113 Works

Data from: Drosophila simulans: a species with improved resolution in evolve and resequence studies

Neda Barghi, Raymond Tobler, Viola Nolte & Christian Schlötterer
The combination of experimental evolution with high-throughput sequencing of pooled individuals—i.e., evolve and resequence (E&R)—is a powerful approach to study adaptation from standing genetic variation under controlled, replicated conditions. Nevertheless, E&R studies in Drosophila melanogaster have frequently resulted in inordinate numbers of candidate SNPs, particularly for complex traits. Here, we contrast the genomic signature of adaptation following ∼60 generations in a novel hot environment for D. melanogaster and D. simulans. For D. simulans, the regions...

Data from: Inference of chromosomal inversion dynamics from Pool-Seq data in natural and laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Martin Kapun, Hester Van Schalkwyk, Bryant McAllister, Thomas Flatt & Christian Schlötterer
Sequencing of pools of individuals (Pool-Seq) represents a reliable and cost-effective approach for estimating genome-wide SNP and transposable element insertion frequencies. However, Pool-Seq does not provide direct information on haplotypes so that for example obtaining inversion frequencies has not been possible until now. Here, we have developed a new set of diagnostic marker SNPs for 7 cosmopolitan inversions in Drosophila melanogaster that can be used to infer inversion frequencies from Pool-Seq data. We applied our...

Data from: Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M. Russo, Desiré L. Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Shadrack Muya, Patricia Haubensak, Boglárka Bálint, Gopi K. Munimanda, Caroline Deimel, Andrea Setzer, Kara Dicks, Barbara Herzig-Straschil, Daniela C. Kalthoff, Hans R. Siegismund, Jan Robovský, Paul O’Donoghue & Michael W. Bruford
The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species’ once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide...

Data from: Stress in biological invasions: introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels

Francesca Santicchia, Ben Dantzer, Freya Van Kesteren, Rupert Palme, Adriano Martinoli, Nicola Ferrari & Lucas Armand Wauters
1. Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources, or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. 2. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels...

Data from: Stable isotopes reveal diet shift from pre-extinction to reintroduced Przewalski’s horses

Petra Kaczensky, Martina Burnik Šturm, Mikhail V. Sablin, Christian Voigt, Steve Smith, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Boglarka Balint, Chris Walzer & Natalia N. Spasskaya
The Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), the only remaining wild horse within the equid family, is one of only a handful of species worldwide that went extinct in the wild, was saved by captive breeding, and has been successfully returned to the wild. However, concerns remain that after multiple generations in captivity the ecology of the Przewalski’s horse and / or the ecological conditions in its former range have changed in a way compromising the...

Data from: Pathologic evaluation of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection at the maternal-fetal interface of late gestation pregnant gilts

Predrag Novakovic, John C.S. Harding, Ahmad N. Al-Dissi, Andrea Ladinig, Susan E. Detmer & John C. S. Harding
The pathogenesis of fetal death caused by reproductive porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis by assessing potential relationships between specific histopathological lesions and PRRSV RNA concentration in the fetuses and the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n=114) or sham inoculated (n=19) at 85±1 days of gestation. Dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied 21...

Data from: Unexpected high genetic diversity in small populations suggests maintenance by associative overdominance

Mads F. Schou, Volker Loeschcke, Jesper Bechsgaard, Christian Schlötterer & Torsten N. Kristensen
The effective population size (Ne) is a central factor in determining maintenance of genetic variation. The neutral theory predicts that loss of variation depends on Ne, with less genetic drift in larger populations. We monitored genetic drift in 42 Drosophila melanogaster populations of different adult census population sizes (10, 50 or 500) using pooled RAD sequencing. In small populations, variation was lost at a substantially lower rate than expected. This observation was consistent across two...

Data from: DNA motifs are not general predictors of recombination in two Drosophila sister species.

James M. Howie, Rupert Mazzucco, Thomas Taus, Viola Nolte & Christian Schlötterer
Meiotic recombination is crucial for chromosomal segregation, and facilitates the spread of beneficial and removal of deleterious mutations. Recombination rates frequently vary along chromosomes and Drosophila melanogaster exhibits a remarkable pattern. Recombination rates gradually decrease towards centromeres and telomeres, with a dramatic impact on levels of variation in natural populations. Two close sister species, D. simulans and D. mauritiana do not only have higher recombination rates, but also exhibit a much more homogeneous recombination rate...

Detecting selected haplotype blocks in evolve and resequence experiments

Kathrin A. Otte & Christian Schlötterer
Shifting from the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms to the reconstruction of selected haplotypes greatly facilitates the interpretation of Evolve and Resequence (E&R) experiments. Merging highly correlated hitchhiker SNPs into haplotype blocks reduces thousands of candidates to few selected regions. Current methods of haplotype reconstruction from Pool-Seq data need a variety of data-specific parameters that are typically defined ad hoc and require haplotype sequences for validation. Here, we introduce haplovalidate, a tool which detects selected...

