109 Works

Fitness effects for Ace insecticide resistance mutations are determined by ambient temperature

Anna Maria Langmüller, Viola Nolte, Ruwansha Galagedara, Rodolphe Poupardin, Marlies Dolezal & Christian Schlötterer
Background Insect pest control programs often use periods of insecticide treatment with intermittent breaks, to prevent fixing of mutations conferring insecticide resistance. Such mutations are typically costly in an insecticide free environment, and their frequency is determined by the balance between insecticide treatment and cost of resistance. Ace, a key gene in neuronal signaling, is a prominent target of many insecticides and across several species three amino acid replacements (I161V, G265A and F330Y) provide resistance...

Data from: Wild Goffin’s cockatoos flexibly manufacture and use tool sets

Mark O'Hara, Berenika Mioduszewska, Roger Mundry, , Tri Haryoko, Rini Rachmatika, Dewi Malia Prawiradilaga, Ludwig Huber & Alice Marie Isabel Auersperg
The use of different tools to achieve a single goal is considered unique to human and primate technology. To unravel the origins of such complex behaviors, it is crucial to investigate tool use that does not occur species wide. These cases can be assumed to have emerged innovatively and be applied flexibly, thus emphasizing creativity and intelligence. However, it is intrinsically challenging to record tool innovations in natural settings that do not occur species-wide. Here...

Past, present and future of chamois science

Luca Corlatti, Laura Iacolina, Toni Safner, Marco Apollonio, Elena Buzan, Francesco Ferretti, Sabine Hammer, Juan Herrero, Luca Rossi, Emmanuel Serrano, Mari Cruz Arnal, Francesca Brivio, Roberta Chirichella, Antonella Cotza, Barbara Crestanello, Johan Espunyes, Daniel Fernández De Luco, Saskia Friedrich, Dragan Gačić, Laura Grassi, Stefano Grignolio, Heidi Hauffe, Kresmir Kavčić, Andreas Kinser, Francesca Lioce … & Nikica Šprem
The chamois Rupicapra spp. is the most abundant mountain ungulate of Europe and the Near East, where it occurs as two species, the Northern chamois R. rupicapra and the Southern chamois R. pyrenaica. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of research trends and the most challenging issues in chamois research and conservation, focusing on taxonomy and systematics, genetics, life history, ecology and behavior, physiology and disease, management, and conservation. Research on Rupicapra has a longstanding...

Early life growth and telomere length in wild boar piglets 2018

Magdalena Spießberger, Franz Hoelzl, Steve Smith, Sebastian Vetter & Julia Nowack
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between growth rates and lifespan, which is reflected by telomere length, a biomarker of somatic state. We investigated the correlation between telomere length and early life growth of wild boar piglets, Sus scrofa, kept under semi-natural conditions with high food availability to examine our hypothesis that increased pre-and post-natal growth will lead to telomere length attrition but that a high supply of nutrient may provide the possibility to compensate...

Genomic insights into evolution and control of Wohlfahrtia magnifica, a widely distributed myiasis-causing fly of warm-blooded vertebrates

Zhipeng Jia, Surong Hasi, Claus Vogl & Pamela Burger
Wohlfahrtia magnifica is a pest fly species, invading livestock in many European, African and Asian countries, and causing heavy agro-economic losses. In the life cycle of this obligatory parasite, adult flies infect the host by depositing the first-stage larvae into body cavities or open wounds. The feeding larvae cause severe (skin) tissue damage and potentially fatal infections if untreated. Despite serious health detriments and agro-economic concerns, genomic resources for understanding the biology of W. magnifica...

Radiologische Evaluierung der prä- und postoperativen Patellahöhe bei TPLO und TTA Patienten

K. Lorinson, M. Winkler, A. Tichy & D. Lorinson
Proximodistale Lagerungsveränderungen der Patella und ihre Auswirkungen auf die gesamte Kniegelenksdynamik und die Kniegelenkspathologie sowie der Einfluss von Korrekturosteotomien auf die Patellahöhe sind beim Hund wenig bekannt. Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Evaluierung, ob TPLO und / oder TTA eine proximodistale Lageveränderung der Patella zu den übrigen am Kniegelenk beteiligten Knochen hervorrufen. An prä- und postoperativen Röntgenbildern von 78 Hunden verschiedener Rassen, die aufgrund eines kranialen Kreuzbandrisses ohne Patellaproblematik einer TPLO oder TTA unterzogen worden...

