McKinnon, Nick Hamele, Nicole Frey, Jennifer Chou, Leia McAleavey, Jess Greene & Windi Paulson
Studies of mating preferences and pre-mating reproductive isolation have often focused on females, but the potential importance of male preferences is increasingly appreciated. We investigated male behavior in the context of reproductive isolation between divergent anadromous and stream-resident populations of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, using size-manipulated females of both ecotypes. Specifically, we asked if male courtship preferences are present, and if they are based on relative body size, non-size aspects of ecotype, or other traits....

Data from: Shifting habitats, morphology and selective pressures: developmental polyphenism in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian spiders

Michael S. Brewer, Rebecca Alice Carter, Peter J. P. Croucher & Rosemary G. Gillespie
Particularly intriguing examples of adaptive radiation are those in which lineages show parallel or convergent evolution, suggesting utilization of similar genetic or developmental pathways. The current study focuses on an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian “spiny-leg” spiders in which diversification is associated with repeated convergent evolution leading to similar sets of ecomorphs on each island. However, two species on the oldest islands in the archipelago exhibit variability, occurring as two different ecomorphs. More derived species on...

Data from: The peril of proportions: robust niche indices for categorical data

Michele E. R. Pierotti, Josep A. Martín-Fernández & Carles Barceló-Vidal
Indices of niche breadth and niche overlap for categorical data are typically expressed in terms of proportions of resources use. These are unit-sum constrained data; hence, direct application of standard general linear modelling methods to such indices can lead to spurious correlations and misleading inference. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach and derive compositional expressions of niche breadth, niche overlap and specialization. Compositional data analysis is specifically devoted to...

Data from: Quantitative acoustic differentiation of cryptic species illustrated with King and Clapper rails

Lydia L. Stiffler, Katie M. Schroeder, James T. Anderson, Susan B. McRae & Todd E. Katzner
Reliable species identification is vital for survey and monitoring programs. Recently, the development of digital technology for recording and analyzing vocalizations has assisted in acoustic surveying for cryptic, rare, or elusive species. However, the quantitative tools that exist for species differentiation are still being refined. Using vocalizations recorded in the course of ecological studies of a King Rail (Rallus elegans) and a Clapper Rail (R. crepitans) population, we assessed the accuracy and effectiveness of three...

Data from: Influence of intra- and interspecific variation in predator-prey body size ratios on trophic interaction strengths

Ross N. Cuthbert, Ryan J. Wasserman, Tatenda Dalu, Horst Kaiser, Olaf L. F. Weyl, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Arnaud Sentis, Mike W. McCoy & Mhairi E. Alexander
1. Predation is a pervasive force that structures food webs and directly influences ecosystem functioning. The relative body sizes of predators and prey may be an important determinant of interaction strengths. However, studies quantifying the combined influence of intra- and interspecific variation in predator-prey body size ratios are lacking. 2. We use a comparative functional response approach to examine interaction strengths between three size classes of invasive bluegill and largemouth bass towards three scaled size...

Data from: Local adaptation for enhanced salt tolerance reduces non-adaptive plasticity caused by osmotic stress

Molly A Albecker & Michael W McCoy
Organisms often respond to environmental change via phenotypic plasticity, where an individual modulates its phenotype according to the environment. Highly variable or changing environments can exceed physiological limits and generate maladapted plastic phenotypes, which is termed non-adaptive plasticity. In some cases, selection may reduce the negative or disruptive impacts of environmental stress and produce locally adapted populations. Salt is an increasingly prevalent contaminant of freshwater systems and can induce non-adaptive plastic phenotypes for freshwater organisms...

Mechanisms for color convergence in a mimetic radiation of poison frogs

Evan Twomey, Morgan Kain, Myriam Claeys, Kyle Summers, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher & Ines Van Bocxlaer
In animals, bright colors often evolve to mimic other species when a resemblance is selectively favored. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying such color mimicry can give insights into how mimicry evolves, for example, whether color convergence evolves from a shared set of mechanisms or through the evolution of novel color production mechanisms. We studied color production mechanisms in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), focusing on the mimicry complex of Ranitomeya imitator. Using reflectance spectrometry, skin pigment analysis,...

Data from: Stable recombination hotspots in birds

Sonal Singhal, Ellen M. Leffler, Keerthi Sannareddy, Isaac Turner, Oliver Venn, Daniel M. Hooper, Alva I. Strand, Qiye Li, Brian Raney, Christopher N. Balakrishnan, Simon C. Griffith, Gil McVean & Molly Przeworski
The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 has a critical role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspots in mice and apes, but it appears to be absent from other vertebrate species, including birds. To study the evolution and determinants of recombination in species lacking the gene that encodes PRDM9, we inferred fine-scale genetic maps from population resequencing data for two bird species: the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda. We found that both species have...

Data from: Plasticity in incubation behavior and shading by king rails (Rallus elegans) in response to temperature

Amanda J. Clauser & Susan B. McRae
King rails experience a wide range of temperatures during the course of the breeding season throughout their rapidly contracting geographic range. Incubating parent birds are adapted to keep their eggs within a temperature range appropriate for embryo development, but king rail clutches are at risk of exceeding lethal temperatures in the latter half of the nesting season. We investigated whether behavioral plasticity during incubation enables parents to maintain clutch temperature within tolerable limits for embryo...

Characterizing uncertainty in climate impact projections: a case study with seven marine species on the North American continental shelf

James Morley, Thomas Froelicher & Malin Pinsky
Projections of climate change impacts on living resources are being conducted frequently, and the goal is often to inform policy. Species projections will be more useful if uncertainty is effectively quantified. However, few studies have comprehensively characterized the projection uncertainty arising from greenhouse gas scenarios, Earth system models, and both structural and parameter uncertainty in species distribution modeling. Here we conducted 8964 unique 21st century projections for shifts in suitable habitat for seven economically important...

Data from: Mate choice and the genetic basis for color variation in a polymorphic dart frog: inferences from a wild pedigree

Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki, Ian J. Wang & Kyle Summers
Understanding how reproductive barriers evolve during speciation remains an important question in evolution. Divergence in mating preferences may be a common first step in this process. The striking colour pattern diversity of strawberry dart frog (Dendrobates pumilio) populations has likely been shaped by sexual selection. Previous laboratory studies have shown that females attend to male coloration and prefer to court with males of their own colour, suggesting that divergent morphs may be reproductively isolated. To...

Data from: Step-wise evolution of complex chemical defenses in millipedes: a phylogenomic approach

Juanita Rodriguez, Tappey H. Jones, Petra Sierwald, Paul E. Marek, William A. Shear, Michael S. Brewer, Kevin M. Kocot & Jason E. Bond
With fossil representatives from the Silurian capable of respiring atmospheric oxygen, millipedes are among the oldest terrestrial animals, and likely the first to acquire diverse and complex chemical defenses against predators. Exploring the origin of complex adaptive traits is critical for understanding the evolution of Earth’s biological complexity, and chemical defense evolution serves as an ideal study system. The classic explanation for the evolution of complexity is by gradual increase from simple to complex, passing...

The Need for Evidence-Based Interventions to Reduce Food Insecurity Among College Students

Stephanie Jilcott-Pitts & Sarah Brothers
Food insecurity is defined as insufficient resources to meet food needs. This is a global problem but is not confined to those countries identified as poor. One group of Americans who are particularly affected, and for whom the effects are particularly severe, is college students.

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