Hidden treasure of the Gobi: understanding how water limits range use of khulan in the Mongolian Gobi

John C. Payne, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Diana E. Bowler, Kirk A. Olson, Chris Walzer & Petra Kaczensky
Most large herbivores in arid landscapes need to drink which constrains their movements and makes them vulnerable to disturbance. Asiatic wild ass or khulan (Equus hemionus) were widespread and abundant throughout the arid landscapes of Central Asia and Mongolia, but have undergone dramatic population declines and range constrictions; denying khulan access to water is believed to have played a major role. Mongolia’s South Gobi Region now houses the world largest remaining khulan population, but is...

Das Verbot der Qualzucht aus tierschutzrechtlicher, kynologisch‐veterinärmedizinischer und ethischer Perspektive

Regina Binder, Rudolf Winkelmayer & Sonja Chvala-Mannsberger
Der vorliegende Beitrag setzt sich aus multidisziplinärer Sicht mit dem im österr Tierschutzgesetz verankerten Qualzuchtverbot auseinander. Er beleuchtet die Vollzugsprobleme, die einerseits aus der Konzeption dieser Bestimmung und andererseits aus der Organisation der Heimtierzucht resultieren. Am Beispiel einer brachycephalen Hunderasse wird aufgezeigt, dass die vom Gesetzgeber angeordneten Maßnahmen zur Reduzierung belasteter Nachkommen zT nur sehr zögerlich umgesetzt werden. Um das Qualzuchtverbot zu effektuieren, ist es insb erforderlich, klare Anforderungen zu normieren, deren Einhaltung zu überwachen...

Vorstudie für das Klima- und Energiefondsprojekt NH3-PM-AQ für die Steiermark

Gunther Schauberger & Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher

Vorstudie für das Klima- und Energiefondsprojekt NH3-PM-AQ für das Burgenland

Gunther Schauberger & Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher

Genetic compensations for letm1 deficiency

Pauline Dao, Kristin Tessmar-Raible & Karin Nowikovsky
Mitochondria are fundamental for life and require balanced ion exchange to maintain proper functioning. The mitochondrial cation exchanger LETM1 sparks interest because of its pathophysiological role in seizures in the Wolf Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS). Despite observation of sleep disorganization in epileptic WHS patients, and growing studies linking mitochondria and epilepsy to circadian rhythms, LETM1 has not been studied from the chronobiological perspective. Here we established a viable letm1 knock-out, using the diurnal vertebrate Danio rerio...

Horizontal gene transfer is the main driver of antimicrobial resistance in broiler chicks infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg

Adelumola Oladeinde, Zaid Abdo, Maximilian Press, Kimberly Cook, Nelson Cox, Benjamin Zwirzitz, Reed Woyda, Steven Lakin, , Torey Looft, Douglas Cosby, , Jean Guard, Eric Line, Michael Rothrock, Mark Berrang, Kyler Herrington, Gregory Zock, Jodie Plumblee Lawrence, Denice Cudnik, Sandra House, Kimberly Ingram, Leah Lariscy, Robert Wagner, Samuel Aggrey … & Casey Ritz
Overuse and misuse of antibiotics in clinical settings and in food production have been linked to the increased prevalence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AR). Consequently, public health and consumer concerns have resulted in a remarkable reduction in antibiotics used for food animal production. However, there are no data on the effectiveness of antibiotic removal in reducing AR shared through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In this study, we used neonatal broiler chicks and Salmonella enterica...

Dogs’ looking times and pupil dilation response reveal expectations about contact causality

Christoph Völter & Ludwig Huber
Contact causality is one of the fundamental principles allowing us to make sense of our physical environment. From an early age, humans perceive spatiotemporally contiguous launching events as causal. Surprisingly little is known about causal perception in nonhuman animals, particularly outside the primate order. Violation-of-expectation paradigms in combination with eye-tracking and pupillometry have been used to study physical expectations in human infants. In the current study, we establish this approach for dogs (Canis familiaris). We...

Hunting suitability model - a new tool for managing wild ungulates

Paul Griesberger, Leopold Obermair, Josef Zandl, Gabrielle Stalder, Walter Arnold & Klaus Hackländer
Rising numbers of wild ungulates in human-dominated landscapes of Europe can induce negative effects like damages to forests. Therefore, effective wildlife management, including harvesting through hunting is becoming increasingly important. However, current hunting practices often fail to diminish those negative effects, as many ungulate species retreat to areas unsuitable for hunting. This predator-avoidance behaviour makes it difficult to fulfill the demand of reducing population numbers. Thus, there is an urgent need for innovative and effective...

Serologischer Nachweis von Coxiella burnetii-, Chlamydia abortus-, Toxoplasma gondii und Leptospira spp.-Antikörpern bei Neuweltkameliden in Österreich

R. Steinparzer, M. Knjzek, I. Zimpernik & F. Schmoll
Neuweltkameliden gelten als empfänglich für die Infektionserreger Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia abortus, Toxoplasma gondii und Leptospira spp., welche insbesondere als Aborterreger mit zoonotischem Potential bekannt sind. In der durchgeführten Studie wurden Seren aus den Jahren 2018, 2019 und 2020 von Neuweltkameliden aus Österreich auf das Vorhandensein von Antikörpern gegen Coxiella burnetii und Chlamydia abortus (619 Seren von 536 Tieren) sowie gegen Toxoplasma gondii und Leptospira spp. (711 Seren von 628 Tieren) untersucht, um einen Hinweis darauf...