Longitudinal documentation of pathogens prevalence and loads assessed during the Pneumocystis spp. study in pigs

Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang
Data underlying the article "Pneumocystis spp. in pigs: a longitudinal quantitative study and co-infections assessment in Austrian farms"

Longitudinal documentation of clinical symptoms assessed during the Pneumocystis spp. study in pigs

Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang
Data underlying the article "Pneumocystis spp. in pigs: a longitudinal quantitative study and co-infections assessment in Austrian farms"

Data from: Genome-wide diversity and global migration patterns in dromedaries follow ancient caravan routes

Sara Lado, Jean-Pierre Elbers, Naruya Saitou, Faisal Almathen, Angela Doskocil, Davide Scaglione, Emiliano Trucchi, Mohammad Hossein Banabazi, Elena Ciani & Pamela Anna Burger
Dromedaries have been essential for the prosperity of civilizations in arid environments and the dispersal of humans, goods and cultures along ancient, cross-continental trading routes. With increasing desertification their importance as livestock species is rising rapidly, but little is known about their genome-wide diversity and demographic history. As previous studies using a limited amount of nuclear markers have shown weak phylogeographic structure, here, we adopted a genome-wide approach and detected fine-scale population differentiation in dromedaries...

Landscape genomics of a widely distributed snake (Dolichophis caspius, Gmelin, 1789) across Eastern Europe and Western Asia

Sarita Mahtani-Williams, William Fulton, Amelie Desvars-Larrive, Sara Lado, Jean Elbers, Bálint Halpern, Dávid Herczeg, Gergely Babocsay, Boris Lauš, Zoltán Tamás Nagy, Daniel Jablonski, Oleg Kukushkin, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Judit Vörös & Pamela Burger
Across the distribution of the Caspian whipsnake (Dolichophis caspius), populations have become increasingly disconnected due to habitat alterations. To understand population dynamics and the adaptive potential of this widespread but locally endangered snake, we investigated population structure, admixture and effective migration patterns. We took a landscape-genomic approach to identify selected genotypes associated with environmental variables relevant to D. caspius. With double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing of 53 samples resulting in 17,518 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

Data from: Contrasting pattern of natural variation in global Drosophila melanogaster populations

Maria Nunes, Hannah Neumeier & Christian Schlötterer
Despite the popularity of Drosophila melanogaster in functional and evolutionary genetics, the global pattern of natural variation has not yet been comprehensively described in this species. For the first time, we report a combined survey using neutral microsatellites and mitochondrial sequence variation jointly. Thirty-five populations originating from five continents were compared. In agreement with previous microsatellite studies, sub-Saharan African populations were the most variable ones. Consistent with previous reports of a single 'out of Africa'...

Data from: Suitability of different mapping algorithms for genome-wide polymorphism scans with Pool-Seq data.

Robert Kofler, Anna Maria Langmüller, Pierre Nouhaud, Kathrin Anna Otte & Christian Schlötterer
The cost-effectiveness of sequencing pools of individuals (Pool-Seq) provides the basis for the popularity and wide-spread use of this method for many research questions, ranging from unravelling the genetic basis of complex traits to the clonal evolution of cancer cells. Because the accuracy of Pool-Seq could be affected by many potential sources of error, several studies determined, for example, the influence of the sequencing technology, the library preparation protocol, and mapping parameters. Nevertheless, the impact...

Data from: Can reinforcement complete speciation?

Claudia Bank, Joachim Hermisson & Mark Kirkpatrick
Hybridization is common in nature, even between "good" species. This observation poses the question of why reinforcement is not always successful in leading to the evolution of complete reproductive isolation. To study this question, we developed a new "quasi-linkage disequilibrium" (QLD) approximation to obtain the first analytic results for the evolution of modifiers that increase mate discrimination against hybrids and heterospecifics. When such modifiers have small effects, they evolve more readily under a one-allele than...

Data from: Evolution of eye morphology and rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

Nico Posnien, Corinna Hopfen, Maarten Hilbrant, Margarita Ramos-Womack, Sophie Murat, Anna Schönauer, Samantha L. Herbert, Maria D. S. Nunes, Saad Arif, Casper J. Breuker, Christian Schlötterer, Philipp Mitteroeker, Alistair P. McGregor & Philipp Mitteroecker
A striking diversity of compound eye size and shape has evolved among insects. The number of ommatidia and their size are major determinants of the visual sensitivity and acuity of the compound eye. Each ommatidium is composed of eight photoreceptor cells that facilitate the discrimination of different colours via the expression of various light sensitive Rhodopsin proteins. It follows that variation in eye size, shape, and opsin composition is likely to directly influence vision. We...

Data from: Selection from parasites favors immunogenetic diversity but not divergence among locally adapted host populations

Michael Tobler, Martin Plath, Rüdiger Riesch, Ingo Schlupp, Anna Grasse, Gopi K. Munimanda, Claudia Setzer, Dustin J. Penn & Yoshan Moodley
The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and...

Data from: Nonsense-mediated decay enables intron gain in Drosophila

Ashley Farlow, Eshwar Meduri, Marlies Dolezal, Liushuai Hua & Christian Schlötterer
Intron number varies considerably among genomes, but despite their fundamental importance, the mutational mechanisms and evolutionary processes underlying the expansion of intron number remain unknown. Here we show that Drosophila, in contrast to most eukaryotic lineages, is still undergoing a dramatic rate of intron gain. These novel introns carry significantly weaker splice sites that may impede their identification by the spliceosome. Novel introns are more likely to encode a premature termination codon (PTC), indicating that...

Data from: \"De novo transcriptome assembly of the mountain fly Drosophila nigrosparsa using short RNA-seq reads\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 August 2014-30 September 2014

Wolfgang Arthofer, Francesco Cicconardi, Nicola Palmieri, Viola Nolte, Christian Schlötterer, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner, Marcelo Vallinoto, David A. Weese, B. L. Banbury, R. B. Harris, David S. Kang, Cheolho Sim, Thomas F. Duda, A. D. Leaché, Miguel Carneiro, Coralie Nourisson & Fernando Sequeira
Drosophila (Drosophila) nigrosparsa is a habitat specialist restricted to the European montane/alpine zone (Bächli 2008). Mountain biodiversity is considered highly vulnerable to ongoing climate warming (IPCC 2013), and organisms at high altitudes have only limited possibility to shift to cooler habitats at elevations above (Pertoldi & Bach 2007). For such species, rapid evolution may offer a solution for long-term survival. We are establishing D. nigrosparsa as a model system to test the extent and tempo...

Data from: Do pet dogs (Canis familiaris) follow ostensive and non-ostensive human gaze to distant space and to objects?

Charlotte Duranton, Friederike Range & Zsófia Virányi
Dogs are renowned for being skilful at using human-given communicative cues such as pointing. Results are contradictory, however, when it comes to dogs' following human gaze, probably due to methodological discrepancies. Here we investigated whether dogs follow human gaze to one of two food locations better than into distant space even after comparable pre-training. In Experiments 1 and 2, the gazing direction of dogs was recorded in a gaze-following into distant space and in an...

Data from: Variation in thermal performance and reaction norms among populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Peter Klepsatel, Martina Galikova, Nicola De Maio, Christian D. Huber, Christian Schlötterer & Thomas Flatt
The major goal of evolutionary thermal biology is to understand how variation in temperature shapes phenotypic evolution. Comparing thermal reaction norms among populations from different thermal environments allows us to gain insights into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation. Here, we have examined thermal adaptation in six wild populations of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) from markedly different natural environments by analyzing thermal reaction norms for fecundity, thorax length, wing area and ovariole number under...