Geräuschangst zu Silvester bei Hunden – eine empirische Fragebogenstudie in österreichischen Tierarztpraxen und ein Online-Survey im deutschsprachigen Raum

A. Frischengruber, J. Troxler, A. Tichy, B. Senft & C. Arhant
Silvester ist für Hunde mit Geräuschangst und für deren Besitzer sehr belastend. Ziel der Studie war die Ermittlung der Prävalenz von Geräuschangst bei Hunden in Österreich, der Art und Dauer der Reaktionen, der angewendeten Behandlungsmethoden mit Bewertung ihrer Wirksamkeit sowie des Anteils unbehandelter Hunde. Dazu wurden 2017 eine Direktbefragung in 72 österreichischen Tierarztpraxen (paper/pencil-Version; n=1613) und 2018 eine ausführlichere Online-Befragung im deutschsprachigen Raum (n=1918) durchgeführt. Die Prävalenz der Geräuschangst lag in der Direktumfrage bei 68...

Enteritis beim Kalb: anamnestische, klinische, diagnostische und therapeutische Auswertungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von entero- pathogenem Rotavirus und bovinem Coronavirus

J. Schoiswohl, C. Sohm, C. Eibl & R. Krametter-Frötscher
In dieser retrospektiven Studie wurden Daten von 156 Kälbern im Alter von bis zu 35 Tagen, bei denen Rotavirus und/oder bovines Coronavirus nachgewiesen wurde(n), ausgewertet. Kälber, die mit Antibiotika vorbehandelt worden waren, hatten ein höheres Risiko für einen längeren stationären Klinikaufenthalt. Diese Kälber zeigten schwerwiegendere Verläufe mit Begleiterkrankungen wie Bronchopneumonie.Eine antibiotische Behandlung wäre wegen der viralen Infektion nicht indiziert gewesen, weshalb sich auch kein Therapieerfolg einstellte. Möglicherweise wurde sogar die physiologische Darmflora durch die Antibiotikagabe...

Qualitätssicherung bei der Behandlung von Klauen- und Zehenerkrankungen des Rindes – Vorstellung von Standardvorgehensweisen zur Erzielung besserer Therapieerfolge und zur Reduktion des Antibiotikaeinsatzes

J. Kofler & B. Altenbrunner-Martinek
Schmerzhafte Klauenerkrankungen und ihre Komplikationen sind häufige Gründe für tierärztliche Interventionen. Das Spektrum dieser Erkrankungen ist sehr unterschiedlich, daher ist eine definitive Diagnosestellung essentiell für die Wahl der fachgerech­ten Behandlung. Sohlengeschwüre und Weiße-Linie- Abszesse benötigen andere Behandlungsmaßnahmen als die davon ausgehenden tiefen Infektionen mit sep­tischer Entzündung des Klauen- und/oder Krongelenkes oder der Fesselbeugesehnenscheide. Auch bei der Behandlung akuter und chronischer Stadien der Mortellaro’schen Krankheit (DD) und DD-assoziierter Klauenhornerkrankungen sind z.T. völlig unterschiedliche therapeutische Vorgehensweisen erforderlich....

Vorstudie für das Klima- und Energiefondsprojekt NH3-PM-AQ für Niederösterreich

Gunther Schauberger & Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher

Data from: A Drosophila laboratory evolution experiment points to low evolutionary potential under increased temperatures likely to be experienced in the future

Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen, Vanessa Kellermann, Christian Schlötterer & Volker Loeschcke
The ability to respond evolutionarily to increasing temperatures is important for survival of ectotherms in a changing climate. Recent studies suggest that upper thermal limits may be evolutionary constrained. We address this hypothesis in a laboratory evolution experiment, encompassing ecologically relevant thermal regimes. To examine the potential for species to respond to climate change, we exposed replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster to increasing temperatures (0.3 °C every generation) for 20 generations, whereas corresponding replicate control...

Data from: Density triggers maternal hormones that increase adaptive offspring growth in a wild mammal

Ben Dantzer, Amy E. M. Newman, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries & Andrew G. McAdam
Spruce cone and squirrel density dataData used to investigate how previous year spruce cones and food-supplementation affected red squirrel density. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Spruce cone and density data.csvTable S2 Results - neonate mass and growth rateData used for results shown in Table 2. Only neonate mass and offspring growth data. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Table S2 - neonate mass and growth rate.csvTable S2-S3 ResultsData for results shown in Table S2...

Data for: The costs and benefits of larger brains in fishes

Arne Jungwirth
The astonishing diversity of brain sizes observed across the animal kingdom is typically explained in the context of trade-offs: the benefits of a larger brain, such as enhanced cognitive ability, are balanced against potential costs, such as increased energetic demands. Several hypotheses have been formulated in this framework, placing different emphasis on ecological, behavioural, or physiological aspects of trade-offs in brain size evolution. Within this body of work, there exists considerable taxonomic bias towards studies...

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