Data from: Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates

Pauline Charruau, Carlos Fernandes, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Joris Peters, Luke Hunter, H. Ziaie, A. Jourabchian, H. Jowkar, Georges Schaller, Stephane Ostrowski, Paul Vercammen, Thierry Grange, Christian Schlötterer, Antoinette Kotze, Eva-Maria Geigl, Chris Walzer & Pamela A. Burger
The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been described as a species with low levels of genetic variation. This has been suggested to be the consequence of a demographic bottleneck 10 000–12 000 years ago (ya) and also led to the assumption that only small genetic differences exist between the described subspecies. However, analysing mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites in cheetah samples from most of the historic range of the species we found relatively deep phylogeographic breaks between...

Data from: The relation between the neutrality index for mitochondrial genes and the distribution of mutational effects on fitness

Andrea J. Betancourt, Bernardo Blanco-Martin & Brian Charlesworth
We explore factors affecting patterns of polymorphism and divergence (as captured by the neutrality index) at mammalian mitochondrial loci. To do this, we develop a population genetic model that incorporates a fraction of neutral amino acid sites, mutational bias, and a probability distribution of selection coefficients against new nonsynonymous mutations. We confirm, by reanalyzing publicly available data sets, that the mitochondrial cyt-b gene shows a broad range of neutrality indices across mammalian taxa, and explore...

Data from: Function and flexibility of object exploration in kea and New Caledonian crows

Megan L. Lambert, Martina Schiestl, Raoul Schwing, Alex H. Taylor, Gyula K. Gajdon, Katie E. Slocombe & Amanda M. Seed
A range of nonhuman animals frequently manipulate and explore objects in their environment, which may enable them to learn about physical properties and potentially form more abstract concepts of properties such as weight and rigidity. Whether animals can apply the information learned during their exploration to solve novel problems, however, and whether they actually change their exploratory behaviour to seek functional information about objects have not been fully explored. We allowed kea (Nestor notabilis) and...

Data from: A simple genetic basis of adaptation to a novel thermal environment results in complex metabolic rewiring in Drosophila

François Mallard, Viola Nolte, Ray Tobler, Martin Kapun & Christian Schlötterer
Background: Population genetic theory predicts that rapid adaptation is largely driven by complex traits encoded by many loci of small effect. Because large-effect loci are quickly fixed in natural populations, they should not contribute much to rapid adaptation. Results: To investigate the genetic architecture of thermal adaptation — a highly complex trait — we performed experimental evolution on a natural Drosophila simulans population. Transcriptome and respiration measurements reveal extensive metabolic rewiring after only approximately 60...

Data from: Edible dormice (Glis glis) avoid areas with a high density of their preferred food plant - the European beech

Jessica Svea Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Birgit Rotter, Claudia Bieber & Thomas Ruf
Background: Numerous species, especially among rodents, are strongly affected by the availability of pulsed resources. The intermittent production of large seed crops in northern hemisphere tree species (e.g., beech Fagus spec.,oak Quercus spec., pine trees Pinus spec.) are prime examples of these resource pulses. Adult edible dormice are highly dependent on high energy seeds to maximize their reproductive output. For juvenile dormice the energy rich food is important to grow and fatten in a very...

Data from: Flexibility, variability and constraint in energy management strategies across vertebrate taxa revealed by long-term heart rate measurements

Lewis G. Halsey, Jonathan A. Green, Sean D. Twiss, Walter Arnold, Sarah J. Burthe, Patrick J. Butler, Steve J. Cooke, David Gremillet, Thomas Ruf, Olivia Hicks, Katarzyna J. Minta, Tanya S. Prystay, Claudia A.F. Wascher, Vincent Careau, Steven J Cooke, Tania S Prystay & Claudia AF Wascher
1) Animals are expected to be judicious in the use of the energy they gain due to the costs and limits associated with its intake. The management of energy expenditure (EE) exhibited by animals has previously been considered in terms of three patterns: the constrained, independent and performance patterns of energy management. These patterns can be interpreted by regressing daily EE against maintenance EE measured over extended periods. From the multiple studies on this topic,...

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